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63 of the World's Most 

Influential People in Personal Computing 

Predict the Future, Analyze the Present 

PAUL ALLEN, Microsoft/Asymetrix □ STEWART ALSOP, P. C. Utter □ ANDY BECHTOLSHEIM, designer/Sun Microsystems D GORDON BELL, VAX designer/ 

Stardent Computer □ JIM B^INN, graphics/Cal Tech □ GORDON CAMPBELL, early chips/Chips & Technologies □ ROD CANION, Compaq G PAUL CARROLL, 

Wall Street Journal □ JOHN CAULFIELD, optics/University of Alabama □ JOHN COCKE, first RISC computer/IBM Fellow D ESTHER DYSON, Release 1. 

□ DOUG ENGELBART, groupware/Stanford University □ DAVID EVANS, graphics/Evans & Sutherland □ FEDERICO FAGGIN, early microprocessors/ 

Synaptics □ LEE FELSENSIEIN, Osborne-1/Golemics □ BOB FR ANKSTON, spreadsheet/Lotus □ BILL GATES, Microsoft □ DANNY HILLIS, 

Connection Machine/Thinking Machine:; □ TONY HOARE, programming theory/Oxford University □ GRACE HOPPER, 

COBOL/DEC □ BRIT HUME, ABC News Chief White House Correspondent □ BILL JOY, SPARC/ 

Sun Microsystems □ PHILIPPE K AHN, Borland 
On Technology □ ALAN KAY, 

programming/AT&T Bell Labs 
consultant D GARY KILDALL, 


TRS-80 designer/Adaptive Plus 

consultant □ TOM 
computer-aided engineering/ 
MINER, Amiga designer/ 
MORI, superdistribution/ 
Media Lab □ TED NELSON , 
(Autodesk) □ BOB NOYCE, 
PAPERT, Logo/MIT Artificial 

□ DICK PICK, Pick Operating 
POURNELLE, BYTE columnist 
and dBASE III/Ratliff Software 
C and Unix/AT&T Bell Labs 
independent developer □ KEN SAKAMUR A, 

Japan D DICK SHAFFER, Computer Letter 
Microsoft □ MICHAEL SLATER, Microprocessor 

□ BILL STALLINGS, networking/ 
C+ + /AT&T Bell LabsD JONATHAN 


PostScript/ Adobe Systems 
□ TERRY WINOGR AD, natural 

language/Stanford University 
D NIKLAUS WIRTH , Pascal and 
Modula-2/Swiss Federal Institute 
ofTechnology (ETH) D STEPHEN 

WOLFRAM, Mathematica/ 
Wolfram Research □ ED YOURDON, 
CASE and object orientation/consultant 



D MITCH KAPOR, Lotus and 1-2-3/ 
Dynabook and Smalltalk/Apple 
□ JACK KILBY, integrated circuit/ 
CP/M/Digital Research 
Stanford University 
MANZI, Lotus □ JOHN 
Times □ CARMA 
object orientation/ 
Amdahl □ JAY 
Ventritex □ RYOICHI 
University of Tsukuba, 
integrated circuit/ 
Intelligence Laboratory 
System/Pick Systems □ JERRY 
D JONATHAN SACHS, Lotus 1-2-3/ 
TRON Project/University of Tokyo, 
□ CHARLES SIMONYI, software developer/ 
Report D ALVY RAY SMITH, graphics/Pixar 
consultant □ BJARNE STROUSTRUP, 
TITUS, Mark-8 designer/ EDN Magazine 



$3.50 U.S.A./S4.50 IN CANADA 


/olume buyers 

I, call us now. 
-ke you. Satisfied. 


25MH* 386 and DELL SYSTEM 

310 20 MHz 386. 

The best combination of 

performance and value available 

in their class. 


• Intel* 80386 microprocessor 
runnings* 25 MHi (Dell 325) 
and 20 MH: (Dell 310). 

* Minimum 1 MB of RAM, 
optional 2 MB or 4 MB of 
RAM* expandable to 16 MB 

(using a dedicated high-speed 32-bit 

memory slot). 

■ Advanced Intel 82385 Cache Memory 
Controller with 32 KB of high-speed 
static RAM cache. 

• Rage mode interleaved memory 

•Socket for WEI7EK 3 167 math 

■5.25" 1.2MBor 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette 


■ I parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• 8 industry standard expansion slots 
(6 available). 

• 12-month On-Site Service Contract 
provided by Xerox?' 

**CommercUd Lease Plan. Lease far 
as low as $13 l/monrh (325) and 
$U2!month (310). 
*• Xerox Extended Service Plan pricing 
starts at $370 (325) and $251 (310). 



40 MB VGA 

Monochrome System 



80 MB VGA Color 

Plus System 



80 MB Super VGA 

Color System 

{800 x 600) 




Color System 

(800 x 600) 



Prices listed include [ MB of RAM. 100, 330 
and 650 MB hard drive configurations also 


20 MH: 386SX. 

One of the fastest SXs around. 


• Intel 80386SX microprocessor running 
at 20 MIL. 

•Minimum 1 MB of RAM* optional 2 MB 
or 4 MB expandable to 16 MB (8 MB on 
the system board). 

• VGA systems include a high-perfonnance 
16-bit video adapter. 

• L1M 4,0 support for memory over 1 MB. 

• Socket for 20MHi80387SX math 

•5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette 

• Integrated high-performance hard disk 
interface and diskette controller on system 
board (ESDI-based systems include a hard 
disk controller). 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

• 200-watt power supply. 

• 8 industry standard expansion slots 
(7 available). 

• 12-month On-Site Setvice Conttact 
provided by Xerox* 

**Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 

low as $98/mm\th. 

^Xetox Extended Sendee Plan pricing 

starts at $261. 

40 MB VGA 

Monochrome System $2,599 

40 MB VGA 

Color Plus System $2,899 

80 MB SuperVGA GMor 

System (800x600) $3,199 

100 MB Super VGA Color 

System (800x600) $3,399 

Prices listed include I MB of RAM. 190, 
330 and 650 MB hatd drive configurations 
also available. 

I ll I If l l ll THE DELL SYSTEM 3 I6SX 
y^^ 16 M H: 386SX and DELL 
Ik— J| SYSTEM 210 12.5 MH: 286. 

12-1 89 mainstream computers. 


• Intel 80386SX microprocessor running 
microprocessor nmntng at 1 2. 5 MH: 
(Dell 210). 

• Minimum 512 KB of RAM, optional 
640KB. lMBor2MBofRAM* 
expandable to 16 MB (8MB I3I6SX1 
and 6 MB [210] on system b»atd). 

• LlM 4.0 support for memory over 
640 KB. 

• Socket for Intel80387SX (316SX) and 
80287 (210) math coprocessor. 

•5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• 3 full-si:ed 16-bit AT expansion slots 

• 12-month On-Site Service G>ntmct 
provided by Xerox.' 1 - 

**Commcrciai Lease Plan. Lease for 
as low as $73/montri (316SX) tntd 

Xerox Extended Service Plan pricing 
starts at $ 196 (316SX) and $158 (210). 

20 MB VGA 

Monochrome System 
40 MB VGA Color 

Si. 949 

Plus System 
40 MB Super VGA 

G^lor System 

(800 x 600) 
80 MB Super VGA 

Color System 

Prices listed include 1 MB of RAM. 
2MB versions of the above systems ai 
available fot an additional $200. 
100 and 190 MB hard drive configura 

Si, 649 

52.549 52.249 

52,749 $2,449 

16 MH: 386SX. 

This full-featured, battery- 
powered 386SX laptop costs 

less thtm most 286 laptops. 


• Intel 80386SX microprocessoriunnrng 

• Minimum 1 MB of RAM, optional 2 MB 
of RAM* expandable to 8 MB (on the 
system hoard using 1 MB SIMMs). 

• LlM 4.0support for memory over 1 MB. 

• Adjustable and detachable 640 x 480 
VGA Liquid Crystal Display. 

• One industry standard half-sire 8-bit 
expansion slot. 

• So ket for 16 MH: Inrel 80387SX math 

•3.5" 1.44 MB diskette drive. 
•83-key keyboard with embedded numeric 
keypad and separate cursor control keys. 

• 1 parallel, 1 serial, and external VGA 
monitor port. 

•G>nnectot for 101-key keyboard or 
numeric keypad. 

• Two removable and rechargeable NiCad 
batteiy packs utilising Dell's "Continuous 
Power Battery System" (patent pending). 

• AC Adaptet. 

• 12-month On-Site Service Contract 
provided by Xerox." 

**CommcTcial Lease Plan, lease for as 

loiv as S 120/month. 

A Xemx Extended Service PUm pricing 

suirte at $303. 

20MB, 1MBRAM $3,199 

20 MB. 2 MB RAM $3,399 

40 MB, 1MB RAM $3,499 

40MB.2MBRAM $3,699 

THE NEW DELL i486 33 MHz and 25 MHz EISA SYSTEMS. 

The best value in high performance PCs, combining i486 performance, 32-bit EISA I/O bus, 
and the industry's top rated service and support. 


• i486 microprocessor running at 
25 MHz or 33 MHz. 

• EISA architecture (downward 
compatible with ISA). 

•Standard 4 MB of RAM* 
expandable to 16 MB on system 
board, using optional 1 MB 
and 2 MB SIMMs. 

• VGA systems include a high 
performance 16-bit video adapter. 

• Socket for WEITEK 4167 math 

•5.25" 1,2 MBor3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

• 5 half-height drive bays. 

• Dual diskette and hard drive controller. 

• Six 32-bit EISA (ISA compatible), plus two 16-bit ISA 
expansion slots. 

• High performance, IDE (80 MB, 100 MB, 190 MB), and 
ESDI (330 MB, 650 MB) hard disk drives. 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• 231-watt power supply. 

• 12-month On-Site Service Contract provided by Xerox. A 

**Commercial l^ase Plan. Lease for as low as $232lmonth 

(425E) and $286/month (433E). 

^"Xerox Extended Service Plan available. Call for pricing. 

80 MB VGA Monochrome System 
190 MB VGA Color Plus System 
330 MB Super VGA Color System (800 : 
650 MB Super VGA Color System (800 : 




S 7.S99 


S 8,699 



$ 9.599 




Prices listed include 4 MB of RAM. 100 MB hard drive configurations also available. 

The Dell Systems 433 E and 42 5 Bare Class A devices sold (or use in commercial environments only. 'Performance Enhancements: within the 6cm megabyte of mr.™,*. 
128 KB (316SX.316LT and Zl0>or 384 KB (320LX. 325, 425E and 43} E) of memory is reserved for ^^^ 

-'''.''.'..,■. :. 

hased on 36-month, open-erd lease. Leasing arranged by Leasing Group. Inc. In Canada, configurations ;ind prices may vary DKLL SYSTEM is a reentered trademark and Dell. 4 33H ,,nd 425t arc 
It demarks of Dell Computer Comer tlo „. l m( .| js a R . m ,eted trademark and i486. 436 and 366 are tt.kiem.irk> of Intel Corporation. I R.scd on Compos published rrice list dated Match 5. 1990 lot 
Compaq OstPrt) 386/3) m»del84. with 387 coprocessor. 94 MB liarj dm« and video graphics monochrome monitor; and Dcskl'to 46625 model 120. 120 MRliarJ Jmt and video grar*> 
chmme nvimwr. UNIX is i registered trademark of AT6tTm the Unite J Stales arvd other countries. Oilier trademarks and trade names .vcusoiroMcruitv the entmes claiming the nuiks and names ct 
rhcir produces. DellGimpntcrCorpot itxm Jrsclarmsanypri>ptieiaiy interest intrikiirmarksandti.kic rtimcs other than inmn "On sire service may m.t hcavail.iMc in tcrt.nnloc;u»<ns. Shippmnand 
applicable sales tax ate not mdudeJ. Fot information on and a copy of Dell's 30-day Total Satrslacnun Cuat intee, limited w.irt.mty, and Xerox'. Service Gmir.ict, please vmtc to Dell Computer 
G.iporation,9505 ArU.rctum Boulcs.ird.Austm.Tcxas 78759-7299, Amj: Warranty. ©1990 IWIG.iuptiterG.rporation. All rrghls reserved. 



The new EISA-based Dell Systems® 433E™and 425E.™ According satisfaction in all six PC Week polls of corporate 
to your letters and phone calls, they're just what you've been for personal computers, 

waiting for. Fast, affordable EISA-based i486" computers. To order one of the most powerful PCs arour 

And here they are. A 25 MHz and 33 MHz 486™ PC. Both with six And soon we'll have another word for people 
EISA slots that are completely ISA compatible, ^ ^, .__„_ — 

plus two more ISA slots so you can meet both 
present and future expansion needs. And up to 
33 MB per second bus transfer rate in EISA 
burst mode, so they're ideal for network server 
and UNIX® applications. 

They even have something computer users 
have always been hungry for: toll-free technical 
support directly from the company that built 
the computers. Support that helps you get more 
from your Dell™ 486 than you would from other 
486 computers. 

Best of all, since we sell direct, cutting out 
the retailer and his markup, you can buy a com- 
plete Dell 425Efor just $6,399. That's $5,954 
less than Compaq's 33 MHz 386™ and $7,855 less 
than Compaq's 25 MHz 486! Or you can lease 
our system for as low as $232 a month!* 

Just call us. You'll get fast 
delivery of a computer 
with the works. Including 
a one-year limited 
warranty and next-day 
deskside service by the 
Xerox Corporation^ 

Not to mention the full 
attention of a company 
that's been voted 

DELL'S i486 33 MHz 

number one for 
overall customer 






e~3 g 


If you've been craving more power, we've got just the system for you. See inside for details. 




800-365-1460 ppara 800-678-UNIX 

In Canada 800-387-5752 In the UK. 08004/4535 In France (I) In Germany 06103/701-0 In Suetfen 0760-713 50 

Circle 85 on Reader Service Card 

Years From Now, 

Standard Features 
at $5995... 

33-MHz 386 
64-KB Cache ^ 


106-MB Hardtmk 
What more 
could vM. 

An Honest, 
Upgrade Path. 


ALR's PowerVEISA 33/386 
offers you an honest, 
affordable upgrade path to 

ALR PowerVEISA 1486133 Module 

You know what you want 
from a 386™ PC. ALR's 
PowerVEISA 33/386 

delivers. Cached 33-MHz 
performance, plenty of RAM 
to run even the bulkiest of 
today's applications, a choice 
of high performance hard 
disks, and EISA compatibility 
— all at a price that puts 
many similarly equipped ISA 
systems to shame. So what 
more could you want? 

How about the future? 

Prices and configurations subject to change without notice. Shown with optional monitor. Prices based on U.S. dollars. 

25-MHz, 33-MHz (available 
second quarter) and future 
i486™ processors. 

i486 1 25 CPU Module 

386/33 CPU Module 

ALR PowerVEISA System Board 

It's Still What 
You Want... 

Introducing the ALR 
PowerVEISA 386/33- 

e modular design of this 
system lets you change 
processors in about five 
minutes. More importantly, you 
can change the CPU module 
without having to replace 
cache or system memory, 
saving you hundreds of dollars 
when compared to some 
compet-itive upgrade schemes. 

Engineered for the future, the 
floor-standing chassis of the 
PowerVEISA 386/33 can 
accommodate a total of 49-MB 
of memory and up to 1.2-GB 
(gigabytes) of fixed disk 
storage. Its EISA capabilities 
let you take advantage of the 


PowerVEISA 386/33 

Model 110 

i386 33-MHz CPU 
64-KB Cache 

106-MB Hard Drive 


Optional VGA 

add $295 


i486 25-MHz Upgrade 

add $1995 
EISA Standard 


Premium # 386/33 
Model 115V 
i386 33-MHz CPU 
32-KB Cache 
110-MB Hard Drive 

i486 25-MHz Upgrade 

add $2995 
Optional EISA Upgrade 

add $1250 
$8,285 $12,740 

PowerVEISA costs $2200 less today; over the 
years, it can save you more than $4400 ! 

latest in 32-bit I/O and bus 
mastering technology, while 
remaining compatible with 8 
and 16-bit "AT®" boards. 

Even the PowerVEISA's 
innovative FlexCache+ 
memory architecture was 
built for the future. Based on 
ALR's award -winning 
FlexCache architecture, this 
64-bit dual-bus design 
incorporates an advanced 
"read and write back" 64-KB 
cache. FlexCache+ has been 
fine-tuned for optimum 
efficiency, especially when 
combined with an i486 
processor upgrade. 

Add ALR's one year factory 
warranty, on-line technical 
support, and optional on-site 
service from Intel™ to round 
out one of the best PC invest- 
ments around. 

The PowerVEISA 33/386 - 
ready to meet today's needs 
and tomorrow's challenges. 

For more information on the 
PowerVEISA 33/386 and ALR's 
complete line of systems, please 

can 1-800-444-4ALR 


W\ Advanced Logic Research. Inc. 

9401 Jeronimo Irvine, California 92718 
(7 1 4) 58 1 -6770 FAX: (7 1 4) 58 1 -9240 

ALR is a registered trademark and PowerVEISA is a trademark of Advanced Logic Research, Inc. AST and AST Premium are registered trademarks of AST Research Inc. Intel, 386, i386, and i486 are 
trademarks of Intel Corporation, AT is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 

Circle 16 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 1 7) 



September 1990 
Volume 15, Number 9 

M M I T 


ill I i 

BYTE's 1 5th Anniversary Summit 

What it is, 
why we're doing it. 

Welcome to the BYTE Summit 

Sixty-three of the most creative 
and influential people in the industry 

discuss their perspectives on the 
microcomputer industry of the future. 


1 5 Years of Bits, Bytes, 
and Other Great Moments 

A look at key events in BYTE, the 

computer industry, and world history 

during the last 15 years. 




Late-breaking technology 
and industry reports 
from the BYTE news staff. 


Product snapshots of 
recent hardware and software 



RasterOps Accelerator, 

speeds up Macintosh graphics 

Backpack, MicroSolutions 
lets you add a drive easily 

Legacy, a word processor 
for Windows 3. Ofrom NBI 

Norton Utilities 5.0, a new 

version with mixed blessings 

HardFacts, information on 
6000 hardware products 

128 The NEC ProSpeed SX/20: 
Take It and Leave It 

This 13 -pound laptop can double 
as a powerful desktop system. 


132 Word Processors That 
Build Character 

The BYTE Lab evaluates 15 
WYSIWYG word processors 
for the Mac and the PC. 

154 DEC'S Latest RISC 

Digital Equipment makes a play 
for the serious workstation 
user with its revved-up 

159 Windows 3.0 Software Tool 
for End Users 

Asymetrix's ToolBook lets you 
create Windows 3.0 applications 
without learning C. 

162 The Mac at 40 MHz 

The Mac Ilf x is a powerful 
number cruncher in the Mac 
or Unix environment. 

169 Two Different Approaches 
to Mac Portability 

The Outbound and Dynamac take 
opposing approaches. 

176 Open Desktop: Relief 
for the Unix-Wary 

SCO's Open Desktop may be the 
shrink-wrapped Unix that DOS 
users have been waiting for. 

182 G Is for Graphics 

Lotus finally gets graphical 
with 1-2-3/G. 

185 9600-bps Modem Brings Apple 
Networks Closer Together 

Thanks to its AppleTalk connector, 
Shiva's NetModem V.32 can serve 
as a shared network modem and 
an internetwork router. 

188 New Floppy Drive Puts 

20-MB Disk in Your Pocket 

Q/Cor's new floppy disk drive 
leads the 20-megabyte vanguard. 

196 Strictly for Personal Information 

A roundup of seven personal 
information managers shows that 
there is a way to get organized. 



begins after page 64 








Speaking OS/2's Native 

Object- 1 speaks to OS/2 , s 
Presentation Manager in 
object-oriented terms. 

Dual-Page Duel: Two High- 
Resolution Monitors Square Off 

New high-resolution monitors 
from Cornerstone and Radius aren't 
just for desktop publishing. 

Flashdisk: Not Your Father's 
RAM Disk 

Digipro's Flashdisk plugs up to 
8 megabytes of nonvolatile memory 
into any available 16-bit slot. 




Personal Computing 
in Eastern Europe 

Behind the crumbled Iron Curtain 
lie lands of high-technology 
disarray— and opportunity. 

The Creation of the IBM PC 

Design choices that culminated 
in the machine that conquered 
the microcomputer world. 

Alternative Operating 
Systems, Part 2: 
From a Tiny Kernel . . . 

When you're building 

a real-time operating system, 

it helps to start small. 

Sounds of Success 

Professional sound capabilities, 
once the exclusive domain 
of high-end recording studios, 
are now available to PC users. 


The Creation of the IBM PC/414 

* * 





Fifteen Years and Counting 

by Jerry Pournelle 

Jerry looks back 

at 15 years of BYTE. 



6 Spotlight 

A look at the future and 
a stroll down memory lane. 

10 Editorial: Happy Anniversary! 

We've thrown you a party. 

34 Letters, Ask BYTE, and Fixes 

BYTE readers predict the future. 




Images Beget Images 

Visualization is a volume 
that challenges our notions 
of visual reality. 


Litigation vs. Innovation 

Mitch Kapor argues against 
litigation as a business tactic. 

THE UNIX /bin 
Future History 

by David Fiedler 

Looking at business software 

from the last 15 years 

and the next 15. 



The Place to Be for DTP 

by Don Crabb 

Talking to professional desktop 

publishers reveals surprising 

facts about desktop publishing 

on the Macintosh. 

Moving Down to Micros 

by Wayne Rash Jr. 

Powerful decision-support systems, 

once used only on mainframes, 

are now migrating to micros. 



Mastering OS/2 Threads 

by Douglas A. Hamilton 

Mastery of OS/2 threads taxes 

developers but rewards users. 


Of Monitors and Emissions 

What's being done about 
magnetic fields from monitors? 

Virtually Virtual Memory 

A memory management system 
for MS-DOS that lets you break 
the 640K-byte barrier. 



Editorial Index by Company 

Alphabetical Index to Advertisers 

Index to Advertisers 

by Product Category 

Inquiry Reply Cards: after 512 


From BIX: See 466 

FromBYTEnet: Call (617) 861-9764 
On disk: See card after 184 



Unite or Die 

by Mark L. Van Name 

and Bill Catchings 

Three developing application areas 

must unite before LANs can become 

a part of everyday life in the 1990s. 

BYTE (ISSN 0360-5280/90) is published monthly with an additional issue 
in October by McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. subscriber rate $29.95 per year. In 
Canada and Mexico. $34.95 per year. Single copies $3.50 in the U.S., 
$4.50 in Canada. Executive, Editorial. Circulation, and Advertising Of- 
fices: One Phoenix Mil Lane, Peterborough. NH 03458. Second-class 
postage paid at Peterborough, NH, and additional mailing offices. Post- 
age paid at Winnipeg. Manitoba. Registration number 9321 . Printed in the 
United States of America. Postmaster: Send address changes, USPS 
Form 3579. and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions, P.O. Box 
551, Hightstown, NJ 08520. 


Circle 43 on Reader Service Card 




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2560Ninth Street Suite 316 Berkeley, CA 94710 
(415) 540-5441 ^ FAX (415) 540-1938 

Trademarks are 
property of their 


The BYTE 15th Anniversary team: (from left to right) Jeff 

Edmonds, copy editor; Amanda Waterfield, editorial assistant; 

Jane Morrill Tazelaar (seated), senior editor; Jan Muller, art 

assistant/photo researcher; Bob Ryan, technical editor; and Nancy 

Rice, art director. Not shown are Joe Gallagher, assistant art 

director; Lisa Nardecchia, Summit designer; Gene Smarte, special 

projects editor; and Andy Reinhardt, associate news editor. 

The Once and 
Future Gurus 

See what 63 gurus think 
about the future, then stroll 
down memory lane 

If you could talk to any of the com- 
puter industry gurus, whom would 
you pick? What questions would 
you ask? This was the delightful di- 
lemma faced by the BYTE crew respon- 
sible for our 15th Anniversary BYTE 
Summit. Led by Jane Morrill Tazelaar, 
senior editor, staff members from every 
editorial department conducted and com- 
piled interviews with 63 of the most im- 
portant movers and shakers in the busi- 
ness. The cumulative result is a unique 
and comprehensive view of the future of 

Enthusiasm for the project ran high. 
For those doing the interviews, hearing 
what these luminaries had to say about 
the industry was a thrill. As Tazelaar put 
it, "It really blows your mind to answer 
your phone and find Jack Kilby on the 
other end." 

After completing the interviews, some 
staff members volunteered to transcribe 
them from cassette to an ASCII file. The 
transcribed files totaled over half a 
megabyte— enough to fill 500 pages in 

BYTE. Many extra hours were spent 
editing and collating questions to boil 
that down to the 70-plus pages in this 
issue. We hope you find the BYTE Sum- 
mit entertaining, thought-provoking, 
and revealing. 

But How Did We Get Here? 

To get a true perspective on the future, it 
pays to review the past. The second part 
of our Anniversary section, "15 Years of 
Bits, Bytes, and Other Great Moments," 
is a time line compiled by Gene Smarte, 
special projects editor, and Andy Rein- 
hardt, associate news editor. It follows 
industry milestones from 1975, the first 
year BYTE was published, to 1990. 

And we have one last historical treat 
for you. In researching the article "The 
Creation of the IBM PC," Janet Barron, 
technical editor, "discovered" the origi- 
nal prototype IBM PC. While she was 
speaking with one of the PC's designers, 
David J. Bradley, Barron asked if IBM 
had a photo of the original PC. Bradley 
replied that a colleague had the prototype 
in his office closet and volunteered to 
send it to her. 

The photo of the first IBM PC mother- 
board (on page 416) is the only one ever 
to have appeared in any computer maga- 
zine. That it is published in BYTE's 15th 
Anniversary issue seems only fitting. ■ 
— Michael Nadeau 


New FoxPro 

Shifting the Balance Of Power in Database Management 

There's a new leader in the relational database manage- 
ment world. Its name is FoxPro. 

FoxPro is the first and only microcomputer database 
management system that combines astonishing per- 
formance with a sleek interface of amazing power and 

■ FoxPro offers all the elegance and accessibility of a 
graphic-style interface, yet operates at the stunning 
speeds possible only with character interfaces. 

■ FoxPro is so easy to learn and use, even beginners 
can become productive immediately; yet it's powerful 
and sophisticated enough to satisfy the needs of the most demanding 
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■ FoxPro gives you choices instead of limits: use a mouse or a 
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■ FoxPro is so efficient, it runs in a 5!2K PC-XT, yet it's able to take 
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Protecting Your Investment 

With FoxPro, your existing FoxBASE+ or dBASE III PLUS pro- 
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FoxPro is language-compatible with dBASE IV. But FoxPro doesn't 
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FREE Demo Disk 

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Circle 121 on Reader Service Card 

A laptop designed 

that while your 

your lap will stay p 



*Third party drive port available from Manzana Microsystems, Inc. Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation. 

with the knowledge 

needs may expand, 

retty much the same 

Introducing the Equity LT 386SX Laptop 

Adding power, speed and peripherals to a 
personal computer is a constant test of design 

Configuring a laptop to meet expanding 
needs becomes an even more demand- 
ing challenge because size, weight, and 
battery life come dramatically into play. 

Epson® engineers have / 
met that challenge with \ 
their new Equity LT 386SX, featuring 
one of the most powerful micropro- 
cessors available in a battery-powered 

J r Epson s unique, removable 

laptop. It is a design Of both distinC- hard drive: key component of the 

tiveneSS and Common Sense. most flexible laptop ever made. 

capacity, and a shock indicator that alerts the user 
to the occasional hard knock. 

The modular design of Epson's entire lap- 
top series suggests a new standard for custom- 
ized performance. The user can easily install or 
remove options such as a modem, extended 

Epson's Datasafe hard drive can be removed, 
making it easy to transport, or store separately 
for added security. With an optional* drive port, 
the hard drive can plug directly into a desktop 
computer. It offers a choice of 20 MB or 40 MB 

RAM, external keyboard, or 2/3 length 
industry standard card. The VGA screen 
can also be removed or left in place 
when using an external monitor. 

The Epson laptop indicates its own 
vital signs — battery life, speed, and 
disk drive in use — on a unique LCD 
status bar, and even has the good 
sense to turn off its own screen and 
hard drive when not in use. 
The LT 386SX offers a degree of speed, 
power and flexibility once limited to desktop 
computers. In fact, there is one feature of this 
remarkably engineered bit of technology that a 
desktop can only envy. Its size. 

Engineered For Th e Way You Work. *F^!^C J INI 

'— ■■ 

©1990 Epson America, Inc.. 2780 Lomita Blvd., Torrance, CA 90505. (800) 922*8911. 

EDITORIAL ■ Fred Langa 


To celebrate 1 5 years 
of publication, we've 
thrown you a party 

Senior Editor Ken Sheldon was 
standing in my door, a box in his 
hands. "Would you like to see the 
original, hand-assembled proto- 
type of the first IBM PC motherboard?" 
he asked. "I have it here." 

I knew that Ken was working on an ar- 
ticle on the first PC as one of many spe- 
cial articles for this anniversary issue- 
but the actual original prototype IBM PC 
motherboard? Holy smokes! 

Naturally, I said yes, and Ken then 
carefully unwrapped his prize. There it 
was: sire of all the PC progeny. Undoubt- 
edly, this mass of hand-wiring and tem- 
porary sockets was among the most sig- 
nificant technological artifacts of our 
time. I felt as if I should be wearing 
gloves to handle it. 

This was IBM's own original PC pro- 
totype—one of only two built. The other 
had been shipped to Microsoft in 1980 
for development of the original PC soft- 
ware. What a treasure! 

You can see and read more about "The 
Creation of the IBM PC" on page 414 in 
this issue. But don't stop there, because 
that's just a sample of the gems that 
you'll find in this Special 15th Anniver- 
sary Issue. 

For example, in addition to a full, nor- 
mal complement of features, reviews, 
First Impressions, news, and columns, 
we also have the "BYTE Summit," be- 
ginning on page 226. In it, 63 world lead- 
ers of the microcomputing industry- 
drawn from both the business and tech- 
nological communities— address the 13 
most important questions that will shape 
the industry for years to come. The 
"BYTE Summit" amounts to a sneak 
preview of the future, provided by those 

who will build that future. 

Why are we doing all this? Why pack 
so much into one issue? 

In a phrase, to say "Thank you." 

With this issue, BYTE completes its 
15th year of publication— the only gener- 
al-circulation computer magazine ever to 
reach this milestone. You and a half mil- 
lion other readers around the globe have 
made it possible, and we wanted to pull 
out all the stops to give you a truly mem- 
orable issue. 

And what a 15 years it's been. BYTE 
was born along with the microcomputer 
industry, back when the idea of a com- 
puter of your own was still a novel con- 
cept. In fact, small computers weren't 
even called "personal computers" until 
BYTE coined the term, in our May 1976 

That's not the only common computer 
term that was born in BYTE. The Oxford 
English Dictionary, called the "final ar- 
biter of the origins and use" of the En- 

glish language, cites BYTE as the source 
for such computer terms as backslash, 
boot, bulletin (as in bulletin board), CD- 
ROM, clone, hacker, lap (as in laptop), 
transportable, user, WYSIWYG (what 
you see is what you get), and half a dozen 
other terms. 

BYTE not only was there at the start, 
but it helped define the whole genre as it 
grew and matured from a hobbyist pas- 
time to a cornerstone of modern busi- 

As the computer industry changed, 
our readers' needs changed, and so did 
BYTE. For example, as off-the-shelf 
products proliferated, BYTE published 
the industry's first microcomputer re- 
views and the first comparative reviews. 
BYTE also created the first magazine- 
sponsored computer lab and provided the 
first widely used microcomputer bench- 

Today, thanks to you, BYTE has 
reached record-high circulation levels 
and— because of your growing needs— is 
turning out more information than ever 
before, as you can see from the size of the 
issue you're holding. 

That information falls into two broad 
categories: buying and using today's 
hardware and software, and understand- 
ing the emerging technologies that will 
become the tools of tomorrow. As al- 
ways, BYTE is platform-independent, 
covering all major architectures and all 
significant operating systems. 

About a year ago, as BYTE entered its 
15th year, I added up the text file of what 
we had published to that point and found 
that it topped some 150 megabytes— well 
over a billion bits. Now, as we're well on 
the way toward the second billion bits, 
we're deeply honored that you've chosen 
to read BYTE, and we pledge to continue 
to do our best to meet your high stan- 

Happy anniversary! 

—Fred Langa 

Editor in Chief 

(BIX name "f langa") 


New Turbo Debugger® & Tools 

See through your code 

Our new Turbo Debugger® & Tools 2.0 gives you 
the vision to take a closer look at your code. 

You can see a bug and kill it. See an execution 
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fine-tune for maximum speed and go for it. 

Turbo Debugger & Tools is a professional pro- 
grammer's three-step secret for faster, more reliable 

Step 1: Turbo Debugger 2.0 
shows you where the bugs are 

Turbo Debugger® 2.0 has again advanced the art of 
debugging. It lets you go forward and also backward 
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With it, you step 
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Circle 44 on Reader Service Card 

Step 2: Turbo Profiler "NEW" 
shows you where the bottlenecks are 

Turbo Profiler'" is the world's first interactive pro- 
filer for DOS. With it you can see exactly where 
improvements to your programs will cut through 
execution bottlenecks and deliver maximum speed. 
Turbo Profiler gives you a histogram of time- 
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Step 3: Turbo Assembler 
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You can really put the pedal to the metal with 
Turbo Assembler,® the world's fastest MASM- 
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Works with any compiler 

Turbo Debugger & Tools is available separately, or 
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New Turbo Debugger & Tools 

Turbo Debugger 2.0 

■ New user interface with mouse support 

■ Debug programs of any size with Turbo Drive on 286, 386 
and remote debugging 

■ Object-oriented debugging-browse class hierarchies, 
inspect objects 

■ Walk through linked lists 

■ Keystroke record/playback gives "instant replay" 

■ 13 different program views, including breakpoints, watch 
and CPU 

Turbo Profiler 

■ Tells how many times a line or routine is executed 

■ Shows which files are accessed and for how long 

■ Tells how efficient your overlays are 

■ Displays interrupt usage and call history 

■ 9 different program views 
Turbo Assembler 2.0 

■ Optimizing multipass assembler with NOP squishing 

■ More compatible than and twice as fast as MASM 

Order now! 

Special limited time offer: Get Turbo Debugger & 
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Call 1-800-331-0877 

Code: MD23 

"Oiler expires August 30, 1990. Oiler good in United States and Canada only. Turbo Assembler. Turbo Debugger. Turbo C, Tubo C-H-. Turbo Drive. Turbo Pascal. Turbo Pfoliler 
and Turbo Debugger & Tools are trademarks or registered trademarks ot Borland International, Inc Copyright ©1990 Borland International, Inc. All rights reserved. BI-1341 



Everything \fou Vknt 

12 SF-keys on the top— use 
them as duplicates or to 
access CTRL, ALT, SHIFT 
combination commands 
with just one stroke! 


Lock key locks out < >• 

Repeat Rate select 
key lets you set rate • 
from 3-120 CPS 
inside DOS or a 

12 F-keys on the left— where 
your fingers naturally find 
them for fast CTRL, ALT, 
SHIFT key commands 






Weighs almost 
5 lbs. Stays put 
on your 
desk— no 
matter how 
fast you type! 

Dvorak and 

More features than any keyboard ever made! 

The touch that made Northgate OmniKey famous! 
0/?]/7}/vey/ULTRA has the same crisp feel that rocketed 
Northgate to the top spot in keyboard design. The secret? 
ALPS tactile mechanical key switches that let you know each 
keystroke has registered with a precise "click". 

Double the function keys! You get 12 F-keys on the left— 
where you naturally reach for them. PLUS 12 programmable 
SF-keys on top perform SHIFF, CTRL or ALT functions. 
What a time saver in Word Perfect, Lotus and macro 
intensive programs! 


Switchable keys-ULTRA flexibility! 

Switch CTRL, ALT and CAPS LOCK at the left. 
Keep them as shown above or put them in the 

^^^^^ standard IBM enhanced layout; CAPS 
LOCK NEXT TO "A", ALT next to 
space bar, CONTROL under 
kJ SHIFr. Right ALT and CTRL flop too 


But that's just the beginning. With 
Om/}/7vey/ULTRA, you can even swap 
Backslash and Asterisk ... it's up to you! 


In A Keyboard! 

SF-Select key 
lets you 
program SF 
keys to 

perform CTRL, 


Separate numeric 
keypad with extra 
equals key— Excel 
users love it! 

Separate cursor pad with 
extra down arrow— you get 
BOTH diamond and 
inverted T cursor 



Famous Northgate Functions! Never type U>S>A> 
when you want to type U.S.A.! Our Period/Comma Lock 
key locks out < > even when shifted! 

Instantly change Repeat/Delay rate from 3-1 20 CPS- Select 
just press Rate Select key! Zip through spreadsheets! 
Double down arrow cursor pad! Both diamond and inverted T cursor 
control options. An extra down arrow key adds so much flexibility! 
Separate numeric keypad, too! Cursor control is free at all times. 
Added equals key, too! 

And that's not all! Dip switches give you unmatched compatibility with 
IBM type systems: PC, AT, XT, Tandy, AT&T, Amstrand and AMIGA. 
FCC Class B Certified, too. 

Use the Keyboard 


Users all over the world told us what they 
wanted in their ultimate keyboard! We Heard 
You ... Now Here's Omni Key /ULTRA! 

The keyboard for everybody— combines the 
best of all popular layouts! No matter what 
layout you prefer— function keys on left or top, 
diamond-shaped or inverted T cursor controls ... 
you get it with O mniKey /ULTRA! 

Use OmniKey /ULTRA for 60 days! If it 

doesn't live up to everything we promise, return it. 
We'll refund every penny— including ground 
shipping charges! 

Keep your keyboard and it's backed by THE 
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OmniKeylVLTRA at no charge! 


Another Northgate 
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FOB Minneapolis 

Use OmniKey/ULTRA Risk Free for 
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CHARGE IT! We accept your VISA, MasterCard or 
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1 IOURS: Mon. - Fri. 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.; Sat. 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Central. Dealer and 
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Hearing Impaired: Northgate now has TDD capability: Dial 800-535-0602. 



1 Northgate Parkway, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 

©Northgau- Computer Systems, Inc. 1990. All rights reserved. 

Northern:, Omni Key and the Big'N'logo are trademarks of Northgate Computer Systems. Other brand 
names arc trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Specifications subject to change 
without notice. Subject to occasional inventory shortages. 

Circle 205 on Reader Service Card 



Frederics. Langa 


Anne Fischer Lent 


New York: Managing Editor: Rich Malloy 

Associate News Editor Andrew Reinhardt 

Petertjor ough: Senior Editor, Microbytes: 

D. Barker 

Associate News Editors, What's New: David 

Andrews, Martha Hicks 

Editorial Assistant: Amanda Waterf ield 

San Francisco: News Editor: Owen 


Associate News Editor: Jeffrey Bertolucci 

London: Senior Editor: Colin Barker 


Managing Editor: Michael Nadeau 
Technical Director: Rick Grehan 
Senior Editor: Dennis Allen 
Technical Editors: Alan Joch, Robert 
Mitchell, Tom Yager 

Testing Editors/Engineers: Stephen Apiki, 
Stanford Diehl, Howard Eglowstein, 
Stanley Wszola 


Senior Editor: Jane Morrill Tazelaar 
Technical Editor: Robert M. Ryan 


SeniorEditor: Kenneth M. Sheldon 
Technical Editors: Janet J. Barron, 
Ben Smith 


TomThompson, Jon Udell 


Senior Editor: Gene Smarte 


Jerry Pournelle 


Bill Catchings, Don Crabb, David Fiedler, 
Hugh Kenner, MarkJ. Minasi, Wayne 
Rash Jr., Mark L. Van Name 


Jonathan Amsterdam, Nick Baran, 
Laurence H. Loeb, Trevor Marshall, Stan 
Miastkowski, Dick Pountain, Phillip 
Robinson, Peter Wayner 


Chief Copy Editor: Lauren A. Stickler 
Copy Administrator: Cathy Kingery 
Copy Editors: Susan Colwell, Jeff 
Edmonds, Judy Grehan, Nancy Hayes, 
Margaret A. Richard, Warren Williamson 


Office Manager: Peggy Dunham 
Assistants: Linda C. Ryan, June Sheldon 


Director: Nancy Rice 
Assistant Director. Joseph A. Gallagher 
Art Assistants: Jan Muller, Lisa Nardecchia 
Technical Artist: Alan Easton 


Director: David R. Anderson 

Senior Editorial Production Coordinator: 

Virginia Reardon 

Editorial Production Coordinators: 

Barbara Busenbark, Denise Chartrand 


Systems Manager: Sherry Fiske 
Applications Manager: Donna Sweeney 
Typesetter: Christa Patterson 


Director of Advertising: Lisa Wozmak 
Assistant: Christine W. Tourgee 
Customer Service Supervisor: Linda Fluhr 
Senior Account Coordinator: Lyda Clark 
Account Coordinator: Dale J. Christensen 
Materials Coordinator: Karen Cilley 
Advertising Assistant: Roxanne Hollenbeck 
Creative Services Manager: 
Susan Kingsbury 
Production Artist: Lillian J. Wise 
Quality Control Managerial Chiu Li 
Production Coordinator: Rod Holden 


Publisher's Assistant: Donna Nordlund 


Director: L. Bradley Browne 

Marketing Communications Manager: 

Pamela Petrakos-Wilson 

Public Relations Manager: Dawn Matthews 

Assistant Promotion Manager: Lisa 

Jo Steiner 

Marketing Art Director: Stephanie 


Associate Art Director: Sharon Price 

Senior Market Research Analyst: Julie 


Copyrights Coordinator: Faith Kluntz 

Reader Service Coordinator: Cynthia 


Marketing Assistant: Carol Pitman 


Director of Finance and Services: 
Philip L Penny 

Business Manager: Kenneth A. King 
Assistants: Marilyn Parker, Diane Henry, 
JoAnn Walter, Jaime Huber, Agnes Perry 


Director: Glyn Standen 

Subscriptions Manager: Paul Ruess 

Assistant Manager, Subscriptions: 

Margaret Liszka 

Subscriptions Assistant: Holly Zilling 

Newsstand Manager Vicki Weston 

Distribution Coordinator: Karen Desroches 

Back Issues: Louise Menegus 

Direct Accounts Coordinator: Ellen Dunbar 

Direct Accounts Telephone Sales 

Representative: Karen Carpenter 


Manager: Tony Bennett 

Assistants: Cliff Monkton, Gary Graham, 

Ed Codman 


Human Resources Administrator: Patricia 
Burke, Human Resources Assistant: Fran 
Wozniak, Receptionist: Beverly Goss 


Ronald W. Evans 



Associate Publisher, vice President 
of Marketing: Steven M. Vito 

Administrative Assistant: Carol Cochran 

Eastern Advertising Director: 
Arthur H Kossack (312) 616-3341 
Sales Assistant: Julie Barker 
Western Advertising Director: 
Jennifer L. Bartel (214) 701-6496 
Sales Assistant: Susan Vernon 


Daniel D. Savage (617)660-6395 

Kim Norris (212) 512-2645 
Ariane Casey (212) 512-2366 


NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, TN, VA, MS, AR, LA, 


John Schilin (404)843-4782 


IL, MO, KS, IA, ND, SD, MN, Wl, NE, 


Kurt Kelley (312) 616-3326 



Alison Keenan (214) 701-8496 




Ron Cordek (714) 557-6292 

Alan El Faye (714) 557-6292 




Bill McAfee (408) 879-0371 

Roy J. KopS (415) 362-4600 

Leslie Hupp (408) 879-0371 


Scott Gagnon (603)924-2651 


Director: Liz Coyman 
Administrative Assistant: Susan Boyd 


Mary Ann Goulding (603)924-2664 
Patricia Payne (603) 924-2654 
Jon Sawyer (603) 924-2665 

BYTE BITS (2x3) 

Mark Stone (603) 924-6830 


Brian Higgins (603) 924-3754 


James Bail (603)924-2533 
Barry Echavarria (603) 924-2574 
Larry Levine (603) 924-2637 


Ed Ware (603) 924-6166 


Ellen Perham (603)924-2596 


See listing on page 509. 



Stephen M. Laliberte 




Coordinator: D. Barker Peterborough, 
Rich Malloy New York. Nicholas Baran 
San Francisco, Jeffrey Bertolucci 
San Francisco, Laurence H. Loeb 
Wallingford, CT, Stan Miastkowski 
Peterborough. Wayne Rash Jr. Washington. 
DC, David Reed Lexington. KY, 
Andrew Reinhardt New York, Jan Ziff 
Washington, DC 


Macintosh Exchange- Laurence H. Loeb, 
IBM Exchange: Barry Nance, User Group 
Exchange: David Reed, Interactive Game 
Exchange: Richard Taylor, Amiga 
Exchange: Joanne Dow, Writers Exchange: 
Wayne Rash Jr., Tojerry Exchange: Jerry 
Pournelle, Telecommunications Exchange: 
Stephen Satchell 


Secretary: Patricia Bausum, Marketing 
Services Coordinator. Denise A. Greene, 
Billing Services Coordinators: Tammy 
Burgess, Donna Healy, Editorial Assistant: 
Brian Warnock 


Programmer/Analyst John Spadafora, 
Programmer: Peter Mancini, Systems 
Consultant: Gary Kendall 


One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
West Coast Branch Offices: 425 Battery St., 
San Francisco, CA 94111, (415) 954-9718; 
3001 Red Hill Ave., Building #1, Suite222, 
Costa Mesa, C A 92626, (714) 557-6292. 
New York Branch Editorial Office: 1221 Avenue 
of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, (212) 

N or 7-1-E; 300or 1200 baud). 
Editorial Fax: (603) 924-2550. Advertising Fax: 

U.S. (609)426-7676; inside U.S. (800) 232- 
BYTE. For a new subscription— (800) 257- 
9402 U.S. only, or write to BYTE Subscrip- 
tion Dept., P.O. Box 555, Hightstown, NJ 
08520. Subscriptions are $29.95 for one 
year, $54.95 for two years, and $74.95 for 
three years in the U.S. and its possessions. 
In Canada and Mexico, $34.95 f orone year, 
$64.95 for two years, $87.95 for three years. 
£41 for one-year air delivery to Europe. 
Y28.800 for one-year air delivery to Japan, 
Y14.400 for one-year surface delivery to 
Japan, $50 surface deWvery elsewhere. Air 
delivery to selected areas at additional rates 
upon request. Single copy price is $3.50 in 
the U.S. and its possessions, $4.50 in 
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should be remitted in U.S. funds drawn on a 
U.S. bank. Please allow six to eight weeks 
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Address editorial correspondence to: 
Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, 
Peterborough, NH 03458. Unacceptable 
manuscripts will be returned if accom- 
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Opinions expressed by the authors are not 
necessarily those of BYTE. 


Where necessary, permission is granted by 
the copyright owner for those registered 
with the Copyright Clearance Center(CCC), 
27 Congress St., Salem, MA 01970, to 
photocopy any article herein for personal or 
internal reference use only for the flat fee of 
$1.50 per copy of the article or any part 
thereof. Correspondence and payment 
should be sent directly to the CCC, 27 
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use without the permission of McGraw-Hill, 
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able in microform from U niversity Microfilms 
International, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Dept. 
PR, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 or 18 Bedford 
Row, Dept. PR, London WC1 R 4EJ, 


Joseph L. Dionne, Chairman, President and 
Chief Executive Officer; Robert N. Landes, 
Executive Vice President, General Counsel 
and Secretary; Walter D. Serwatka, 
Executive Vice President; Frank D. 
Penglase, Senior Vice President, Treasury 
Operations; Robert J. Bahash, Executive 
Vice President and Chief Financial Officer; 
Thomas J. Sullivan, Executive Vice 
President, Administration; Mary A. Cooper, 
Senior Vice President, Corporate Affairs, 
and Executive Assistant to the Chairman; 
Ralph R. Schulz, Senior Vice President, 

Founder: James H. McGraw (1 860-1 948). 

■i'j JJ Copyright © 1990 by McGraw-Hill, 
tlm | Inc. All rights reserved. BYTE and 
1 BVIl: are registered trademarks of 
McGraw-Hill, Inc. Trademark registered in 
the United States Patent and Trademark 



Audit Bureau of Circulation 


YGK price. 

If you want the ultimate VGA graphics standard, and you've resigned yourself to paying a premium of hundreds of 
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It's compatible with the most popular VGA boards, as well as analog RGB, MCGA, SuperVGA, and— of course — 8514/A 

It's comfortable in virtually any IBM -compatible or Mac II environment.** 

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Circle 217 on Reader Service Card 

* VGA, MCGA and 8514/A are trade- 
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Machines Corf). 

* IBM XT, AT and PS/2 are registered 
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Machines Corf). Macintosh is a reg- 
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The ultimate 

portable for the 
ultimate program. 

Toshiba has combined the ultimate battery- 
operated portable, the T3100SX, with the ultimate 
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TheT3100SX gives you everything you 
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Circle 312 on Reader Service Card 


Research news and industry developments shaping the world of desktop computing 

Edited by D. Barker 

The Lotus Case: Judge Rules User Interface Is Protected by Copyright 

When U.S. District Court Judge 
Robert Keeton issued his final 
declaration in the look-and-feel lawsuit 
filed by Lotus Development against 
Paperback Software, he wrapped up 
at least the first phase of one of the 
most closely watched legal cases ever 
to hit the computer industry. Judge 
Keeton's decision was firm and 
unambiguous, and if it sticks, it could 
deal a deathblow to software cloning, 
even in the form of a "compatibility" 
option such as that offered in Borland's 
Quattro Pro. 

Although Keeton's ruling would not 
provide precedence for similar court 
cases being heard elsewhere in the 
country (e.g., Apple's suit against 
Microsoft over Windows), it's a 
significant decision in the legal wran- 
gling over the protection of noncode 
aspects of software. Keeton tossed aside 
the nebulous concept of look and feel in 
favor of the more prosaic principle of 
"structure, sequence, and organization" 
to find that 1-2-3's user interface is a 
creative "expression" worthy of 
copyright protection. If the logic holds 
firm through subsequent court chal- 
lenges — some observers predict it 
won't — it could become more difficult 
for software engineers to create 
products that don't infringe. 

Among the giant look-and-feel cases 
twisting their way through the courts, 
the suit filed in 1987 by Lotus against 
two companies that make 1-2-3 work- 
alikes, Paperback Software (VP- 
Planner) and Mosaic Software (Twin), 
might have been the cleanest. The battle 
between Apple and Microsoft/Hewlett- 
Packard over Windows is complicated 
by messy contractual and licensing 
issues, while the suit filed by Ashton- 
Tate against dBASE doner Fox 
Software involves tricky questions 
about the copyrightability of computer 
languages and of products derived from 
publicly funded research. At its most 
basic, the Lotus case promised to 
answer the question of how much 
copying is too much. 

As in any copyright case, the judge 
had to first determine whether 1-2-3 
was indeed copyrightable and then 
whether the defendants' products 

"/ conclude that a menu command structure is capable of being 
expressed in many if not an unlimited number of ways, and that 
the command structure of 1-2-3 is an original and nonobvious 
way of expressing a command structure. 

"The user interface of 1-2-3 is its most unique element, and is 
the aspect that has made 1-2-3 so popular. That defendants 
went to such trouble to copy that element is a testament to its 

11 1 must disregard defendants experts' predictions of doom 
for the computer programming industry if copyright is extended 
to the user interface and other nonliteral elements of computer 
programs. . . . Rather, this legal issue must be resolved in such 
a way as to extend copyright protection, clearly and 
unequivocally, to those nonliteral elements of computer 
programs that embody original expression." 

— Judge Robert Keeton 

violated that copyright. There is 
virtually no legal dispute over the right 
to protect underlying source and object 
code, and in any event there was no 
evidence here that Paperback Software 
had copied 1-2-3 code. The problem 
was whether by imitating 1-2-3's menus 
and commands the defendants had acted 

In making his determination, the judge 
said that he had not found the concept 
of look and feel, as expressed in earlier 
lawsuits outside the software industry, 
to be helpful; rather, he relied on 
Lotus's definition of a user interface, as 
determined by the structure and 
organization of menus, the macro 
language, the use of function keys, and 
so on. 

Keeton quickly pointed out that Lotus 
doesn't own the concept of an electronic 
spreadsheet. He also found certain 
elements of 1 -2-3 's user interface to be 
nonprotectable; for example, he said 
that the use of a rows-and-columns 
screen airangement with horizontal and 
vertical cell addresses was not copy- 
rightable because Lotus didn't invent it 
and it was essentially the only way to 
organize a spreadsheet. 

If the realization of an electronic 
spreadsheet involved no creativity 
beyond what was dictated by the 
concept itself, 1-2-3's user interface 

would not be copyrightable. But Keeton 
found the organization and wording of 
the program's descending menu tree to 
constitute the essence of its commercial 
and intellectual value. According to 
Esther Schachter, editor of Computer 
Law and Tax Report, Keeton looked at 
the "gestalt" of 1-2-3, rather than at 
specific words or screens, to determine 
that it is indeed an original work. The 
judge also said that even though 
commands such as Print or File Retrieve 
are functional in nature, that doesn't 
preclude awarding protection to the 
overall menu scheme. 

The most important point in support of 
1-2-3's nonunique originality came 
from alternative products on the market. 
Paperback Software argued that 1-2-3 
was a market standard and that achiev- 
ing success required making a program 
"compatible" with the standard's 
keystrokes, macros, and file format. But 
Keeton saw the success of programs 
such as Microsoft Excel and Computer 
Associates' SuperCalc4 as evidence that 
other, incompatible spreadsheet designs 
were technically feasible and commer- 
cially viable. 

After finding that 1-2-3's structure 
was original, the judge had to determine 
whether that structure represented a 
"substantial" part of its expressiveness. 





One plaintiff happy with U.S. 
District Court Judge Robert Keeton's 
ruling in the Lotus/Paperback 
Software case is Ashton-Tate 
(Irvine, CA), which sued Fox 
Software and The Santa Cruz 
Operation way back in 1988 for 
allegedly violating the look and feel 
of its dBASE products, a suit that 
Fox said has "absolutely no merit." 
"We think the judge should be given 
a Nobel prize," Stan Witkow, vice 
president and general counsel for 
Ashton-Tate, told BYTEWEEK. 

Weighing in with a different opinion 
was the League for Programming 

Freedom, which planned to protest 
the Lotus lawsuits with its second 
march to the company's headquarters 
in Cambridge, MA. "The Lotus 
victory sets a precedent that threat- 
ens to bollix the entire software 
industry. . . . Imagine if there were a 
copyright on the layout of keys on 
the typewriter," the league said in its 
official statement. "We are marching 
to call public attention to the new 
monopoly that is being rammed 
through the courts." Besides 
cof ounder Richard Stallman 
(MacArthur Fellowship winner and 
father of the Free Software Founda- 
tion), the league's membership 
includes AI pioneer Marvin Minsky 
and Lisp inventor John McCarthy. 

The National Science Foundation is 

working with industry and academia 
to develop an advanced computer 
network expected to transmit 1 
billion bits of data per second. More 
than $100 million for the project has 
come from corporations, including 
IBM, AT&T, MCI, and the regional 
Bell telephone companies. Among 
the universities involved are MIT, 
the California Institute of Technol- 
ogy, the University of Pennsylvania, 
and the University of California at 
Berkeley. Government laboratories 
in the project include Lawrence 
Livermore (California), Los Alamos 
(New Mexico), and the five super- 
computing centers. NSF official 
Stephen Wolff said he is confident 
that "new sorts of wonderment will 
ensue" from the project. Weather 
forecasting, three-dimensional 
medical imaging, and multimedia 
teleconferencing are some of the 
applications planned for the network. 

"That the answer to this question is 
'yes' is incontrovertible," he wrote. 
"The user interface of 1 -2-3 is its most 
unique element." 


The value of Keeton's decision as legal 
precedent will remain unknown until 
future cases have passed through the 
courts. Paperback Software has vowed 
to appeal. The resolution of this knotty 
problem might end up in the U.S. 
Supreme Court if Congress doesn't act 
first to provide legislative clarification. 

Some analysts said that the Keeton 
decision greatly expands the definition 
of copyright protection for software. 
The judge apparently found the 
copyright violation so obvious and 
egregious that he was able to pronounce 
in fairly sweeping terms that the 
structure and organization of 1 -2-3 
represent its primary value. A more 
subtle case of copying might have 
required a finer definition of structure. 

But Keeton also complained in his 
decision about the lack of solid 
precedents and said that he opted for a 
strict reading of congressional statutes. 
In that sense, the decision is quite 
narrow: He refused to consider the 
defendants' wish that he forge new 
copyright law by drawing a "bright 
line" to limit software copyrighting to 
the underlying code. To do so would 
exceed his jurisdiction, Keeton said. 

Keeton also declined to consider — 
although he did take testimony on the 
subject over Lotus's objections — 
philosophical questions about the 
"chilling effect" of a finding for Lotus. 
He wrote that numerous experts, 
including VisiCalc coauthor Dan 
Bricklin, testified against extending 
copyright protection beyond underlying 
code. But he concluded that the views 
of these experts contradict the evident 
intentions of Congress in its 1976 and 
1 980 copyright statutes. 

Tom Lemberg, chief counsel for 

Lotus, not surprisingly argues that 
protecting the user interface actually 
helps software innovation. "We see it as 
a great victory for innovation because it 
provides a framework that allows 
people to invest in engineering and be 
protected enough to recover their 
investments," Lemberg said. "If the law 
protected the right of a programmer to 
copy the de facto standard, then there 
would be no need to innovate." 

"99% Different" Doesn't Count 

A few key elements of Keeton's 
decision could spell trouble for Borland, 
subject of Lotus's latest legal action, 
and other companies that incorporate 
what can be construed as 1-2-3-like 
menus. The judge quoted from earlier 
decisions that "the piracy of even a 
quantitatively small fragment . . . may 
be qualitatively substantial," and "a 
laundry list of specific differences . . . 
will not preclude a finding of infringe- 
ment where the works are substantially 
similar in other respects." 

"If one publishes a 1000-page book of 
which only a 10-page segment is an 
unauthorized reproduction of copy- 
righted material, and if the 1 0-page 
segment is a qualitatively substantial 
part of the copyrighted work, \l \s not a 
defense to a claim of infringement that 
the book is 99% different from the 
copyrighted material." 

Other cases, particularly the suit 
between Apple and Microsoft, might 
have more to say about the problem of 
defining originality and copyright in a 
standards-based software environment. 
A finding as broad as Keeton's could 
cause nothing but confusion when 
independently developed applications 
use similar screens, menus, and file 
formats. And if we ever achieve the 
world of small, interchangeable 
program "objects" envisioned by Bill 
Gates and other software developers, 
we'll be in a real legal mess. 

— Andy Re in hard t 

Macintosh Veterans Conjuring New Magic 

Two of the prime forces behind the 
Macintosh are heading up a new 
Apple spin-off to develop "personal 
intelligent communicator" products. Bill 
Atkinson, principal designer of 
MacPaint and HyperCard, and Andy 
Hertzfeld, author of most core Macin- 
tosh software, along with Marc Porat, 
ex-manager of business development at 
Apple's Advanced Technologies Group, 
will be the "executive team" heading 

General Magic, Inc. 

Just what's going on with GMI has 
been a topic of quiet but rampant 
speculation, since the new company 
was green-lighted by Apple 90 days 
before it was publicly announced. Apple 
would say only that the "concern will 
address market segments outside of 
Apple's mainstream business." 

But deducing from their past work and 








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Circle 327 on Reader Service Card 



PostScript laser printers are taking a 
dive in price. QMS (Mobile, AL), 
which has tended to set price trends 
in this field, zapped $1000 off its 
eight-page-per-minute models. The 
68000-controlled PS 810 and 820 
now sell for $3995 and $4995. QMS 
also knocked $500 off its 68020- 
based Turbo models, which now sell 
for $5995 and $6995. Meanwhile, 
Oce Graphics (Mountain View, CA) 
reduced the price of its color printer 
by $2000; the thermal printer now 
sells for $8990. 

While lawn-conscious Americans 
were mowing their yards this 
summer, several top computer 
makers were mowing their prices. 
Tandy (Fort Worth, TX) did its 
usual hot-weather trimming, 
lowering the price of the 2800 HD 
laptop from $3499 to $2999 (and, 
until the end of this month, throwing 
in a free cellular phone) and cutting 
the 1000 TL/2 from $1299 to $999. 
As a "competitive pressure move," 
Zenith Data Systems (Mt. Prospect, 
IL) pruned $300 off its Z-386 SX 
desktop computer. The company 
shaved a similar amount off the price 
of the SupersPort 286e portable. And 
with new versions in the works, 
NEC Technologies (Wood Dale, IL) 
took the price-whacker to its 
UltraLite laptop, buzzing off as 
much as $1000. The 2-MB model is 
now $1999; the 1-MB model, $1599. 

Novell (Provo, UT) plans to start 
shipping this fall a family of 
products for enabling NetWare 386 
LANs to communicate with IBM 
mainframes. The software and 
associated architecture, collectively 
called NetWare 386 Communication 
Services, supports mainframe links 
over Token Ring networks and 
Synchronous Data Link Connection 
links. The family of connectivity 
packages will consist of NetWare 
386 Services for SAA 1.0, which 
runs on the server, and NetWare 
3270 LAN Workstation packages for 
Windows 3.0, DOS, and Macintosh 
systems plugged into the network. 
Software that will allow OS/2 or 
Unix workstations on a NetWare 
LAN to communicate with a main- 
frame will be released in 1991, said 
Gerry Machi, director of marketing 
for Novell communications products. 

information from sources familiar with 
the project, GMI is working on a hand- 
held device for writing and sending 
electronic messages. Some Apple 
watchers say that the machine will use a 
pen and tablet and be capable of reading 
handwritten input. 

HyperCard evolved from a minimalist 
Rolodex program that Bill Atkinson 
wrote in 1985; it used a card as an 
information container. A machine 
smaller than the Mac might require 
a smaller information container in 
a smaller working environment — say, a 
"postcard" instead of a "desktop." 
Those postcards need addresses if you 
want to send them anywhere, and 
Atkinson has already shown that he can 
make a hypertext-linked database out of 
cards, with a proprietary data-compres- 
sion scheme that minimizes storage 
requirements of those cards. This 
compression scheme would be essential 
in such a system. 

Andy Hertzf eld codes mostly in 
assembly, which allows him to write 
fast and tight programs. Such programs 
would be perfect for a hand-held 

Marc Porat's background includes 
setting up large-scale networks. It's 
likely that these postcards will be 
delivered by way of a special network; 
according to some sources, the GMI 
machine will operate with both radio 
waves (using Motorola's Ardis 
network, one source said) and telephone 
lines. Porat's latest stint at the Ad- 
vanced Technologies Group has kept 

him up on the latest R&D, such as work 
going on in handwriting recognition. 

The fact that Apple has a nonexclusive 
license to manufacture what GMI 
conjures up implies that there's another 
manufacturing concern involved in this, 
but quietly. Insiders say that Sony is 
involved; that company has had a long 
relationship with Apple, providing it 
with power supplies and disk drives. 
Sony recently introduced a product 
called the CPT-1 that has been, interest- 
ingly enough, impossible to find in 
stores around San Francisco. The CPT-1 
has a pen attached to it that lets you use 
handwritten characters as input. If Sony 
were to provide pen hardware and 
screens for GMI, it could also supply the 
same hardware to other computer 
companies. GMI's communicator might 
very well use a pen instead of a key- 
board. You can select an icon with a pen 
instead of a mouse. 

If this machine is to be more useful 
than an automated FiloFax, it will have 
to print things out. If it has a thermal 
printer, why not use it as a fax machine 
as well? Observers also speculate that 
this device will have an internal modem 
that's fax-compatible. 

In any case, the device that GMI will 
produce won't be immediately forth- 
coming. One Apple insider put it this 
way: "Think of what the Macintosh was 
envisioned as in 1 98 1 . That had changed 
drastically by 1982, and it didn't ship 
until 1984. They have a vision; now 
they need time to develop it." 

— Laurence H. Loeb 

Experimental Holographic System Promises 
Massive Data Storage, Rapid Access 

After several years of research, 
Microelectronics and Computer 
Technology Corp. (Austin, TX) says 
that it has developed a working model 
of holographic data storage. The 
federally funded MCC says that within 
two years, it could have prototype 
storage systems with a capacity of up to 
a gigabyte, read access times of between 
1 and 10 us, and write times of approxi- 
mately 100 us. This would mean an 
average data transfer rate of between 

MCC says that a future commercial 
product derived from this technology 
could store 1.125 terabytes and be 
capable of read times as low as 100 ns 
and write times of 10 us; the data 
transfer rate could be as fast as a 
phenomenal 50 gigabytes per second, 
MCC officials say. The eventual cost of 

such a data storage device would be 
about the same per bit as magnetic 
drives and optical disks, says MCC. 

Previous attempts at manufacturing 
holographic data storage systems failed 
because it proved impossible to retain 
the data for more than a few reads. One 
of MCC s patents concerns a new 
technique involving static electric fields 
and polarized laser beams, which allows 
for a much higher rate of data retention. 
The other patent concerns the use of an 
array of crystallites to store data, rather 
than the previous technique of using a 
single large crystal. 

Holographic data storage works by 
embedding holographic patterns inside a 
crystal. Holograms are formed when a 
reference beam and an image beam of 
laser light intersect. Multiple holograms 



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ASTRONOMY IS |~| 111 ' > * 



VOL 6, NO, 4, FALL 1880 


Reported by The Star 

Every day billions of teor-burst communlca- 

dust particles enter In- tlon a practical and 

to Earth's atmosphere, economical alternative 

Now scientists are to the use of tele- 
working to make me- (continued on paga 2} 

Vou Cetft See the Greet Well from the Moon/ 

Everyone has heard an astronaut, it's dlffl- 

that you can see the cult even seeing conti- 

Great Well of China nents. You may be able 

from the Moon. Or from to see the Great Wall 

Earth orbit. Or even from orbit- but, In gen- 

from Mars. Certainly oral, it's difficult even 

you cannot see the to see familiar objects; 

Great Wall from the the planet's swift mo- 
Moon. According to (continued on paga 3) 

Voyager's Lest Picture Show: 

Whan Voyager 2 was launched 12 years ego, who 

could have Imagined these photos at this point in time. 

1^— ^— c 



More on planetary explosions Inside, 


Scientists ere still unable to confirm 
the existence of even a single black hole, 
despite widespread belief that such 
things should exist. Tracking down these 
invisible objects isn't easy, because they 
can only be studied Indirectly by the 
effects they have on their surroundings. 
There ere several types of places that 

(continued on pegs 31 


it's a chore, but all reflecting tele- 
scopes require cleaning their reflective 
mirrors. Eventually, the aluminum coat- 
ing on their mirrors deteriorates end 
needs replacing. For large Instruments, 
the process requires removing the tela- 
Icontlnued on page 61 


I A 1 ' J ^t H t M I C A 1 I I T T I R 

mtiTOii twin 


■ Now I .en lis In Metal- 
Orgunle ilnomtotry 

IWhnt'u Now In 

Antlmutter Bottled 

Fifty Yean Ago 

Motnl-orgiinic ehomiitry bridges tho grip botwoon organic And trior* 
gnnic chemistry. It can load to Important new products (for example, 
poison untldotoi) A cholsw.such hi ELYI'A above (containing carbon, 
hydrogon, oxygen and nltrogon atoms) can surround ion* of metals 
and romovo them from unwanted plncoi. (continued next page) 

It was almost exactly three years ago theta ccrtimlc material that 
euperconducu above llq uld nitrogen temperature was discovered, 
Within days of the discovery, electronics, power transmission, and 
transportation were being redoflnod In everyone'elmaglnation Yet 
superconductivity was not a now phonomenon, Tho effect was first 
observod In mercury in 1911, and, since then, more than 8000 ele- 
ments, Alloys, and compounds have been (bund to superconductl 

(continued nextpagt) 

A dovlce testod may give Investigators a glimpse of what an antimat- 
ter world might look liko. Tho device cools antimatter to a temperature 
a few degroes above absolute xoro and stores It for several days *t 
n time, (continued next page) 

Rumor ho* It that boforo WWII, our chomists were experimenting with 
a distilling procoss to lower the calorlos of ordinary beer, Abandoning 
tho research at tho onset of world war, researchors then pursued the 
development of a sholf-stablo ration. Don't beliovo all rumors. 


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Resolution Enhancement technology. 

The rules have changed. Now the 
name of the game is Resolution 
Enhancement technology. You'll call 
it the best thing to happen to laser 
printing since the very first HP 
LaserJet printer. It gives you clearer 
resolution. Curves that really curve. 
And edges that are never jagged. 

Instead of a "one-size-fits-all" dot, 
HP's built-in intelligence varies dot 
sizes. So they can fill areas where 

© 1990 Hewlett-Packard Company P E 1 2003 

they could never go before. For 
clearer, more professional-looking 



technology shrinks dots 

to fit in curves and diagonals 

where they've never gone before. 

whole newball game. 

A x ¥7* Mirror 


«/5h NORTH 


S9j8uy "Angles 


ms\ «fe 




^ mm 




But there's more than better print 
quality. 14 bit-mapped fonts and 8 
internal scalable typefaces provide 
thousands of options. And enhance- 
ments to our PCL5 printer language, 
including our HP-GL/2 graphics 
language, let you print portrait 
and landscape on the same page. 
Reverse and angled type. Spirals. 
Even shaded text. You can also plug 
in Adobe PostScript® software. 

For all its new features, the $2,395* 
list price of the HP LaserJet III is a 
good deal less than the HP LaserJet 

Series II printer it replaces. With 
the same hardware compatibility, 
wide range of applications, 8 ppm 
print speed, and software compati- 
bility, including WordPerfect 5.1 
and WordStar® 6.0. And the same 

reliability as the rest of the HP 
printer family. 

So call 1-800-752-0900, Ext. 1007. Ask 

for our booklet on Resolution Enhance- 
ment technology and where to find 
your nearest authorized HP dealer. 
We'll put you in a whole new league. 

There is a better way. 



'Suggested U.S. list price. WordStar is a U.S. registered trademark of WordStar International Incorporated. Adobe and PostScript are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. 



Intel (Santa Clara, CA) has a new 
single-chip cache memory control- 
ler for 386-based systems that's 
designed around the advanced cache 
built into the i486. Intel claims that 
the new 386 SmartCache chip (more 
formally called the 82395 DX), 
which integrates 16K bytes of static 
RAM with the cache controller, is 
the equal of 128K-byte memory 
caches. The new million-transistor 
chip incorporates 1000 cache tags as 
well as the control logic and static 
RAM. The chip uses a caching 
technique called write-buffer, essen- 
tially a write-through cache with a 
128-bit buffer. This eliminates much 
of the typical delay associated with 
write-through caches, which need to 
write directly to memory and use 
CPU cycles and bus bandwidth to do 
it. The CPU can return to processing 
while the cache controller handles 
the buffering to memory. 

Hoping to help establish standards 
in object-oriented computing, the 
Object Management Group (Fram- 
ingham, MA) has issued a "request 
for information" on technologies that 
will help it define its Object Request 
Broker, the means by which objects 
handle requests and responses. The 
ORB is the "primary message 
delivery vehicle" in an object- 
oriented system, a spokesperson 
explained. A common ORB could 
result in a transparent mechanism for 
swapping information between 
different types of computers in a 
distributed environment, the OMG 
says. If you're interested in working 
with the OMG, phone (508) 820- 
4300 or fax (508) 820-4303. 

The new wristwatch pager from 
AT&E (San Francisco) and Seiko 
could change the definition of 
remote communications. The Seiko 
Receptor MessageWatch Receiver's 
most remarkable achievements are in 
miniaturization: The device contains 
a digital watch, an LCD, an FM 
receiver, and microelectronics 
(intelligence and memory) in a 
package slightly larger than a wrist- 
watch. The chip set used in the 
Receptor might find its way into 
laptop computers, AT&E says. The 
paging system relays messages using 
phone networks and subcarrier FM 

are stored in a single crystal by altering 
the angle at which the beams enter the 
crystal. At the intersection point of the 
two beams, a standing wave is formed, 
similar to light interference patterns. 
The pattern is stored by a charge field 
that captures photo electrons from the 
beam. If the reference beam is retrans- 
mitted to the crystal, the holographic 
image is regenerated and can be read. 
However, during this readout, the 
electronic charge pattern is weakened, 
and after a few reads, it disappears. 

MCC's technique to get around this 
involves using a strong electric field 90 
degrees out of phase and converting the 
electron charge pattern to an ionic 
charge pattern. This ionic pattern is not 
destroyed by reads in the same manner 
as the electron pattern. "We have not 
yet assessed if you can let this pattern 
sit for years and years," warned MCC's 
Jerry Willenbring. 

Another technique that MCC has 
developed and patented involves using 
an array of crystals rather than a single 
large crystal. Although in theory there 
should be no difference in the storage 

capabilities, using an array has a 
number of practical advantages, 
including eliminating "cross talk." 
Cross talk is an interference problem 
caused by the laser beam activating an 
adjacent hologram that interferes with 
the data readout. Using an array of 
crystals eliminates cross talk between 
adjacent holograms. MCC plans to use 
stacks of pages to store data and is 
limiting each crystal to a single stack. 
Using multiple small crystals in an array 
also has cost benefits. It's far more 
difficult to artificially grow large 
crystals than small ones, so it's cheaper 
to use a cluster of bonded crystals rather 
than a single large ciystal. Also, an 
array can be scaled and enlarged as 
required, whereas a single large crystal 

MCC plans to have a working storage 
device by early 1992 and to have 
commercial products by 1995. The 
holographic storage modules will be 
ideal for computer storage applications, 
as well as for use in digital high- 
definition TV, video, and audio. 

— Owen Linderholm 

EFF: Bringing Bill of Rights into Computer Age 

Lotus founder Mitch Kapor and 
several industry colleagues have 
formed an organization they say will 
fight to ensure that the Bill of Rights 
covers computer-based communication 
and electronic information. The purpose 
of the Electronic Frontier Foundation 
(Cambridge, MA) is to combat viola- 
tions of civil liberties, Kapor says, as 
well as to educate government poli- 
cymakers, law enforcement agencies, 
and the public about computers. 

The EFF has taken heat from some 
members of the industry because they 
see it as simply a "hacker defense 
fund," and some law enforcement 
officials are not necessarily in favor of 
it. "It's as if NOW started a foundation 
to come to the assistance of [people 
charged in] rape cases," says Don 
Ingraham, chief of the high-tech crime 
team and an assistant district attorney 
for Alameda County in northern 
California. "We don't know what to 
think of it." He says he doesn't under- 
stand why the computer industry would 
defend people trying to break into their 

But Kapor says that is not the 
organization's purpose. "Unauthorized 
entry into computer systems is an 
improper act," he stresses. "It ought to 
be illegal. It's not the mission of the 

foundation to provide legal defense for 
people who break into computer 
systems. If people are ripping off credit 
card numbers and posting them on 
bulletin boards, there are laws about 
that, and I hope they're appropriately 
enforced," Kapor says. 

It is important that freedoms provided 
in the Bill of Rights be associated with 
electronic information as well as 
information on paper, says Russell 
Brand, senior computer scientist for 
Reasoning Systems and a government 
consultant on computer security. "Paper 
is archaic," he says. "If your civil rights 
become attached to paper, they become 
archaic, and you lose. The Bill of Rights 
has to be attached to all forms of 
technology." Even in the case of 
suspected criminals, due process needs 
to be followed. "Privacy issues start 
with the people you hate," he says. 

Ingraham points out that authorities 
have to be able to search computers for 
incriminating evidence; otherwise, it's 
like freeing people from being searched 
as long as they can afford a computer. 
And the computer itself, as well as the 
hard disks containing data, must be 
seized to guarantee that the evidence 
came from a defendant's computer 
rather than that of the DA's office, he 





our customers expect software that works. 
All the time. The key to software quality is 
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Circle 30 on Reader Service Card 

In Europe, contact: 

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Apple Computer reversed its 1987 
decision to spin software develop- 
ment off into a separate company 
and will keep Claris as a fully 
owned subsidiary. Claris, which had 
planned excursions into Windows 
and maybe even the exotic lands of 
OS/2 and Unix, will now focus its 
development and marketing efforts 
on its flagship applications, such as 
ClarisCAD; extensions to Apple's 
system software; and products that 
link the Macintosh with other 
computing environments. "There 
will be a greater emphasis on 
software as a point of differentiation 
in coming years in the industry," said 
Apple spokesperson Chris Escher. 
"We want to maximize our software 
differentiation and get optimized 
applications out there." 

Dayna Communications plans to 
soon ship a new series of Ethernet 
cards for Mac lis and SE/30s. The 
new DaynaPort for Ethernet cards 
are based on technology licensed 
from Novell's Kinetics division and 
will cost $495. 

Mr. Jobs' Journal: Former BYTE 
West Coast bureau chief Nick Baran 
plans to launch this month a 
newsletter covering the NeXT 
Computer and related subjects. 
Baran' s Tech Letter will aim to 
provide users and developers with 
news and analysis of products and 
technology issues. A subscription to 
the monthly, advertising-free 
publication is $125. For more 
information: P.O. Box 876, Sand- 
point, ID 83864, (208) 265-5286. 

Sorry you bought those Billy Joel 
compact disks? Want to swap that 
Paula Abdul for The Ramones? Call 
the Compact Disc Exchange (San 
Francisco), a new electronic BBS for 
buying and selling music CDs. 
There's also an area for "gabbing 
about music," says system operator 
Wayne Gregori. For every disk you 
sell (the average price on the board is 
about $10), CDE takes "a small 
percentage of the sale as a fee." As 
Gregori says, the system is especially 
useful for music listeners living in 
small towns or rural areas, where 
you're more likely to find used 45s 
than used CDs for sale. To go on- 
line, dial (415) 824-7603. 

says. Ingraham stresses that law 
enforcers do follow the laws. "If the 
argument is with the way the stuff is 
seized, then they're barking up the 
wrong tree." 

With the EFF, Kapor hopes to educate 
law enforcement officials on technical 
fine points. "We haven't spoken yet 
with law enforcement officials, but 
we're trying to find occasions to get 

across a table from each other and talk." 
One of the group's first steps was a 
grant to Computer Professionals for 
Social Responsibility, which will use 
the money for its Computing and Civil 
Liberties Project. CPSR will also 
conduct "policy roundtables" with 
computer users, hackers, lawmakers, the 
FBI, and industry representatives. 

— Sharon Fisher 

Superconductor Chips Now Rolling Off the Line 

Superconductors hold mighty 
potential, but researchers are still 
working on real-life applications. Now a 
small Silicon Valley start-up is doing 
something that should lead to supercon- 
ductor-based products. Conductus 
(Sunnyvale, CA) has started producing 
superconductor chips that could be the 
brains of superf ast computers and 
advanced communications systems. 
Superconductors allow electricity to 
pass through them with little or none of 
the resistance that constricts the flow of 
electricity in conventional conductors. 

Conductus doesn't do any supercon- 
ductor research itself but focuses on 
combining new superconductor 
technology with existing semiconductor 
manufacturing methods to build 
commercially viable products. 

Conductus has developed a process 
that involves placing a thin layer of 
superconducting film on top of the 
semiconductor. The technique deposits 
yttrium barium copper oxide on a 1-inch 

wafer that's then sliced into chips. The 
devices have found their way into a 
number of niche products, Smith said, 
including a bolometer, which is an 
infrared sensor for use in space satellites 
and chemical instruments, and the 
SQUID (or superconducting quantum 
interference device), a sensor for 
detecting magnetic fields. 

Among Conductus's current custom- 
ers are a number of "big companies" 
that Smith declined to identify. Com- 
puter behemoth Hewlett-Packard is 
among the company's investors, 
according to a spokesperson. 

Conductus is focusing on niche 
markets because those markets aren't 
profitable enough for large Japanese and 
American corporations, many of which 
are currently developing superconductor 
applications. The company says that it 
expects to produce about 1 2,000 chips 
annually, which will sell for as much as 
$1000 each. 

— Jeffrey Bertolucci 

AMD Selling 80287 Coprocessor for $99 

Advanced Micro Devices (Austin, 
TX) has developed a fully compat- 
ible version of the Intel 80287 coproces- 
sor and is selling it for $99. 

The AMD 80C287 is the first Intel- 
based coprocessor from AMD, which 
currently makes versions of the 286 
processor and other ICs. The AMD chip 
is based on the Intel microcode for the 
Intel 80287 and is thus completely 
compatible, AMD says. 

The significant difference between 
AMD's coprocessor and Intel's is the 
price. AMD is charging only $99 for the 
10-MHz version of its 80287 clone, 
while the Intel chip has a street price of 
at least $179 for the 8-MHz version and 
around $210 for the 10-MHz version. 

AMD has also introduced a low-power 
version, designed for use with laptops 
and notebook-size computers. 

— Owen Linderholm 

WHAT WILL THE NEXT 15 YEARS BRING? We'd need a dozen Kreskins and 
an expert system to answer that, but with your help, we can get a handle on the 
future of computing. If you, your company, or your research group is working on a 
new technology or developing products that will significantly affect the world of 
microcomputing, we'd like to hear about it. Phone the BYTE news department at 
(603) 924-928 J. Or send a fax to (603) 924-2550. Or write to us at One Phoenix 
Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. Or send E-mail to "microbytes" on BIX or to 
"BYTE" on MCI Mail. An electronic version of Microbytes, offering a wider 
variety of computer-related news on a daily basis, is available on BIX. 


Windows Sprouts Win 

Introducing Wingz™ 
for Windows 3-0 and OS/2 
the only spreadsheet to offer 
versions in the same package, each 
separately developed and optimized 
It's also the only spreadsheet with 
HyperScript®— the easy way to 
build custom applications without 
programming knowledge. 
With Wingz-Datalink you can access 
Femote Informix SQL databases, such as 
INFORMIX®- Online. 

And Wingz is the only PC spread- 
sheet to combine numbers, text and 
3-D graphics in one window, on 
, one page, with one product. 

"For sheer spreadsheet power,Wingz 
outperformed 1-2-3/G and Excel in PC Week's 
spreadsheet benchmark tests!' (pc week 7191m 

Free Test Fli ght 

For a free demonstration of 
Wingz, simply drop by your 
local dealer. Or, for only $9.95, 
we'll send you a demonstration 
version. Just call 1-800-331-1763 
(in Canada, 416-566-7024). 

Wingz is also available for the 
Apple® Macintosh® Unix® versions 
support Open Look,™ OSF/Motif™ 
and NextStep.™ 




©1990 Informix Software, Inc. Informix and HyperScript are registered trademarks and Wingz is a trademark of Informix Software, Inc. Other names indicated by * or ™ are trademarks of their respective manufacturers. 

Circle 146 on Reader Service Card 

j&crr T t 

T I -_t I 

I I t 1 



^ _____-—! j A PC that looks good in your myriad functions, in addition to our 286, 386™ and 486™ 
E MffVufl r office won't look good for long CPU cards in a full range of processor speeds. Our CPU card 
out in the plant. designs use Very Large Scale Integrated circuits and pro- 
Heat murders microproces- grammable array logic devices to reduce component counts 
sors. Dust decimates disk by 50-60% which enhances reli- 
drives. Vibration victimizes ability and resistance to physical 
video cards. stress. Ultimately, the design 

f^n^si^^y's 448 ' An y or a11 can wreck Y our contributes to our remarkably ullra . fast32 . bm0386>A r 

entire operation. lone Mean Time Between Fail- equivalent cpu board B386S. 

rr, * ,. ,. r ,* ^t.t.n ™ r,r,r, -, ™ ™^ Available at 16, 20, 25, 33 MHz. 

Texas Microsystems line of ures (MTBF): 70,000-100,000 

rugged, reliable ISA Bus products and systems are specif i- hours, calculated against the MIL Standard Handbook 217E. 

cally engineered for those brutal industrial environments that ^ You won't find that kind of card selec- 

eat pretty PCs for breakfast. 1 tion — or MTBF — among the leading PC 

To ensure maximum reliability we design and manufac- makers. 

ture from scratch practically everything that goes into our — ' You won't find them torturing their 

systems, like passive backplanes which we pioneered for systems like we torture ours, either, 

microcomputers in 1983. These backplanes accommodate a - - m / Not only do we perform extensive 

full compliment of convenient, plug-in components, all com- ■E3llSV N "shake, rattle and roll" tests on each 

patible with IBM®. They're why our Mean Time To Repair ^:!.!^», r ; "tJS ffff\ new design, we pretest all our sys- 

(MTTR) is a phenomenal 10 minutes. Sp^liii: y- ^c ^^ [± Q_ terns before they leave our dock. We 

You won't find passive backplanes — or lower MTTR — Mission Critical Benchtop 2003-. burn them in at 55°C / 1 31 °F for 48 

c ,i i j. /•/•• -rt/^ 10 option slots and 2 drive bays. ■. • i , • i ,1 

in any of the leading office PCs. r J hours straight just to make sure they 

We also build industrial-strength option cards to handle can take the heat at your plant. 

Pretty tough. 

What's more, we shock-mount our disk drives to stand up 
to vibrations surpassing Richter scale proportions and we use 
only high-reliability power supplies that can go 100,000 hours 

With all that reliability designed into our products, is it 
any wonder that we guarantee better support than the other 
leading PC makers? Every system we offer comes with a full 
one-year, on-site warranty. Theirs don't. We also offer a toll- 
free number for technical and sales information, a regional 
network of sales engineers, engineering support for systems 
integration and a guarantee to meet shock specs. Of the lead- 

It's- No- Comparison 

Texas Microsystems 



Passive Backplane 




100,000-hour MTBF power supply 




Shock-mounted disk drives 




Maximized MTBF 




Positive pressure, filtration 




Operation at 55°C/131°F 




48-hour burn-in at 55°C/131°F 




Maximum expansion slots available 




1-year, on-site warranty 




Toll-free support number 




Regional sales support 




"Shake, rattle and roH" testing 




ing PC makers, Texas Microsystems has the longest history of 
design using Intel microprocessors: 15 years in all. You' 11 
find our systems hard at work in harsh operating environ- 
ments at 70 of the Fortune 100 companies. 

Granted, the leading office PCs may 
be prettier than ours, but our in- 
dustrial-strength systems are de- 
signed to be more reliable. That 
reliability makes our systems 
look a lot better where it really 

Your production line . 

Mission Oitical Rack-mount 2001: 
]() option slots and 3 drive bays. 

For technical or sales information, call 

1 -800-627-8700 



Texas Microsystems, Inc. 

10618 RockJey Rd • Houston, TX 77099 
713-933-8050 • Fax 713-933-1 029 

Circle 293 on Reader Service Card 


and Ask BYTE 

BYTE Readers Speak on the Future 
of Computing 

Editor's note: In his May editorial, 
BYTE editor in chief Fred Langa asked 
you, our readers, to submit your opinions 
of the best and worst microcomputing 
trends or events, as well as your visions of 
the future of computing. The following 
letters are some of your responses. 

The best development is the IBM PC with 
its open architecture. The PC spawned 
an explosion in the use of personal com- 
puters. The power in the PC allowed 
many individuals to "do their thing" 
without having to be accountable for the 
time and money needed, because they 
did it on their own. 

The worst development is MS-DOS. 
While it was a pioneering effort and had 
some good features, much more work 
should have gone into the user interface. 

The future will bring more for less. 
Displays, memory, mass storage, print- 
ers, modems, and so on will provide bet- 
ter quality and performance for the 
price. Quality and support will mean 
something. The market will require 
companies to support what they sell. A 
total rejection of the look-and-f eel law- 
suits will produce technical advances. 

Standards will be developed by design 
rather than by default. These standards 
will ensure that the term compatible 
means something. 

By 1995, all software will have 
"smart" installation programs. PCs will 
be "aware" of the new software. Users 
will be able to select options by using 
menus, keywords, voice commands, and 
touch. The government will provide on- 
line database services at little or no 
charge. Text and video data compression 
standards, implemented in hardware, 
will provide immediate viewing with a 
limited bandwidth for communications. 
Computers that can talk and understand 
speech, and cost under $1000, will bene- 
fit deaf and blind people. 

By the year 2000, we will see very-low- 
power optical storage in the hundreds of 
gigabytes to permit a two-level disk ac- 
cess. Less-used programs and data will 
be "automagically" moved to the second 
level; frequently used files will reside in 
the smaller, faster first level. The system 
will manage disk storage transparently. 

A standard "data access" computer with 
a phone connection will replace the tele- 
phone. Education for any subject will be 
available electronically. It will be part of 
a national education system that provides 
access to any individual. You will be able 
to subscribe, using one source, to on-line 
data from all databases according to your 
area of interest. 

Very little or no distinction will exist 
between portable and home computers 
by 2005. Unplug your monitor, key- 
board, and local "ISDN-Net," and then 
pick up your computer and go. Low 
power consumption and rapid-recharge 
batteries will power personal computers 
for 24 hours. 

By 2010, all the above will be avail- 
able in one package, with software pre- 
configured to meet the needs of the aver- 
age family, for less than $1000. 

Dayne Walker 
Oronoco, MN 

The best developments over the last 15 
years are the emergence of very-large-in- 
struction-word processors, high-level 
languages such as Prolog, and concepts 
such as object-oriented programming 
and the Linda language. The worst was 
that it took so long. 

My wish list for the next five to 15 
years includes the following: 

• greater portability of software across 

• replacing the keyboard with a micro- 

• a high-resolution (32-bit), full-color, 
electroluminescent LCD touchscreen, 
with handwriting recognition abilities, 
to replace all pointing devices; 

double-space your letter on one side of the 
page and include your name and address. 
Letters two pages in length or under have a 
better chance of being published in their en- 
tirety. Address correspondence to Letters 
Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Pe- 
terborough, NH 03458. You can also send let- 
ters via BlXmailc/o "editors. " 

Your letter will be read, but because of the 
large volume of mail we receive, we cannot 
guarantee publication. We also reserve the 
right to edit letters. It takes about four months 
from the time we receive a letter until we pub- 
lish it. 

• mass storage with gigabyte capacity 
and no moving parts; 

• integrated telephone and computer 
and a worldwide commitment to 
broadband ISDN; and 

• computerized newspapers, books, 
dictionaries, encyclopedias, and the 
like, which would reduce the cost of 
publishing and make it possible for 
hypertext-like cross-referencing . 

T. Christiansen 
Copenhagen, Denmark 

What I want is simple: Immortality and 
infinite power. Lacking that, the more 
time I can save, the better; the more in- 
formation I can usefully obtain, the bet- 
ter; and the more fun I can have while 
doing both, the better. 

I will project a pair of reasonable 
bounds. Naturally, what I project will be 
wrong, because technological progress 
is not reasonable. First, the lower bound: 
a machine that costs no more than a 
month's pay for a middle-class home- 
owner—a family car kind of computer. 
By 2005, this machine will be 15 to 30 
times faster than an IBM AT and will 
have a math coprocessor, 16 megabytes 
of RAM, as much as 1 gigabyte of optical 
storage, a high-definition television 
(HDTV) screen, and full sound-synthe- 
sis ability. The main uses of family ma- 
chines today are text processing and 
games. In 1995, we'll be able to add 
household monitoring and security, 
database and home financial records, 
and limited communications. 

By 2000, most municipalities will 
have forced cable companies to install 
two-way amps. Wherever this occurs, 
there should be an explosion of remote 
services. By 2005, perhaps we will have 
the option of voting from home, if veri- 
fication technology has advanced far 

Second, the upper bound: a standard 
office computer for technical profession- 
als—a machine such as the one I call my 
"electric secretary." By 2005, this ma- 
chine will run more than 250 times faster 
than an IBM AT and have a math copro- 
cessor, 256 MB of RAM, 4 gigabytes of 
optical storage, an HDTV screen, and 
full sound-synthesis ability. 

By 1995, wherever two-way cable is 



Great Moments in C-Prograrnmer History 


Onthethirdday) Eeidentif kdthenecdf or an advanudproductiviiy toot. 

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Vermont Views GraphEx™ makes it easy 
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available, companies will become heavy 
users of remote data services. After that, 
it is all blue sky. Depending on the busi- 
ness climate, the nation— and perhaps 
many nations together— could become a 
gigantic wide-area network. 

Larry J. Van Stone 
Stillwater, OK 

Alan Huang's breakthrough in photonics 
and the computer on a chip are the two 
best computer developments over the last 
15 years. The U.S. losing world and do- 
mestic market share for semiconductors, 
computer manufacturing, and robots, as 
well as the threat of losing HDTV and 
supercomputer markets, are the worst 

What I want in the near future in- 
cludes an affordable laptop computer for 
work, learning, and leisure, and an af- 
fordable work/leisure multimedia win- 
dow. While I cannot always get away to 
enjoy the mountains here in Montana, I 
want technology to bring the mountains 
to me. As I work, I want an active win- 
dow on my monitor where I can choose 
the weather, the scenery, the location, 
and a TV channel. I also want to be able 
to play a game and to choose the color 
and music. This window would include 
interactive multimedia help for all com- 
puter programs. 

I believe that several technologies will 
be more fully developed. One is the at- 
tached computer— putting on your com- 
puter will be as common as putting on 
your clothes. Should it be attached as a 
vest? In the shoes? Or directly to the 

Implanted computers would never for- 
get a name of someone you met. Instant- 
ly, the implanted computer would be able 
to reveal the name of the individual and 
related information. 

Another development will be activat- 
ing computers and robots with body sig- 
nals. One look at the computer or robot 
would turn it on to perform tasks. Physi- 
cal and emotional body signals, such as 
temperature, cholesterol count, and 
stress levels, would activate computer- 
ized equipment and robots from a dis- 
tance. The computer would then prepare 
the environment to receive the human. 

Finally, interactive virtual reality will 
permit you to choose a role and make 
choices during a video or movie. 

Jeanette J. Bieber-Moses 
Billings, MT 

I would be delighted to contribute to 
BYTE's anniversary issue. I've often 
wondered how BYTE has gotten along 
without me for so long. I've been a devot- 

ed reader (off and on, to be honest) for 
nigh onto 10 years. I noticed that you've 
invited quite a few others— over a mil- 
lion—but I like big parties. 

The future of computing lies in com- 
puters providing friendly companion- 
ship. We will see expert-system shells 
preloaded with cultural literacy (includ- 
ing, e.g., some law, science, music, his- 
tory, and business), and with that elusive 
and sophisticated competence, common 
sense. Machines will be comfortably 
skilled at natural-language input and 

Each of us will have a computer that 
goes with us everywhere and gets to 
know us. It will provide instruction when 
wanted, play games (including simulat- 
ing and modeling our fantasies and cre- 
ative inspirations), and counsel us when 
we are down in the dumps. It will laugh 
at our jokes and be amazed, impressed, 
and outwitted as needed. It will also 
humbly (but with satisfying bouts of jeal- 
ousy) encourage us to be involved with 
other friends, relatives, our jobs, and 
the activities in life that make comput- 
ers worthwhile— or is it the other way 

Richard Crews 
San Rafael, CA 

Beyond the number games of bigger ma- 
chines with more speed for the buck, 
there will be a continued migration of 
functions into the operating system. The 
next candidates for this migration will 
probably be graphical user interfaces 
(GUIs) and databases. 

For those who program in compiled 
languages such as C, the operating sys- 
tem becomes the environment, and, me- 
diated through standard library routines, 
it is becoming possible to write high-per- 
formance software that uses almost any 
of a system's capabilities in a way that is 
portable to other machines. The GUI is 
the last needed piece for this to happen. 
It is easy to see why it came last; it is the 
most real-time and idiosyncratic of the 
interfaces, making it the hardest to stan- 

Just as file systems arrived a short 
generation after disk drives, databases 
are going to layer on top of the file sys- 
tems to provide a more general way to ac- 
cess all the objects in a computer. The re- 
source fork in Macintosh files is one 
early indication of the need. The basic 
idea is not that your file system will con- 
tain databases, but that it will be a data- 
base with the present directory tree 
structure as one index in it. 

This environment spells the end of the 
TSR approach, and it leads toward a more 

consistent look and feel as more of the 
user interface becomes a system service. 
But it doesn't tell where the exciting new 
applications will come from. For that, 
I'll keep reading BYTE. 

Eric Jensen 
Bedford, NH 

I would like to be able to wear my com- 
puter. I would like my computer's output 
to be a nearly seamless part of my senso- 
ry world. My computer should take its 
input directly from my nervous system . It 
should monitor and help maintain my 
bodily functions. Its use should extend 
my life, as its use enhances the quality of 
my life now. I don't want to be tied to a 
desk or a desk-like situation (as with a 
laptop) to be able to do all this neat stuff. 

This technology should lead to the de- 
struction of all forms of authoritarian- 
ism. Is that radical enough? 

The best developments in computers 
over the last 1 5 years have been the avail- 
ability of public domain and shareware 
software, without which I could not af- 
ford to do much computing, and BBSes— 
the ideal medium for all us ex-high 
school nerds. 

The worst developments have been the 
dominance of the segmented Intel archi- 
tecture and MS-DOS, which is really no 
friendlier than Unix, and the emergence 
of men and women with M.B.A.s, boring 
suits, and not the slightest trace of imag- 

Charles Bridgeland 
Urbana, IL 

Don't Forget CocoNet 

BYTE has done a truly outstanding job in 
the past in reporting breakthrough trends 
and new products. It was therefore with 
great disappointment that we noted our 
absence from your June article, "DOS 
and Unix: On Speaking Terms" by Tom 
Yager. It is especially surprising in light 
of the favorable review of our product, 
CocoNet, that you published in your Feb- 
ruary issue (Reviewer's Notebook). 

Our product is unique, and it has sev- 
eral key advantages to solutions noted in 
the article. It is not enough to provide a 
TCP/IP DOS LAN on Unix. This simply 
creates yet another "island of comput- 
ing" that is divorced from the main- 
stream of PC LANs, which are NetBIOS 
or IPX (NetWare) based. Moreover, what 
is really required is a high degree of inte- 
gration between Unix and DOS file sys- 
tems, peripherals, and applications. 
Unix users must see Unix, and DOS 
users must see a DOS environment, re- 
gardless of file or application location. 




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CocoNet provides a full NetBIOS 
LAN from any 386 or 486 Unix personal 
computer, integrating with existing 
Novell networks transparently. It runs on 
Ethernet, StarLAN, and Arcnet, and 
shortly will be released on Token Ring. 
It integrates with TCP/IP with NFS. It is 
smaller, faster, easier to install, and 
more reliable than TCP/IP solutions 
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Tandy TX Revisited 

James Erwin wrote with several very 
good questions about the Tandy 1000 TX 
in the May issue. While your responses 
concerning the 8-bit bus of the Tandy TX 
were correct, there was a major inaccura- 
cy in your description of the video capa- 

Pages 24 and 3 1 of the Tandy Practical 
Guide to the Tandy TX (which comes 
with every new Tandy TX) details the 
video interrupt switch and three other 
switches that the user can toggle. You can 
make the Tandy TX fully configurable 
for virtually any monitor by changing 
DIP switch 4. For example, I am using a 
multisync Super VGA monitor and a Par- 
adise 512K-byte VGA board on one 
Tandy TX. On another, I use a Hercules- 
compatible graphics card and a Tandy 
CM-5 high-resolution monochrome 

Quite a lot of controversy has sur- 
rounded the options available for the 
Tandy TX. The four interrupt switches 
toggle interrupts 5 through 7 and the 
video mode. I am using a Tandy TX, 
networked with Artisoft's LANtastic, 
which is running quite nicely. All I had 
to do was toggle interrupt 7 to allow the 
LAN cards to operate. 

William L. Kennon 
San Diego, CA 

Thank you for the clarification. 

—Lab Staff 

Computer- Aided Translation 

I have two questions. First, are there any 
programs available for translating text 
from one language to another? Second, 

could you please direct me to any desktop 

publishing clubs? My main interest is 

desktop publishing on Apple computers. 

Robert I. Feldman 

Lompoc, CA 

There are a number of language-transla- 
tion software packages out there. Trans- 
lation Support Systems from Automated 
Language Processing (P. O. Box 87819, 
Salt Lake City, UT 84108, (801) 584- 
3000) can handle words and phrases. 
Two packages from International Com- 
puter Products— Learn Spanish and 
Learn German— are for educational use. 
Contact International Computer Prod- 
ucts at 346 North Western Ave. , Los An- 
geles, CA 90004, (213) 462-8318. Also 
check out MultiTrans from Microlytics 
(Two Tobey Village Office Park, Pitts- 
ford, NY 14534, (716) 248-9150). PC 
Linguist from Microtrans (348 Turnstone 
Dr., Livermore, CA 94550, (415) 447- 
0596) supports only Russian-to-English- 
and-back as I am writing this. However, 
the company hopes to have added support 
for other languages by the time you read 
this. Give Microtrans a call and see. 

Last but certainly not least, if all you 
are looking for is automated word-at-a- 
time translation, there's always DAK's 
pocket Language Barrier Blaster, a 
hand-held calculator-style translator 
that "understands" English, French, 
German, Spanish, and Italian. Contact 
DAK Industries (8200 Remmet Ave. , 
Canoga Park, CA 91304, (800) 325- 

On the topic of desktop publishing 
clubs, try contacting the PC Publishers of 
Northern California at (415) 661-9270. 
Although you state that you are most in- 
terested in Apple software and these guys 
are MS-DOS-minded, perhaps someone 
there can direct you to an Apple-specific 
group.— R. G. 

Curious About Coprocessors 

We read with interest a recent Under the 
Hood in BYTE concerning the Cyrix 
CX-83D87 math coprocessor ("Math 
Coprocessors, " January). Could you 
provide us with more information? We 
are a small team of programmers, and 
we are looking for replacements for the 
Intel coprocessors (which, in Italy, cost 
an arm and a leg). We are also interested 
in further information about the IIT- 
2C87 and 3C87. 

Mannori Simone 
Florence, Italy 

For more information concerning the 
Cyrix coprocessor, contact Cyrix Corp. 
(1761 International Pkwy., Richardson, 

TX 75081, (214) 234-8388). Vm sure the 
people there would be happy to send you 
technical documentation. 

BYTE reviewed the IIT-2C87 copro- 
cessor in the September 1989 issue (Re- 
viewer's Notebook). Contact I IT at 2540 
Mission College Blvd., Santa Clara, CA 
95054, (408) 727-1885, for more infor- 
mation about its coprocessors. — R. G. 

Eternal Paper 

Do you know of a source for acid-free 
paper for computer printers and photo- 
copiers? Paper longevity is desirable be- 
cause you never know what information 
on hard copy will be important in the far 
future. A national heritage of data on 
paper disappears when 15- to 50-year- 
old paper crumbles. Because of the pres- 
ervation of the Warsaw telephone direc- 
tories by the New York Public Library, 
many of the survivors of the Holocaust 
were provided with their sole source of 
documentation for reparations. 

My science fiction collection, which I 
started in the 1960s, is rapidly deterio- 
rating. Although CD-ROM and electron- 
ic storage media have their advantages, 
books have their own peculiar random- 
access qualities that might never be 

Charles Knickerbocker 
East Lansing, MI 

There are probably others, but Finch, 
Pruyn & Co. of Glens Falls, New York, 
makes a full line of acid-free papers. 
Contact your local distribution house, 
and ask for Finch Laser Opaque or Finch 
Opaque Xerographic paper. 

There's another thing to remember 
about long-term paper storage: The print- 
ing itself may be adversely affected by ul- 
traviolet light or heat. After printing your 
literary gems on acid-free paper, make 
sure to store them in a dark, cool, dry 
place. Losing an important 15-year-old 
printed document can be tragic, but CD- 
ROM technology may prove to have some 
problems of its own. I have audio com- 
pact disks that date back to 1 983 that are 
no longer playable. I'd like to believe that 
the bad disks were simply a product of an 
immature manufacturing process. But 
until we know more about a CD's life 
span, I'm not ready to give up on paper, 
either.— H. E. 

Foreign Formats 

I often receive data on 5 l A -inch floppy 
disks from other laboratories. The data is 
either in ASCII files or a form of BASIC. 
While the disks are ostensibly formatted 
in an IBM -compatible fashion, I often 



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have difficulties reading them. Is there a 
program to help me read such disks? 

On another topic, what hypertext-like 
programs are available for IBM PC com- 

V . Ackerman 
St. Leonards, N. S. W. , Australia 

In response to your first question, I'm 
afraid you haven 't described your prob- 
lem clearly enough. I'm not sure what 
you mean by "difficulties. " Can you at 
least get a directory of the disk? If not, it 's 
likely that somebody's drive is out of 
alignment— either yours or the drive of 
whoever is sending you the disks. Try 
reading the disk on someone else's ma- 
chine. If you can do it, the sick drive is 
probably your own. 

Also, be certain that you are not trying 
to read a floppy disk formatted to a high- 
er density than your system can handle— 
you can 't read a 1. 2 -MB disk in a 360K- 
byte drive. 

You mention that the files may be 
BASIC files. Are you trying to read an in- 
terpreted BASIC program listing as you 
would read an ASCII file ? If so, you '11 see 
lots of strange characters, owing to the 
fact that BASIC "tokenizes "files when it 
saves them to disk. You can read the file 
by running your BASIC interpreter, enter- 
ing LOAD "<FILENAME> ", and typing 
in LIST. If you want to save the file in 
human-readable form, type SAVE "MY- 
FILE.BAS" ,A, which will copy an ASCII 
version of the program into the file MY- 

Finally, assuming none of the above 
suggestions works, you might try some 
form of disk utility software, such as the 
Norton Utilities. You '11 have to do some 
real coal-miner's duty to dig the data off 
the disk; it depends on how desperate you 
are to recoup the files. The Norton Util- 
ities are available from Peter Norton 
Computing, 100 Wilshire Blvd., Ninth 
Floor, Santa Monica, CA 90401, (213) 

And, yes, there are a number of hyper- 
text-like programs for the PC. Here are a 
few that you could look for: 


Owl International 
2800 156th Ave. SE 
Bellevue, WA 98007 
(206) 747-3203 

Samna, Inc. 
5600 Glenridge Dr. 
Glenride Center 
Atlanta, GA 30342 
(404) 851-0007 


Spinnaker Software 

One Kendall Sq. 

Cambridge, MA 02139 




2001 L St. NW, Suite 801 A 

Washington, DC 20036 

(202) 785-0770 

-R. G. 

Chickens, Eggs, and Compilers 

I am still amazed at compilers; how can a 
compiler translate a program into ma- 
chine language? Is the compiler con- 
structed using assembly language? If so, 
how do you make an assembler, such as 
Microsoft's Macro Assembler? Further- 
more, how do you create an operating 
system, since that must be built before 
anything else? 

Kabul Suwitaatmadja 
Bandung, Indonesia 

Your one-sentence questions would re- 
quire pages to compose an adequate re- 
sponse. I '11 handle those that I can here 
and then suggest some books that should 
get you the rest of the way. 

Currently, commercial compilers are 
written in high-level languages such as C 
or Pascal. Of course, since the source 
code for the compiler has to be compiled 
by another compiler, you 're understand- 
ably led into a chicken-and-egg question: 
Who wrote the first compiler? 

Although there was no single primor- 
dial compiler, it is true that in the prepu- 
bescent days of the digital computer, 
most work was done in machine lan- 
guage. Programmers sat in front of a 
panel of switches and toggled bit patterns 
in one memory location at a time. (In 
fact, when IBM released FORTRAN , cir- 
ca 1957, the company had to embark on a 
large sales campaign to convince its ma- 
chine-language-entrenched customers of 
the benefits of a high-level language.) 
You can get a taste of what it must have 
been like to put a high-level language to- 
gether in machine language by scanning 
through early issues of Dr. Dobbs Jour- 
nal of Computer Calesthenics and Orth- 
odontia, where you '11 find the source 
code for Tiny BASIC (a later version of 
Tiny BASIC for the 68000 appeared in a 
more recent issue). Granted, that limited 
version of BASIC ran on CP/M machines, 
but I have seen a Tiny BASIC for MS-DOS 
available from several of the public do- 
main and shareware software houses. 

For further reading in compiler con- 

struction, I suggest Programming Lan- 
guage Translation: A Practical Approach 
by Patrick D. Terry (Reading, MA: Addi- 
son-Wesley, 1986) and Compiler Design 
in C by Allen I. Holub (Englewood 
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990). 

For information concerning the design 
and implementation of operating systems, 
look for Operating Systems: Design and 
Implementation by Andrew S. Tanen- 
baum (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- 
Hall, 1987).— R. G. 

They Just Fade Away 

I have a problem with the plasma screen 
on my Ogivar Technologies 286 laptop 
computer: It's dying. When the problem 
first appeared a few months ago, it was 
negligible. Only a few pixels on the edge 
of the screen were dead (i.e., dark spots 
appeared on the orange screen). Recent- 
ly, the situation has deteriorated rapidly. 
About one-half of the screen is affected 
with the dying pixels. It looks as though 
someone left finger scratches all over it. 
Characters in the affected areas are only 
partially visible, which makes them dif- 
ficult to read. Can you help? 

Brett Cui 
New York, NY 

You 're not alone with your dying plasma 
screen. A number of plasma screens are 
dying a similar death; it largely depends 
on the quality of the individual manufac- 
turing runs. 

I asked Ogivar about your computer, 
the Ogivar 286 System 4, and the people 
there haven 't heard about any of their 
screens dying like that. I would encour- 
age you to return the unit to them for re- 
pair. Contact Ogivar at 7200 Trans-Can- 
ada Hwy. , Ville-Saint Laurent, Quebec, 
Canada H4T 1A3. Call the company first 
at (514) 737-3340 to make arrangements. 
Your unit apparently has a one-year war- 
ranty, and you may be able to arrange a 
warranty repair, even if it's past the per- 
iod. Ogivar 's customer-support people 
were sympathetic to your problem and 
seemed eager to resolve it. — H . E . 


The lapAdapt plug adapter listed in the 
May What's New section allows devices 
with a standard American three-blade 
grounded plug to be connected to British 
and European grounded plugs while 
maintaining the integrity of the ground. 
It doesn't function as a current adapt- 
er/converter. ■ 


Announcing a First in Data Acquisition Software. 

TFnInag(CH08,CH88> :Hor 

3 P !*sdb Pha«e(CHW,CH8e»8,592):lfcmB 4 

Ml hlAki hi. A Irtl 


Sn.i-iL ««sn(CHBe,CH80.e,592):ltenB 61 

Throughput and Ease of Use. 
Without Compromise. 

Data Acquisition 

■ Selection of channel, gain, clock source, clock 
rate, and trigger for analog input operations 

■ Selection of DAC, clock source, clock rate, and 
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■ Errorless data transfers to/from hard disk or 
memory at speeds up to 250kHz 

■ Digital I/O and counter/timer operations 

■ Supports DT2831, DT2821, OT2801 and 
DT2901 series boards 

Signal Processing with 
STATPACK ™ Module 

■ FFT; inverse FFT; auto spectrum; cross 
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function; Hamming, Hanning, or Blackman 

■ Bessel, Butterworth, or Chebyshev filters; low- 
pass, high-pass, bandpass, bandstop, or 
allpass; even order (second to tenth); arbitrary 

■ Arithmetic operations,- logical AND, OR; loga- 
rithmic, trigonometric functions; squares and 
square roots; bit mask; scaling; signal generation 


■ Display data at maximum resolution of 
graphics adapter 

■ Display data during acquisition 

■ Display files up to 100 windows 

■ Browse large files rapidly 

Select, label, and scale display 

Display titles, gridlines, move axes 

Perform statistical analysis 

Import/export data files from/to other 
industry-standard software packages 

-Fred Molinari, President 

At last, no more software trade-offs! GLOBAL LAB" provides fast 
and easy-to-use mouse/menu control of data acquisition and signal processing 
functions, while fully supporting the industry's fastest throughput rates. 

So, if you're looking for software that will fully support Data 
Translation, IBM PC and PS/2 Series I/O boards, look to GLOBAL LAB. It's 
the only software that won't compromise your position. 

Call (508) 481-3700 

In Canada, (800) 268-0427 



World Headquarters: Data Translation, Inc., 100 Locke Drive, Marlboro, MA 01752-1192 USA, (508) 481-3700, Fax (508) 481-8620, Tlx 951646 

United Kingdom Headquarters: Data Translation Ltd., The Mulberry Business Park, Wokingham, Berkshire RG11 2QJ, U.K., (734) 793838, Fax (734) 776670, Tlx 94011914 

West Germany Headquarters: Data Translation GmbH, Stuttgarter Strasse 66, 7120 Bietigheim-Bissengen, West Germany 7142-54025, Fax 7142-64042 

International Sales Offices: Australia (2) 662-4255; Belgium (2) 466-8199; Canada (416) 625-1907; China (1) 868-721 x4017; Denmark 42 27 45 11; Finland (0) 3511800; France (1) 69077802; Greece (1) 361-4300; 

Hong Kong (5) 448963; India (22) 23-1040; Israel 52-545685; Italy (2) 82470.1; Japan (3) 502-5550, (3) 5379-1971, (3) 355-1111; Korea (2) 718-9521; Netherlands (70) 399-6360; New Zealand (64) 9-545313;Norway (2) 

53 12 50; Portugal (1) 545313; Singapore 7797621; South Africa (12) 803-7680; Spain (1) 555-8112; Sweden (8) 761 78 20; Switzerland (1) 723-1410; Taiwan (2) 3039836 

GLOBAL LAB and STATPACK are trademarks and Data Translation is a registered trademark of Data Translation, Inc. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective holders. 

Circle 83 on Reader Service Card 

What's New 



Portables Feature 
Color and Desktop 

Full-color VGA 386 porta- 
bles are now available from 
several manufacturers. 

The new Dauphin has a 
high-contrast, active-ma- 
trix (or thin-film transistor) 
LCD screen like the Macintosh 
Portable. But the Dauphin 
system takes the technology a 
step further with a just-re- 
leased color LCD combined 
with fluorescent backlighting 
by Hitachi. 

The Dauphin system is an 
18-pound 386SX laptop. It fea- 
tures a 3 ! /2-inch 1 .44-MB 
floppy disk drive, a 20-MB 
hard disk drive, and a 92-key 
Price: $9995. 

Contact: Dauphin Technol- 
ogy, Inc., 1125 East St. 
Charles Rd., Lombard, IL 
60148, (708) 627-4004. 
Inquiry 1120. 

For a portable with color 
and 386/486 performance, 
Dolch Computer Systems of- 
fers the Hitachi thin-film tran- 
sistor, active-matrix color 
screen with its new 386 TFT- 
Color Portable and 486 TFT- 

Color graphics and your choice of 386 or 486 performance are 
combined in the 20-pound Dolch portable. 

Color Portable. Each system 
weighs about 20 pounds. 

Standard features on the 
25-MHz 386 TFT-Color Porta- 
ble include 32K bytes of 
RAM cache, 2 MB of RAM, 
and a 5 ^-inch floppy disk 
drive. The 25-MHz 486 TFT- 
Color Portable includes 8K 
bytes of RAM cache, 2 MB of 
RAM, and a 5 '-4-inch floppy 
disk drive. 

Price: 386, $11,990; 486, 

Contact: Dolch Computer 
Systems, 2029 OToole Ave, 
San Jose, C A 95 13 1,(408) 
Inquiry 1121. 

The Sun Moon 
Star CD-ROM 
system comes 
bundled with 
eight CD-ROM 
disks and a 40- 
MB hard disk 
drive packed 
with conventional 

If you need a lower-cost 
386 portable and can forgo 
color, you might consider the 
MP200 from Micronics. The 
25-MHz 386 measures 4 by 
16 by 14 l A inches, weighs 14 
pounds, and has a 10-inch 
640- by 480-pixel backlit LCD 
or gas-plasma display. 

Standard features include 
1 MB of RAM (expandable to 
8 MB) and 32K bytes of 
cache memory. Also included 
are a 40-MB 25-ms hard disk 
drive and a 3 V6-inch 1 .44-MB 
floppy disk drive. 
Price: $6500. 
Contact: Micronics Com- 
puters, Inc., 232 Warren Ave., 
Fremont, CA 94539, (415) 
Inquiry 1122. 

Sun Moon Star 
Bundles CD-ROM, 
Disks, and 286 

The Sun Moon Star CD- 
ROM system consists of a 
12-MHz 286 with 2 MB of 
RAM, a 40-MB hard disk 
drive, two-channel audio out- 
put, a 14-inch color VGA 
monitor, and a CD-ROM 

The CD-ROM drive comes 
with automatic installation 
software along with Micro- 
soft Bookshelf, Microsoft 
Small Business Consultant, 
Microsoft Stat Pak, Hotline II 
Executive, Software Tool- 
works Illustrated Encyclope- 
dia, Software Toolworks 
World Atlas, Software Tool- 
works CD Game Pack, and 
the CD Audio Guide. 

The hard disk drive comes 
preloaded with DOS 3.3, 
GEM/3 Desktop, GEM 
Draw, PFS: First Choice, and 
Price: $2995. 
Contact: Sun Moon Star, 
Personal Computer Division, 
1941 Ring wood Ave., San 
Jose, CA 95131, (408) 
Inquiry 1123. 

386SX Touchscreen 

7-pound 16-MHz 386SX 
portable without a keyboard. 
You enter information via the 
VGA-resolution touchscreen 
that you use like a clipboard, 
saving completed forms on a 
3 V* -inch 1.44-MB floppy 
disk drive, a 40-MB hard disk 
drive, or a 120-MB hard disk 

Standard features of this 
12%- by 10- by 2%-inch porta- 
ble include 1 MB of RAM 
(expandable to 16 MB), a par- 
allel port, a serial port, a 4- 
hour battery, and DR DOS. 
The system also comes with 
an application-generator soft- 
ware package. 
Price: Floppy disk version, 
$5995; with 40-MB hard disk 
drive, $6995; with 120-MB 
hard disk drive, $7995. 
Contact: MicroSlate, Inc., 
P.O. Box 2207, Stamford, CT 
Inquiry 1124. 




Tiny Printer Doesn't 


on Paper or Speed 

The BJ-lOe is an inexpen- 
sive 4-pound portable 
printer that lets you use stan- 
dard 8 Vi -inch- wide paper in- 
stead of hard-to-handle ther- 
mal paper. It uses a 64-nozzle 
bubble- jet print head and 
snap-in ink cartridges that 
each print about 700,000 
characters in a high-quality 

If you're in a hurry, the 
BJ-lOe prints in both direc- 
tions at up to 360 dpi. It emu- 
lates both the IBM Proprinter 
X24E and the Canon BJ-130e 
and offers a high-quality mode 
in which it can print at up to 
83 cps. The input buffer is 3K 
bytes with an additional 34K 
bytes reserved for fonts. You 
connect it to your computer's 
parallel port, and it draws 
power from its included Im- 
pound AC adapter or from an 
optional battery. 

Pitch selection includes 
10, 12, or 17 cpi in addition 
to proportional spacing. The 
printer measures 12% by 8J4 
by 1% inches. 

Price: $499; print cartridge, 
$25; battery, $50. 
Contact: Canon USA, Inc., 
Printer Division, One Canon 
Plaza, Lake Success, NY 
Inquiry 1125. 

Nisca's Gray-Scale 
Scanner Fits 
in Your Hand 

The Niscan/GS is a hand- 
held scanner that can scan 
up to 256 levels of gray with 
hardware gray scaling and at 

Canon 's BJ-lOe printer is small, inexpensive, and light. 

resolutions of from 25 dpi up 
to 400 dpi in either 16 or 256 
levels of gray. The width of 
the scanning window is 454 
inches, and the unit can scan 
images up to 1 1 inches long. 

The scanner comes with an 
interface board for the IBM PC 
and GEM-based scanner con- 
trol software. The software of- 
fers a number of advanced 
gray-scale editing capabilities: 
adjustment of image bright- 
ness and contrast without hav- 
ing to rescan; scaling, crop- 
ping, and cutting and pasting; 
flipping, rotating, and zoom- 
ing; and paint tools for touch- 
ing up. It also lets you gam- 
ma-correct images (gamma 
correction is a technique for 
globally adjusting individual 
shades within an image to en- 
hance details or tone down 
bright areas). You can save 
images as PCX, IMG, or TIFF 

Price: $369. 

Contact: Nisca, Inc., 1919 
Old Denton Rd., Suite 104, 
Carrollton, TX 75006, (800) 
Inquiry 1126. 

Cheaper Color 
PostScript Printing 
with Seiko Unit 

The ColorPoint PS is a 
thermal-transfer printer 
built around a controller 
based on Intel's i960 RISC 
processor. For a PostScript 
interpreter, it uses Phoenix- 
Page from Phoenix Tech- 

The unit prints at 300 dpi 
and comes with five communi- 
cations interfaces: serial, 
parallel, AppleTalk, and two 
SCSI. The system scans each 
port looking for data from the 
different computers. It also 
comes with 35 LaserWriter 
NT -equivalent fonts. 

The ColorPoint PS comes 
with 6 MB of memory. The 
standard ColorPoint PS 
prints an 8^- by 10% o -inch 
image on an 8V2- by 1 1-inch 
page. The printer also comes 
in an optional B size that can 
print images as big as 10% by 
16% inches. 
Price: $6999; B size, $9999. 


Your new product is important to us. Please address information to 
New Products Editors, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. Better yet, use your modem and mail new 
product information to the microbytes.hw or microbytes.sw 
conferences on BIX. Please send the product description, price, 
ship date, and an address and telephone number where readers can 
get more information. 

Contact: Seiko Instruments 
USA, Inc., Graphic Devices 
and Systems Division, 1130 
Ringwood Court, San Jose, 
CA 95131, (408) 922-5800. 
Inquiry 1127. 

Device Makes 
Photographic Prints 

The UP-3000 color 
printer produces near- 
photographic-quality 4- by 3- 
inch prints with 256 levels of 
color from a palette of more 
than 16 million colors. You can 
use the device, which is about 
the size of a 9-pin printer, to 
print from your computer 
(via the RS-232C port) or from 
RGB analog, composite 
video, and still video devices. 

Using a dye-transfer ther- 
mal printing technique with 
5 12 elements on the thermal 
head, the UP-3000 can pro- 
duce full-size 4- by 3-inch 
images, four images on the 
same sheet, or 25 "thumb- 
nail-size" images on a single 
page. It takes about 80 sec- 
onds to produce a print, wheth- 
er you're simply printing 
from the screen or from a pic- 
ture (i.e., making a mirror 
image), or whether you've 
added comments to the prints 
outside the picture area. 

Standard equipment on the 
17- by 5- by 17 V4 -inch printer 
includes front-panel controls, 
remote control, 40 sheets of 
printing paper, and a menu- 
driven monitor display. You 
can adjust image and color 
with controls for separate red/ 
green/blue mixing, sharp- 
ness, picture focus, brightness, 
and hue. 
Price: $3895. 
Contact: Sony Corp. of 
America, Sony Dr. , Park 
Ridge, NJ 07656, (201) 
Inquiry 1128. 


SEPTEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 43 



A D D - I N S 

Modules Convert 
386 Systems 
to 486 Systems 

Interested in high-speed 
i486-based systems? Two com- 
panies have i486 CPU mod- 
ules that plug into your 386 
motherboard and let you take 
advantage of the i486. 

The new Trans486PX 
CPU Translator Module 
from TransComputer is a 
small (2V2- by 2 1 /2-inch) board 
that has all the circuitry 
needed to make a 386 system 
think it is talking to an ordi- 
nary, if somewhat fast, 386. 
The manufacturer claims that 
the module can deliver a three- 
to fivefold increase in 

But the module may not 
work right away with every 
386-based system. Trans- 
Computer says that right now it 
works only with "standard" 
386-based machines, including 
most systems that use Chips 
& Technologies chip sets. Not 
included in this standard list, 
however, are computers from 
IBM, Compaq, AST, Ad- 
vanced Logic Research, and 

Price: Without an i486, 
$486; with an i486, $1686. 
Contact: TransComputer, 
Inc., 1257 Tasman Dr., 
Sunnyvale, CA 94089, (408) 
Inquiry 1129. 

According to Feith Sys- 
tems, the Feith 486 Gold 
Card, an i486 CPU module 
for your AT&T WGS 386, lets 
your existing software run 
from two to four times faster 
and is compatible with all 
DOS and Unix software. 

The module also features 
an on-chip floating-point pro- 

CPU modules from TransComputer and Feith Systems can add 
486 performance to your 386-based system. 

cessor, a memory cache, and 

8K bytes of unified code and 

data cache. 

Price: $5295. 

Contact: Feith Systems and 

Software, Inc., One Bala 

Plaza, East Lobby, Bala 

Cynwyd, PA 19004, (215) 


Inquiry 1130. 

Your Graphics 

An inexpensive way to 
quickly display graphics 
on VGA and higher-resolu- 
tion monitors is by using Num- 
ber Nine Computer's Graph- 

ics Xccelerator in conjunction 
with a video controller. In 
VGA mode, the #9GX is as 
much as 25 times faster than 
VGA cards without a graphics 

Each #9GX has a 60-MHz 
TMS34010 processor, 512K 
bytes to 2 MB of video 
RAM, and up to 4 MB of 
DRAM. It speeds graphics 
on computers with ISA and 
EISA buses and is compatible 
with screen resolutions ranging 
from standard VGA (640 by 
480 pixels) up to 1280 by 1024 
pixels with 256 colors. It can 
also address a bit map as large 
as 4096 by 4096 pixels. You 
can increase the resolution, 
color depth, and speed by 
adding more memory and 
changing the driver. 
Price: $895. 
Contact: Number Nine 
Computer Corp., 725 Concord 
Ave., Cambridge, MA 
02138, (800) 438-6463 or 
(617) 492-0999. 
Inquiry 1134. 


VGA Boards Reduce Eyestrain 

Several manufacturers have 
introduced VGA controllers 
that are designed to reduce 
eyestrain, with refresh rates 
of between 70 and 75 Hz 
rather than the customary 56 
or 60 Hz. 

The Sigma VGA Legend, 
with a refresh rate of 72 
Hz, displays graphics at 
1024 by 768 pixels, 800 by 
600 pixels, and 640 by 480 
pixels. Each board includes 
512K bytes of RAM and is 
user-expandable to 1 MB 
(for high-resolution display 
with 256 colors). 

Supported monitors in- 
clude the Nanao FlexScan 
9070, NEC's MultiSync 4D 
and 5D, Sony's CPD-1304, 
Mitsubishi's Diamond Scan 
16L and 20L, Hitachi's Hi- 
Scan 20, and the Relisys 

Price: $449; 1-MB version, 


Contact: Sigma Designs, 

Inc., 46501 Landing Pkwy., 

Freemont, CA 94538, (415) 


Inquiry 1131. 

Genoa Systems says that 
its Super VGA control- 
ler cards provide flicker- free 
resolution using anew appli- 
cation-specific IC chip. The 
company's 16-bit (Model 
6400A) and Micro Channel 
architecture (Model 6600A) 
graphics controller cards 
provide 70- to 75-Hz screen 
refresh rates at a screen reso- 
lution of up to 1024 by 768 

Price: Model 6400A, $499; 
Model 6600A, $549. 
Contact: Genoa Systems, 
Corp. , 75 East Trimble Rd. , 
San Jose, CA 95131, (408) 

Inquiry 1132. 

Tatung's inexpensive 
OmniVGA/HR video 
controller cards offer a 70- 
Hz vertical operating fre- 
quency, 1024- by 768-pixel 
resolution, and backward 
compatibility with Super 
Hercules, and Monochrome 
Display Adapter monitors. 

Model 512 can concur- 
rently display up to 256 
colors; Model 256 can dis- 
play up to 16 simultaneous 

Price: OmniVGA/HR-256, 
$289; OmniVGA/HR-512, 

Contact: Tatung Company 
of America, Inc., 2850 El 
Presidio St., Long Beach, 
CA 90810, (213) 979-7055. 
Inquiry 1133. 


DBMS Case Study: 

Security for the Goodwill Games M 

The Problem 

The 1 990 Goodwill Games: 
2500 athletes in 22 events at 
15 locations, drawing hundreds of thousands to watch 
them perf oim A show-place for international good- 
will. A potential target for terrorists. A challenge for 
security agencies. 

With only 3,000 off-duty officers to fill 30,000 as- 
signments, there's no room for confusion in scheduling. 
And scheduling must respond to last m inute changes, 
as event times slip, as dignitaries arrive on short notice, 
or as threats arise. Hand-schedu ling can't meet the 
challenge. But the Games' Integrated Police Planning 
Group (IPPG) found that no automated system had 
ever been developed for securing such events. 

Automated Manpower 
On-line Scheduling 

The Application 

(AMOS) matches personnel to scheduling require- 
ments, taking into account special training, language 
skills, and other factors. AMOS prepares an assign- 
ment sheet for each individual, explaining the 
assignment, when and where to report, how to get 
there - even where to park. 

AMOS responds to changes quickly. The database 
is large and complex, yet thanks to the innovative 


Database Management System 


combined technology of the 
underlying db_VIST A 
database engine, search, 
match, and update times are 
negligible. Data integrity is 
assured by avoiding data 
redundancy. That means 
the information is reliable. 

The Solution 

AMOS was created by 

Raima's services subsidiary, 

Vista Development Corp., 

using the dbJVISTA III 

DBMS. "We looked for 

months for a database that 

was fast, flexible, and could handle a huge volume of data 

while still maintaining speed," said Sgt. Alan Bernstein of the 

IPPG. "We also wanted to find a company that could not only 

furnish the product, but provide the development services." 

They discovered Raima and db_VISTA III. 

Your end users may not be fighting terrorists, but they still 
need fast, reliable information to get their jobs done. If you 
develop applications for MS-DOS, MS Windows, UNIX, 
QNX, OS/2, VMS, Macintosh, and other environments, 
db VISTA III is the solution. 

Command center personnel can 
adjust schedules without delay or 
confusion, thanks to dh_VlST'A Ill's 
ability to handle large volumes of 
data with speed and accuracy. 

High performance. C language portability. 
Complete C source code available. No royalties. 

Network data model. Relational B-tree indexing. Relational SQL query and report writer. 
Single & multi-user. Automatic recovery. Built-in referential integrity. Complete schema 
revision capability. Supports: VMS, UNIX, QNX, SunOS, XENIX, Macintosh. MS-DOS. 
MS Windows. OS/2 compatible. Most C Compilers and LANs supported. 

Call 1-800-db-RAIMA 

Circle 331 on Reader Service Card 




Raima Corporation 3245 146th Place S.E., Bellevue, WA 98007 USA (206)747-5570 Telex: 6503018237 MCI UW FAX: (206)747-1991 

International Distributers: Australia: 61 24197177 Brazil: 5 5 1 1 829 1 687 Central America: 506 28 07 64 Denmark: 45 4 2 887249 France: 33 I 46092784 Italy: 3 945 58471 1 .Japun: 
813 473 7432 Mexico: 52 83 49 53 00 The Netherlands: 3 1 02159 46 814 Norway: 47 244 8855 Sweden: 46 013 124780 Switzerland: 41 64 517475: Taiwan: 886 2 552 3277 Turkey: 90 1 152 0516 
United Kingdom: 44 0992 500919 Uruguay: 598 2-92 0959 USSR: 01 32 35 99 07: 812 292 19 65; 0142 437952 West Germany: 49 07127 5244 Copyright ©1990 Raima Corporation. All rights reserved 

'" "Gtitutwill Games'' is a trademark of the Turner Broadcasting Company, db is registered in the U.S. Patent atidTradeinark Office. 

The IBM RISC System/ 

Designing on any other workstation 

Whatever you Ye creating, you'll sail into a whole 
new age with any of the lour POWERstations in the 
RISC System/6000 
family. Because 
POWER (Perform- 
ance Optimization 
With Enhanced RISC) 
processing can give 
you performance 
you've probably only 
dreamed about: 

up to four instructions per machine cycle, 42 MI PS 
and 13 M FLOPS. Suddenly, complex designs don't 
take eons anymore. 

The four RISC System/6000 POWERstations 
feature a range of graphics processors from grayscale 
to Supergraphics to satisfy any graphics demand. 
Great news for Power Seekers working on animation, 
scientific visualization, medical imaging and engi- 
neering solutions like CADAM7 CAEDS™ and CATIA! 
And for electrical design automation, there's IBM's 
all new CBDS™ and an arsenal of over 60 EDA appli- 

IBM is a registered trademark and RISC System/6000 and CAEDS are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. CADAM is a trademark of CADAM INC. CATIA is a 

trademark of Dassault Systemes. CBDS is a trademark of Bell Northern Research Corporation. 

HAGAR THE HORRIBLE Character(s) © 1990 King Features Syndicate. Inc.© IBM Corp. 1990, all rights reserved 

6000" family. 

will seem downright primitive. 


cations from more than a dozen vendors. 

With every POWERstation, you can get an almost 
unimaginable palette of 16 million colors, which gives 
you 3 D images so realistic, they fairly leap off the 
screen,with super sharp resolution of 1,280x1,024 pixels. 
And when its time to call in the heavy artillery, the 
POWERstation 730 draws nearly one million 3D vec- 
tors per second. Like all POWERstations, it can come 
complete with its own graphics processor, freeing the 
POWER processor to rapidly create and analyze your 
designs. All at prices that won't sink anybody's budget. 

So if you're tired of paddling upstream with 
yesterday's performance, call your IBM marketing 
representative or 
Business Partner to 
find out more about 
the RISC System/6000 
family. For literature, 
call 1 800 JBM-6676, 

Civilization never 
looked so good. 

For the Power Seeker. 

^V ^r— — 

Circle 141 on Reader Service Card 



Share a PostScript 
Printer Among PCs 
and Macs 

If you need to connect both 
PCs and Macs to a single 
PostScript printer, you 
should consider Bridgeport, 
a small peripheral from 
Extended Systems. 

Macintoshes connect to 
Bridgeport through the Local- 
Talk interface (which sup- 
ports up to 3 1 Macs), and as 
many as two PCs can connect 
through the serial and parallel 
interfaces. Integrated Laser- 
Writer emulation lets your Mac 
print PostScript files to 
non- Apple printers. 

Bridgeport supports sev- 
eral printers, including Hew- 
lett-Packard's II, IID, and III 
printers equipped with a Post- 
Script cartridge; IBM Laser- 
Printers equipped with Post- 
Script; QMS PS810 Turbo 
printers; Apple LaserWriter 
IINT and IINTX printers; 
and other compatibles. 
Price: $495. 

Contact: Extended Systems, 
Inc., 6123 North Meeker Ave., 
Boise, ID 83704, (208) 
Inquiry 1135. 

One BridgePort lets you inexpensively share a PostScript printer 
among two PCs and as many as 31 Macs. 

"Camera" Prints on 
a PostScript Printer 

The Dycam 1GS is a bat- 
tery-operated still- video 
camera you use to take pic- 
tures, display and edit them on 
your Mac, and print them on 
your PostScript printer. Dy- 
cam plans to introduce a PC 
version later this year. 
The charge-coupled device 

operates much the same as an 
ordinary film camera. You 
point and shoot, and an audio- 
output shutter click confirms 
that you've captured the 
image. The Dycam 1GS has 
shutter speeds of 1 /30 to 
1/1000 second, depth of field 
from 2 feet to infinity, a "per- 
fect portrait" field of view, 
and a variety of beeps to signal 
that you're about to take a 
bad picture, that the Dycam 's 
battery is low, and other 

Two New Cartridges for Your LaserJet Printers 

The Charisma cartridge, 
for all Hewlett-Packard 
LaserJet printers, lets you 
plug in up to four extra sin- 
gle-chip modules to add 
functions to your printer. 

It contains all the font and 
symbol sets from the stan- 
dard HP A-through-Z font 
cartridges, as well as a num- 
ber of additional symbols 
and fonts (including extra 
large). Elite has announced 
12 modules for Charisma, 
including traditional type- 

The company also plans to 
provide a service to allow 
you to place any graphics 

image on a module. Images 
include company logos, let- 
terhead, or other commonly 
used and complex figures. 
Price: $399; modules, $99 
to $149. 

Contact: Elite Business Ap- 
plications, 28 Route 3 North, 
Millersville, MD 21108, 
(800) 942-0018 or (301) 
Inquiry 1138. 

Pacific Outlines I and II 
are font cartridges for 
your LaserJet III printer that 
Pacific Data Products 
claims are better than and 
cost one-third the price of 

Hewlett-Packard's outline 

Together, the font car- 
tridges contain 5 1 typefaces, 
which are selectable up to 
999.75 points in quarter- 
point increments. They in- 
corporate fast Intellifont 
font-scaling technology and 
are fully compatible with 
LaserJet III drivers used 
with the HP scaling-font 
Price: $299 each. 
Contact: Pacific Data Prod- 
ucts, Inc., 9125 Rehco Rd., 
San Diego, CA 92 12 1,(619) 
Inquiry 1139. 


After you snap your pic- 
tures, you drop the unit into a 
cradle that connects it to your 
computer's serial port. Soft- 
ware running on the Mac in- 
cludes a menu selection for 
uploading the images at a rate 
of about 20 seconds per photo- 
graph. You can then display 
and edit the image using such 
packages as Digital Dark- 

Maximum image quality is 
rated as 376 by 240 pixels in 
256 shades of gray. The unit 
weighs 10 ounces. 

Optional accessories in- 
clude a kit with a recharger, 
another recharger that plugs 
into an automobile cigarette 
lighter, and a laptop cable 
and cable adapter. 
Price: $995. 

Contact: Dycam, Inc., 9546 
Topanga Canyon Blvd . , Chats- 
worth, CA 91311, (818) 
Inquiry 1136. 

Turn One Parallel 
Port into Two 

The Parallel Port Multi- 
plexer is a tiny device that 
turns a single parallel port 
into two, complete with a 1K- 
byte TSR program to assign 
the ports to peripherals and 
a 6-inch cable. 

Manufacturer Xircom de- 
signed the 3 Vi -ounce device so 
that laptop users could simul- 
taneously use a printer and its 
Pocket LAN adapters for 
Ethernet and Token Ring net- 
working. But the Multiplexer 
is compatible with all parallel 
peripherals that need a DB- 
25 interface. The Parallel Port 
Multiplexer measures 2% by 
2 1 / 2 by 1% inches. 
Price: $95. 

Contact: Xircom, Inc., 
22231 Mulholland Hwy., Suite 
114, Woodland Hills, CA 
Inquiry 1137. 



.'.IP rti \ 

Instant Mainframe. Just Add SCO. 

Not too long ago, a few dozen people sharing the same pro- 
grams, resources, and information on a single computer at 
the same time meant only one thing — a mainframe. 

Powerful, big, expensive, and proprietary. 

More recently, the same people could be found doing exactly the 
same things — simultaneously sharing programs, resources, and 
information — on a minicomputer. 

A lot cheaper, a lot smaller, yet powerful enough to do the same 
jobs. And just as proprietary. 

Then along came the latest generation of personal computers. 
And now, the same people are more and more likely to be 
found doing exactly the same things — simultaneously sharing 
programs, resources, and information — on a PC. 

And not a whole officeful of PCs networked together, either, but 
a single PC powering the whole office at once. 

A lot cheaper, a lot smaller, yet still easily powerful enough to do 
the same jobs. Built to non-proprietary, open system standards 
that allow complete freedom of choice in hardware and software. 

And running the industry-choice multiuser, multitasking UNIX® 
System V platform that gives millions of 286- and 386-based PC 
users mainframe power every business day. 

The UNIX System standard for PCs— SCO." 

The SCO family of UNIX System software solutions is available for all 80286-, 
80386-, and 804 86 -based industry-standard and Micro C banner'* computers. 

IIMX is a registered trademark of AT&T. SCO and die SCO logo are trademarks of The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. Microsoft and XENIX are registered 
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. OS/2 and Micro Channel are trademaita of International Business Madiines Corporation. 1-2-3 is a registered 
trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. dHASE II] PLUS is a registered tiademark of Ashton-Tate. 1/89 

©1989 The Santa Criu Operation, Inc., 400 Encinal Street, P.O. Box 1900, Santa Cruz, California 95061 USA 

The Santa Cru2 Operation, Ltd, Croxley Centre. Hatteis Une, Watford WDI 8YN, United Kingdom, +44 (0)923 816344, FAX: +44 (0)923 817781, 
TELEX: 917372 mm c 

Today, SCO UNIX System solutions are installed on more than 
one in ten of all leading 386 computers in operation worldwide. 

Running thousands of off-the-shelf XENIX® and UNIX System-based 
applications on powerful standard business systems supporting 32 
or even more workstations — at an unbelievably low cost per user. 
And with such blazing performance that individual users believe 
they have the whole system to themselves. 

Running electronic mail across the office — or around the world — 
in seconds. 

Running multiuser PC communications to minis and mainframes 
through TCP/IP and SNA networks. 

And doing some things that no mainframe — or even DOS- or 
.OS/2 "based PC — ever thought about, such as running multiple 
DOS applications. Or networking DOS, OS/2, XENIX and UNIX 
Systems together. Or running UNIX System versions and workalikes 
of popular DOS applications such as Microsoft® Word, 1-2-3®, and 

Or even letting users integrate full-featured multiuser productivity 
packages of their choice under a standard, friendly menu interface. 

Today's personal computer isn't just a "PC" anymore, and you can 
unleash its incredible mainframe-plus power for yourself — today. 

Just add SCO. 

For more information, call SCO today and ask for ext. 8562. 


(800) SCO-UNIX (726-8649) 

(408) 425-7222 

FAX: (408) 458-4227 

[•-MAIL: . . . !uunet!sco!info info(ascoCOM 

Circle 259 on Reader Service Card 


Arnet Offers 
Serial Boards with 
Surge Protection 

Serially networked PCs 
and peripherals now have 
more protection from power 
surges with Arnet' s new serial- 
port expansion boards, the 
company says. 

SurgeBlock protection is 
now part of five new boards. 
They include the Octaport, 
which features 64K bytes of 
dual-ported RAM, a 10- 
MHz 80C186 processor, an 
eight-port cable, and Simul- 
Print, a software driver that 
supports multiscreen sessions 
and lets users of terminals 
swap programs with a single 
keystroke while in other 

Smartport-8 is an eight- 
port board with 64K bytes of 
dual-ported RAM, 64K bytes 
of RAM (expandable to 512K 
bytes), a 16-MHz 80C186 
processor, SimulPort (terminal 
paging software), and Simul- 
Print. You can expand Smart- 
port-8 to 16 or 24 ports. 

Smartport-16 is a 16-port 
board that features all the 
functions of Smartport-8 and 
is expandable to 24 or 32 

Price: Octaport, $1095; 
Smartports, $1595 to $2995. 
Contact: Arnet Corp., 618 
Grassmere Park Dr., Suite 6, 
Nashville, TN 372 11, (800) 
366-8844 or (615) 834-8000. 
Inquiry 1140. 

System Sleuth on 
the Trail of Windows 
and the Mac 

Dariana Technology 
Group has modified Sys- 
tem Sleuth, its DOS program 
for analyzing and diagnosing a 
computer configuration, to 
work with Windows 3.0 and 
the Macintosh. 

System WinSleuth is a 
Windows 3.0 program that fer- 

Arnet's Octaport is a serial-port expansion board that guards 
against energy spikes by bleeding offovervoltage before it can 
reach and damage chips. 

rets out information about 
hardware and software config- 
urations, attached periph- 
erals, and memory. Dariana 
Technology says that every- 
thing from the DOS program 
has gone into WinSleuth, ex- 
cept where the use of protected 
mode will interfere. Win- 
Sleuth might not be able to find 
out as much information 
about areas like interrupts as 
System Sleuth does, the com- 
pany concedes. 

WinSleuth keeps track of 
how Windows is managing 
memory and informs you of 
the size of the largest remain- 
ing contiguous block of mem- 
ory. This allows you to find 
out if there is still enough 
memory left to run Windows. 

The program also tracks 
all the device drivers in the 
system and can report their 

System MacSleuth pro- 
vides information about Apple- 
Talk and the devices con- 
nected to a Mac via 
AppleTalk. It identifies the 
type of system, desk accesso- 
ries, INITs, SCSI devices, 
slots, cdevs, and drivers. 
Price: $149 each. 
Contact: Dariana Technol- 
ogy Group, Inc., 7439 La 
Palma Ave., Suite 278, 
Buena Park, CA 90620, (714) 
Inquiry 1141. 

Learn to Enhance 
Your Group's 

Advanced Concepts says 
that Office Minder 1.10, 
a groupware package, works 
on Novell, 3Com, Banyan, and 
compatible LANs. Enhance- 
ments include support for 
multiple file servers, wide- 
area networks, and remote 
communication with Message 
Handling System-compatible 
E-mail products. 

Office Minder 1 . 10 in- 
cludes a TSR program for E- 
mail, telephone messaging, 
group scheduling, project 
management, and resource 
management. Standard fea- 
tures are text editing, screen 
capture, and file attachments; 
ASCII import and export; 
shared to-do lists; appointment 
reminder alarms; and auto- 
dialing from embedded text. 
Office Minder runs in 2K 
bytes of RAM for simple mail 
notification, 56K bytes for 
messaging, and 86K bytes for a 
full-function system. 
Price: $695 per server. 
Contact: Advanced Con- 
cepts, Inc., 4129 North Port 
Washington Ave., Milwau- 
kee, WI 53212, (800) 222- 
6736 or (414) 963-0999. 
Inquiry 1142. 

Forval's External 
Modem Speeds Data 
at 14,400 bps 

The SA14400 is an exter- 
nal modem that transmits 
data without compression at 
14,400 bps using an extended 
V.32 protocol for 14,400-bps 
data transmission. The CCITT 
standards body is bound to 
designate 14,400 transmission 
as V.32bis, the company 

The SA 14400 also in- 
cludes the V.42bis compres- 
sion algorithm that effective- 
ly quadruples data transfer 
rates and allows the modem 
to transmit at 57,600 bps. If it 
can't talk to a V .42bis mo- 
dem, it defaults to the MNP-5 
data-compression algorithm 
for 28,800-bps data transmis- 
sion rates. And of course it's 
compatible with the standard 
V.32 rate of 9600 bps and the 
older data transmission 

Because you can program 
the new modem's firmware via 
a data call over a standard 
phone line, you can receive up- 
dates that improve the 
modem's performance or add 
future standards by calling 
Forval using the modem itself, 
Forval says. 

Some PC systems are no 
longer able to keep up with 
data transmissions at higher 
speeds and start to lose charac- 
ters, so Forval's internal 
14,400-bps modem uses a cus- 
tom VLSI chip to buffer the 
data to the AT bus. 
Price: Introductory price, 
$996; $1245 thereafter. 
Contact: Forval America, 
Inc. , Modem Division, 6985 
Union Park Center, Suite 
425, Midvale, UT 84047, 
(800) 367-8251 or (801) 
Inquiry 1143. 




The World's First & Original 

Book-Size Desktop Computer 



Wt. (Monitor, CPU, Keyboard) = 59 lb. 
Footprint (W/Keyboard) = 4 sq. ft. 


Wt. (Monitor, CPU, Keyboard) = 13 lb. 
Footprint (W/Keyboard) = 1 sq. ft. 

CARRY-I 8088 

10MHZ XT/AMI BIOS /256K RAM expandable to 640k/One to two 
720KB 3.5" FDD/ Serial/Parallel/Game/CGA/MGA/Standard keyboard 
connector/1 6Watt Power adapter 
Dimension: 240mm x 185mm x 45mm Weight: 1.9kg 


82 Key/XT-AT Autoswitch 

Dimension: 310mm x 145mm x 27mm Weight: 0.7kg 

CARRY-I 80286 

12MHZ, Wait State AT/AMI BIOS with Diagnostic/1MB RAM/20MB, 40MB HDD 
optional/One to two 1.44MB 3.5" FDD/2 Serial/1 Parallel/CGA/MGA/Standard 
keyboard connector/30Watt Power adapter 
Dimension: 240mm x 185mm x 45mm Weight: 2.1kg 


9", Dual Frequency Weight: 3.4kg 

I ITfflWl 


2 FL.. NO. 8. LANE 50. SEC. 3. 
TEL: (02)785-2556 FAX: (02)785-2371 . 763-7970 


3008 SCOTT BLVD., SANTA CLARA, CA. 95054 U.S. A 
TEL: (408)727-7373, 727-7374 FAX: (408)727-7375 




TEL: (069)7..6-081, 746-453 FAX: (069)749-375 


TEL: 305-1268 FAX: 796-8427 

Exclusive Distributors: 















TEL: 972-3-7515511 

114 OFICINA 717, 28006 MADRID 


TEL: 1-416-564-7800 

FAX: 972-3-7516615 

TEL: 34-1-564-5434 

TEL: 32-41-676434 

FAX: 1-416-564-2679 


FAX: 34-1-41 1!0869 

FAX: 32-41-676515 










TEL: 39-522-518599 




FAX: 39-522-518599 



TEL: 33-1-34175362 


TEL: 32-2-6462290 

FAX: 33-1-42355916 


TEL: 44-256-463754 

FAX: 32-2-6460937 


FAX: 44-256-843174 




TEL: 31-2968-84141 FAX: 31-2968-97436 









TEL: 49-89-4208-0 

TEL: 852-3051268 
FAX: 852-7968427 

TEL: 47-2-722510 FAX: 47-2-722515 

Circle 120 on Reader Service Card 



Share Your PS/2 

with Unix 

and a C/X System 

DigiBoard says that the 
DigiChannel MC C/X 
System now lets your PS/2 
inexpensively support 16 Unix 
users through one add-in slot 
and a C/CON-16 concentrator 
box, a small peripheral. You 
can also expand the basic pack- 
age to support 32, 48, and 64 
users with more C/CON-16 
concentrator boxes. 

Two synchronous channels 
link the DigiChannel C/X 
adapter card with two con- 
centrator boxes. You can daisy 
chain an additional concen- 
trator box to each original con- 
centrator to provide flexibili- 
ty and allow for up to 64 
concurrent users. Micropro- 
cessors on the DigiChannel 
C/X adapter card and the 
concentrator boxes work to- 
gether to decrease the work- 
load on the host CPU and to in- 
crease system throughput. 

The C/X adapter card in- 
cludes its own 10-MHz 80186, 
128K bytes of RAM, and an 
85C30 serial communications 
controller driving two full- 
duplex RS-422 synchronous 

Price: Basic package, $2195; 
separate C/CON-16, $1395. 
Contact: DigiBoard, Inc., 
6751 Oxford St., St. Louis 
Park, MN 55426, (612) 
Inquiry 1144. 

Fax Server 
Alerts You to 
Received Faxes 

NetFax is an add-in card 
and software you use with 
a dedicated PC to create a fax 
server for your NetWare net- 
work. It gives you the normal 
features of plain-paper printing 
when connected to a printer, 
plus remote faxing to or from 

The DigiChannel MC C/X System, with one board and one 
C/CON-16 box, lets your PS/2 inexpensively support 16 Unix 
users; with four boxes, you can support 64 users. 

any PC on the network. 
What's unique about this new 
version of NetFax is its abil- 
ity to alert you when it receives 
certain faxes, All The Fax 

When you're waiting for a 
particular fax, you simply tell 
NetFax the Transmit Termi- 
nal Identification line (i.e., the 
header) that the sending fax 

transmits at the top of every 
page it sends. (Most fax ma- 
chines have a setup utility that 
lets you automatically trans- 
mit the date, time, and com- 
pany name— up to 20 charac- 
ters—on the TTI line of each 
transmitted fax.) NetFax 
watches for that TTI line and 
sends you a "fax waiting" 
message through NetWare's 

Disk and File Management 

XTree Co. now offers 
two new versions of its 
disk and file management 
software for NetWare ELS 
and NetWare Advanced/ 

XTreeNet 2.0 gives ad- 
ministrators a visual display 
of their directory tree. There 
they can manipulate the files 
to access, edit, view, delete, 
rename, list, print, or copy 
any combination of files any- 
where on the network. X- 
TreeNet 2.0 is designed to 
help users eliminate dupli- 
cate files, access the most re- 
cent copy of any document, 
and move or copy files to 
local storage devices. 

Peer-to-peer capabilities 
allow you to view, copy, de- 
lete, and edit files on distant 
workstations from desig- 
nated workstations (rather 
than from the file server). 
With the Autoview feature, 

you can split the screen and 
browse through multiple 
files on the left while dis- 
playing their contents on the 
right. And each copy of 
XTreeNet 2.0 comes with 
file viewers that enable you 
to see formatted views of 
files in Lotus 1-2-3, dBASE, 
Xy Write, Microsoft Word, 
WordPerfect, Multimate, 
Paradox, and other popular 

System requirements are 
DOS 3.1, 256K bytes of 
RAM, and NetWare ELS or 
Price: NetWare ELS, $249; 
NetWare Advanced/SFT/ 
386, $495. 

Contact: XTree Co., 4330 
Santa Fe Rd . , San Luis Obis- 
po, CA 93401, (800) 634- 
5545 or (805) 541-0604; in 
California, (800) 551-5353; 
in Canada, (416) 866-8592. 
Inquiry 1147. 

message/broadcast facility 
when the fax comes in. Then 
you use DOS commands 
(NetFax uses no TSR program) 
to download the fax to your 
workstation from the fax 

In practice, many compa- 
nies don't use the TTI line for 
more than the time and date, 
and in those cases NetFax 
won't help you. But the com- 
pany says that its TTI method 
is a less expensive routing 
method than using other com- 
panies' fax routing equip- 
ment designed for the tele- 
phone company service 
called Direct Inward Dialing. 

You load about 50K bytes 
of NetFax software on the Net- 
Ware server, on the NetFax 
server, and on each worksta- 
tion. For your NetFax server 
you must dedicate at least an 
XT with 640K bytes of RAM 
and a 20-MB hard disk drive. 
Price: $995 per network. 
Contact: All The Fax, Inc., 
917 Northern Blvd., Great 
Neck, NY 11021, (800) 289- 
3329 or (516) 829-0556. 
Inquiry 1145. 

UPSes for NetWare 
Broadcast Alerts 
of Power Failures 

The MPS 1200 and 1500 
are uninterruptible power 
supplies (providing on-line 
power rather than backup 
power) for your Novell LAN. 
They supply 1200 VA and 
1500 VA of on-line power, 

Network Monitor, the as- 
sociated software, alerts all 
LAN users of impending 
power failures. It works as a 
value-added process on a file 
server running NetWare. 
Price: MPS 1200, $1699; 
MPS 1500, $2199. 
Contact: Unison Technol- 
ogies, Inc., 23456 Madero, 
Mission Viejo, CA 92691, 
(714) 855-8700. 
Inquiry 1146. 



Times Change. 

The Need To Protect Doesn't. 



9292 Jeronimo Road, Irvine, CA 92718 
TEL: (714) 454-2100 ■ (800) 852-8569 (Outside CA) 
FAX: (714) 454-8557 ■ AppleLink: D3058 

Rainbow Technologies, Ltd., Shirley Lodtie, 470 London Road 
Slough, Berkshire SL3 8QY,TEL: 0753-41512 -FAX: 0753-43610 

hether you're protecting 

frontiers and temples in 

Manchuria, or software 

and data on the PC or 

Mac, the Great Wall is a lesson 

Rainbow Technologies has learned 

very well. 

Software developers must deal 

daily with the consequences of 


copies and millions 

of dollars in lost 

revenue. At the 

same time, both 

individual and 

corporate users 

must be able to make and distribute 

copies within legal guidelines. 

Today's information-driven 
companies must secure their data 
files against theft and unauthorized 
access. No less than protecting 
personal wealth and 
tangible property, 
guarding data files is 
a necessary invest- 
ment in competitive 

is the 
challenge for 
the '90s. Which 
is why Rainbow 
Technologies builds a 
little of the Great Wall into 
every key it makes. 

For developers, the Software 
Sentinel™ family of 
keys protects IBM, 
PS/2 and compatible 
software, while Eve" 
guards software for 
the Mac. Rainbow's 
DataSentry™ is the 
solution for PC data 

Software and data protection from Rainbow 
Technologies. Information on how you can have a 
little piece of the Great Wall to protect your software 
and data worldwide is as close as a toll-free call. 

Copyright ©1990 Rainbow Technologies. Inc. 

Circle 253 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 254) 










How to plan your LAN. 

You'll need a pencil. 

That's to write down the telephone number on the 
next page. Which will connect you with Samsung's 
nationwide network of resellers. And the i 

Samsung/Novell co-labeled line of LAN 

It's pretty much that simple. 

With one call you can plan on substantial 
savings over the big name computers which, 
despite high clock rates and even higher price 
tags, are not really optimized for networking. 

And you can plan on 100 percent compati- 
bility with all versions of Novell's NetWare* 
because Samsung's LAN hardware was co- 
designed by Novell. Just like the label says. 


Both the Samsung 386AE and PCterminal/286 have 

been tested exhaustively and certified by Novell for 
compatibility with all popular networking hardware 
and software products. As a matter of fact, Samsung's 
386AE is one of 3 fileservers certified by 
Novell to run NetWare 386. 

For example, engineers at Novell success- 
fully tested the PCterminal/286 LAN Work- 
station in no less than 1200 different network 
configurations... with 50 units running at 
once! That's a claim no other computer manu- 
facturer can make. 


What's the difference? Take our 386AE 
Fileserver, for instance. It includes Novell's 
Advanced BIOS, and eight expansion slots to accom- 
modate multiple network interface cards and disk 
controllers. Plus an oversize power supply capable 
of driving dual high capacity hard disks and tape 

i 1989 Samsung Informiilioii S\-stems A 

rod iraclcinarks of IS'owll. Ii 








back-up system. Plus 4 megabytes of main memory 
for disk caching. 

Then there's Samsung's PCterminal/286 Diskless 
Workstation which includes a built-in Ethernet inter- 
face and Novell's Remote Boot EPROM. 

And not to be overlooked is our 16-bit SE2100 
Ethernet Interface Card which provides up to twice 
the throughput for the price of an 8-bit card. 


With 4 million monitors and half a million PC 
and LAN computers sold in 1988 alone, it's clear that 
Samsung has made a serious commitment to the 
marketplace. In all, Samsung offers no less than 
nine different PC and LAN computer models with 
seventeen color and monochrome monitors! And, 
as a 31-billion dollar international corporation, 
Samsung has the resources to provide continuous 
support for its customers. 

So why not begin your network planning today? 
For the name of the Samsung reseller nearest you, 

SAMSUNG, 3655 North First Street, San Jose, 
CA 95134, or call 1-800-446-0262. 


Circle 257 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 258 



(i) Uicu Features Support Info Hun 

Puts TV in Your 
Computer Screen 

With the MetaWindow 
graphics toolkit, you 
can develop applications that 
let an end user work in one ap- 
plication while viewing live 
video that appears in a re- 
sizable, movable window. A 
program that lets stockbrokers 
view a live feed from Finan- 
cial News Network while using 
another program to buy and 
sell stocks is one possible 
MetaWindow application. 

MetaWindow applications 
can run on DOS, Unix, OS/2, 
and Windows systems that in- 
clude a New Media Graphics 
VideoWindows digital video 
card. The card supports live 
or taped video. 

A program written in C or 
Pascal can call the more than 
250 routines of the object 
module library. 
Price: $250. 

Contact: Metagraphics Soft- 
ware Corp., 4575 Scotts Valley 
Dr., P.O. Box 66779, Scotts 
Valley, CA 95066, (408) 
Inquiry 1148. 

Two Parallel 



Top Level Common Lisp 
(TopCL) 2 .0, for develop- 
ing Unix System V- and X 
Window System-based multi- 
processing programs, re- 
lieves you of the programming 
hassles of synchronicity 
through its use of future 

Top Level describes a fu- 
ture object as a promissory 
note or blank check. Once 
you specify a fork, the system 
immediately returns a future 
object, the value of which is 
undetermined until a compu- 
tation is complete. 

TopCL reduces the num- 


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Applications created with the MetaWindow graphics toolkit 
let you watch full-motion images from a standard American or 
European video source. 

ber of function calls required 
to fork a computation, allow- 
ing you to fork small computa- 
tions efficiently, with little 

The program includes 
Meta Debug, an external de- 
bugger, and a foreign func- 
tion interface for calling 
existing software. 

TopCL runs on PCs and 
workstations based on the Intel 
80x86 and i860, Motorola 
88000, and National Semicon- 
ductor 32x32 chips. The 
company also plans to release 
a version for OS/2. 
Price: $3300 for a system for 
a two-processor PC. 
Contact: Top Level, Inc., 
196 North Pleasant St. , Am- 
herst, MA 01002, (413) 
Inquiry 1149. 

An Abstract Machine in 
the Strand 88 parallel 
programming language en- 
capsulates hardware-dependent 
features so that applications 
can run across all platforms 
that Strand Software 

Strand's foreign function 
interface supports sequential C 
and FORTRAN applications. 

Strand 88 Buckingham, 
the newest version, includes a 

profiler, a task scheduler, 
and a resolvent analysis tool. It 
also runs 50 percent faster 
than the previous version. 

Strand runs on PC-based 
transputer systems, multi- 
processor machines, and 
workstations running on 
Unix/V 386. 
Price: $1500 and up. 
Contact: Strand Software 
Technologies, Inc., 15220 
Northwest Greenbrier 
Pkwy., Suite 350, Beaverton, 
OR 97006, (503)690-9830. 
Inquiry 1150. 

New Linker Gives 
DOS Programs 
Virtual Memory 

The Virtual Memory 
Linking feature of the 
.RTLink/Plus 4.0 linker 
gives DOS applications virtual 
memory capabilities similar 
to those of OS/2 and Windows 
without requiring a hardware 
upgrade. With VML, DOS 
programs execute in conven- 
tional memory and up to 32 
MB of expanded memory. 
In most situations, one 
command during link time 
adds VML capability to a 
program without requiring 
source code changes or the 
programming analysis of over- 
lays. The linker manages 

available memory and discards 
infrequently accessed pages 
when more memory is needed 
to bring in a page. 

Instead of bringing pages 
into memory through a refer- 
ence to a piece of data, the 
VML feature does it through 
calls or jumps to code 

The VML feature of the 
linker initially supports Micro- 
soft C, while the linker itself 
is compatible with all DOS 
programming languages. 
Pocket Soft will continue to 
add VML support for other 
programming languages. 
Price: $495. 

Contact: Pocket Soft, Inc., 
7676 Hillmont, Suite 195, 
Houston, TX 77040, (713) 
Inquiry 1151. 


SQL Applications 

in Windows 

With two products from 
Coromandel, you can 
build and run transaction- 
based or Structured Query 
Language-based data man- 
agement applications under 
Windows 3.0. 

Integra SQL offers a high- 
level programming interface 
based on embedded SQL 
statements and a low-level in- 
terface for directly manipu- 
lating tables and performing 
record operations. It auto- 
matically handles data man- 
agement, query optimization, 
and data integrity, the com- 
pany says. 

C-Trieve/Windows is a 
library of routines for 
building transaction-based 

Price: Integra SQL, $695; 
C-Trieve/Windows, $395. 
Contact: Coromandel Indus- 
tries, 108-27 64th Rd., Forest 
Hills, NY 11375,(718) 
Inquiry 1152. 



PcJuultii /< 


... for the 


best prices 


fast delivery! 

Call today for your 
FREE catalog!! 

(800) 445-7899 
International: (201) 389-9228 
Corporate: (800) 422-6507 


(201) 389 

JA 'Division of Voyager Softzvarc Corp 
1163 SftrezusSury ftvenue 
Skrtzosbury, 9{1 07702 




Sketch Out Projects 
with Qwiknet 

Project Software & De- 
velopment has added a 
graphical user interface to 
Qwiknet Professional 2.0, a 
multiproject management 
program for in-depth schedul- 
ing and cost analysis on the 

The program's drawing- 
board feature lets you sketch 
out a project, instead of re- 
quiring that you build critical- 
path method schedules with 
tabular forms and advanced 
constructs. A windowing sys- 
tem lets you navigate through 
screens, and a pick-and-drop 
function lets you copy infor- 
mation from one field, 
screen, or file to another 
without typing. 

Version 2.0 lets you define 
an activity's duration as a 
function of its resource allo- 
cation where appropriate. 
What-if analysis and the abil- 
ity to schedule up to 250 proj- 
ects with a common resource 
pool, so that all resources are 
used without being double- 
booked, are included in the 

Price: $2500; $8600 per four- 
concurrent-users package. 
Contact: Project Software & 
Development, Inc., 20 Univer- 
sity Rd., Cambridge, MA 
02138, (617) 661-1444. 
Inquiry 1153. 

Qwiknet 's new drawing-board interface for managing projects. 
Tasks and portions of tasks in yellow are complete, while those 
in blue haven 't been finished. 

A Database/ 

Feldstar says that Analyst 
1 combines the calculation 
ability of spreadsheets with 
the historical tracking of data- 
bases so that you can develop 
and maintain analyses over ex- 
tended periods of time in a 
single model. The program 
doesn't replace a DBMS or 
spreadsheet, but it lets you 
identify and graph trends 
from historical data. 

With the program's rela- 
tional database capabilities, 
you can track the perfor- 
mance of your sales staff by 
various products and multiple 
time periods that you choose. 
You compare these relation- 
ships using reports and line, 

Intex Breaks the 640K-byte Barrier 
for 1-2-3 release 2.0 

With Beyond 640 for 1- 
2-3, users of Lotus 1- 
2-3 release 2.0 can exploit 
expanded memory, access- 
ing up to 4 MB of memory 
for their spreadsheets, Intex 
reports. The program moni- 
tors your memory use, and as 
you approach the conven- 
tional memory limit, Be- 
yond 640 kicks in and lets 
1-2-3 store its entire spread- 

sheet in expanded memory, 
making the Memory Full 
error message obsolete. The 
program works with 1-2-3 
releases 2.01 and 2.2, and 
EMS 3.2 or 4.0. 
Price: $95. 

Contact: Intex Solutions, 
Inc., 161 Highland Ave., 
Inquiry 1157. 

bar, pie, and wave charts. 

You can export data from a 
spreadsheet to Analyst 1 by 
printing the spreadsheet to a 
file unformatted. You then in- 
sert a date into the first col- 
umn so that Analyst can use it. 

Analyst 1 runs on the IBM 
PC with 512K bytes of RAM. 
Price: $199. 

Contact: Feldstar Software, 
Inc., P.O. Box 871564, Dal- 
las, TX 75287, (214) 
Inquiry 1154. 

Intelligent Business 
Forms Package 

Sof tview, developer of 
the MacInTax tax prepa- 
ration program for the Mac 
and IBM PC running Win- 
dows, has released a forms- 
design program with an under- 
lying technology that lets you 
create and modify forms 
without having to start from 

The if:X Forms Designer 
lets you make last-minute 
changes, such as adding a 
company logo or resizing a 
form, without requiring you 
to rearrange its elements. The 
program can insert, copy, 
and move pieces of a form with 
a single command. As you 
design the form, you can trans- 

pose columns and exchange 
noncontiguous elements. 

When you transfer data 
from the if:X Forms Designer 
to another application, such 
as Excel, through the Clip- 
board, text retains its font 
style and style information. 
Tabular data exchanged 
either way retains its structure. 

The if:X Forms Designer 
runs on the Mac Plus with 1 
MB of memory. The current 
version of the program doesn't 
have the calculating capabili- 
ties present in MacInTax, but 
that feature will be added in 
the next version, scheduled to 
ship next year. 
Price: $279. 

Contact: Softview, 1721 Pa- 
cific Ave., Suite 100, Oxnard, 
CA 93033, (800) 525-1065 or 
(805) 385-5000. 
Inquiry 1155. 

Date Sensitivity 
Added to Accounting 

Cyma's new versions of 
its Professional Account- 
ing Series 2.0 for Unix, 
Xenix, and AIX running on 
the IBM RISC System/6000 
let you create entries or gener- 
ate reports for previous or fu- 
ture periods without disturbing 
current period data, which 
removes the pressure of period 
closings. PAS 2.0, which is 
also available for DOS, in- 
cludes a report generator and 
a macro feature. 

You can run the program's 
seven modules separately or 
integrated with other mod- 
ules: general ledger, accounts 
payable, accounts receivable, 
payroll, inventory and order 
processing, job control, and 
system manager. 
Price: $495 to $1195 per 

Contact: Cyma, 1400 East 
Southern Ave., Tempe, AZ 
85282, (800) 292-2962 or 
Inquiry 1156. 



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If you need to develop Microsoft® Windows applications fast, Actor can cut your 

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ITS HERE! The Microsoft Windows 3.0 Graphical Environment gives you the ability to 
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The first and only native code C++ compiler supporting Microsoft 
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VM/386 245 209 

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MS Macro Assembler 



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Turbo Debugger & Tools 

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MS BASIC Prof. Devel. System 
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Turbo C++ 

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Breakout II 

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Creenleaf CommLib 

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SilverComm C Asynch Library 



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EasyCASE Plus 

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Micro Focus: 

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Lahey Personal FORTRAN 77 






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HALO Window Toolkit 
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PCX Programmer's Toolkit 
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PolyLibrarian II 



CASE:PM for C 


MS OS/2 Pres. Manager Softset 

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495 395 
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GUIDO by South Mountain 

Graphical user interface library for C. 
Includes pull-down, pop-up, vertical 
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List: $249 Ours: $199 
w/source List: $499 Ours; $399 

C Shroud by Cimpel 

Source code obfuscation tool. 
Translates a program from its original C 
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List: $198 Ours: $149 

Recently purchased by Abraxas, 
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Hours 8:30 AM-7 PM EST. We accept 
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SpontaneousAssembly is a must-have product for the serious software 
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Programmed Motion 
Control on the Mac 

National Instruments and 
nuLogic have teamed up 
to provide an environment for 
developing motion-control pro- 
grams for the Mac without 
requiring you to write a single 
line of code. 

The system combines nu- 
Logic's three-axis servo mo- 
tion-control card for NuBus- 
based Macs and its interface 
for LabView 2, the graphical 
programming environment for 
data acquisition, analysis, 
and instrument control. With 
the system, you can program 
applications for robotics con- 
trol, machines, and produc- 
tion automation systems by 
placing and connecting icons 
that represent controls such as 
knobs, slides, and switches. 

The number of machines a 
system can control depends on 
how many slots your Mac has 
and how many axes must be 
controlled for each machine. 
With two controller cards, you 
can control three two-axis 
machines, for example. 

You need a Mac II with 
LabView 2, the controller 
card, and the Virtual Instru- 
ment Library for Motion 

Price: LabView 2, $1995; VI 
Library, $195; nuControl con- 
troller card, $1795. 
Contact: nuLogic, Inc., 945 
Great Plains Ave., Needham, 
MA 02192, (617) 444-7680. 
Inquiry 1158. 

File Edit Operate (uiitiuh 

lltinclnms TuuK 

bUiiia a OJiDiiij" 



Un rssilHw Velocity 
AxH 3 0.. [TOO I [U [ 

PLAGE nuLqgjc'Ine 

~n- '■ — ~~ : — 

r ■.- 

As LabView 2 controls a pick-and-place machine for odd-shaped 
components, it displays at right information on insertion force , 
number of boards completed per hour, and total insertions while 
letting you control the conveyor speed in the lower left window. 

Solve Heat-Transfer 
Problems with 
Your PC or Mac 

Whether your field of 
engineering is mechani- 
cal, electrical, chemical, or 
civil, you'll likely encounter a 
heat-transfer problem that re- 
quires several hours or days to 
solve. A program called Heat 
Transfer on TK can reduce the 
time it takes to solve such 
problems by a factor of 100, 
according to Universal Tech- 
nical Systems. 

The menu-driven program 
is based on, and ships with, the 
textbook Fundamentals of 
Heat and Mass Transfer and 
200 heat-transfer models. 
Once you find the correct 
model and insert the real-life 
numbers, the program's equa- 
tion solver returns the 


The program is available 
for the IBM PC, the Macin- 
tosh, and Sun, IBM, Hewlett- 
Packard, and Apollo Unix 
workstations. TK Solver Plus 
is required. 

Price: Heat Transfer on TK, 
$595; TK Solver Plus, $395. 
Contact: Universal Techni- 
cal Systems, Inc., 1220 Rock 
St., Rockford,IL 61101, 
(800) 435-7887 or (815) 
Inquiry 1159. 

Analyze and 
Manipulate Signals 
on the Mac 

BV Engineering's Signal 
Processing Program 
(SPP) can perform linear and 
nonlinear time-domain wave- 
form analysis, forward and 

reverse fast Fourier trans- 
forms, and other analyses on 
analog signals. It can graphi- 
cally display signals, spec- 
tra, and transfer function data, 
and it can generate and simu- 
late analog signals. 

SPP runs on the Mac 
512KE or higher with Finder 
5.3 and System 3.2 or 

Price: $349.95. 
Contact: B V Engineering, 
2023 Chicago Ave., Suite B13, 
Riverside, CA 92507, (714) 
Inquiry 1160. 

Acquire Data 
While You Do 
Something Else 

Trilobyte has released a 
product for engineers and 
scientists who need to ac- 
quire data from lengthy experi- 
ments but don't want to tie up 
their PCs. 

Data Demon lets you re- 
ceive data from instruments 
while you perform other 
tasks. The program can hold 
up to 32K bytes of received 
data in one buffer. 

A memory-resident por- 
tion of the program performs 
the actual data collection, 
while another portion down- 
loads the information. 
Price: $99. 

Contact: Trilobyte, Inc., 
596 Abolicion, Hato Rey, 
Puerto Rico 00918, (809) 
758-0341 or (809) 767-1839. 
Inquiry 1161. 


Find the Hidden Information with IXL 

Intelligence Ware says that 
its IXL program for in- 
duction in extremely large 
databases can find unex- 
pected patterns and correla- 
tions in large data sets. Un- 
like a query language, which 
requires you to formulate 
and test a hypothesis, IXL 

forms its own queries and 
automatically tests for them. 
By combining AI, statis- 
tics, and database capabili- 
ties, the program saves you 
from having to test numerous 
hypotheses when you're try- 
ing to pinpoint the reasons 
for problems like sporadic 

defects on an assembly line. 
The program has uses in any 
application involving large 
data sets. 

The program supports up 
to 64,000 columns per data- 
base and runs on the IBM AT 
or higher. The program is 
compatible with dBASE, 

Lotus 1-2-3, XDB, and In- 
terbase file formats. 
Price: $490. 

Contact: IntelligenceWare, 
Inc., 9800 South Sepulveda 
Blvd., Suite 730, Los Ange- 
les, CA 90045, (213) 417- 
Inquiry 1162. 


got a new 2MB 


we're fishing for 
ideas from you. 

Introducing the Optical Card, the remarkable new 
personal data storage and retrieval medium from 
Canon. An IBM AT-compatible RW-10 Reader/Writer 
uses a laser to read and write up to two Megabytes of 
digitized text, graphics or sound on the Optical Card 
(shown here actual size). Data can be added, but 
not erased, and isn't susceptible to magnetic or 
electrostatic fields. 

The Optical Card and RW-10 combine speed, 
high reliability and convenience that just cry out 
for the development of entirely new systems 
applications. And that's where you come in. 
Don't let this "big one" get away. Find out more 
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Canon at 516-488-6700. 

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Circle 57 on Reader Service Card 





PC-Write Lite 
Supports Cyrillic 

The new version of PC- 
Write Lite supports the 
Cyrillic character set for 
creating documents in Slavic 
languages such as Russian. 

You use the Caps Lock key 
to switch from Roman to Cy- 
rillic characters. If you have 
an EGA or VGA graphics 
adapter, you can see the Cy- 
rillic characters on the screen 
as you type. If you don't have 
such an adapter, you need to 
change your adapter card's 
character-set ROM to support 
those characters. Otherwise, 
with a non-EGA or -VGA 
screen, you can print Cyrillic 
hard copy, but you '11 see the 
IBM extended character set 
on the screen as you type. 

Version 1 .02 also lets you 
create new character sets to 
support Greek and Hebrew, 
chemistry formulas, phonetics, 
and anything else with sym- 
bols. A Russian spelling 
checker is available to add 
complete Russian language 

The program requires 
384K bytes of RAM with the 
spelling checker, 256K bytes 
without it. 

Price: $79; spelling checker, 

Contact: Quicksoft, 2 19 
First Ave. N, Suite 224, 
Seattle, WA 98109, (206) 
Inquiry 1163. 

A Menuing Program 
for Unix 

A program called Menu- 
Magic lets even novice 
Unix users handle up to 98 
percent of the day-to-day sys- 
tem administration tasks, 
such as maintaining printers 
and spoolers, putting users 
on the system, and backing 
up files. 

By using the Caps Lock key on a VGA or EGA screen, PC- 
Write Lite lets you switch between English and Cyrillic 
characters. If you type in the wrong alphabet, you can switch 
each word or an entire document to the correct alphabet. 

The program also includes 
a developer's toolkit for creat- 
ing custom functions. 

MenuMagic supports the 
major flavors of Unix, in- 
cluding AT&T, SCO, Intel, 
Interactive, and IBM AIX. A 
version for the X Window 
System will be released later 
this year. 

Price: $495; Xenix version, 

Contact: TKi, P.O. Box 
2049, Roswell,GA 30077, 
Inquiry 1164. 

Two Programs 
for Unattended 

If you're tired of perform- 
ing mundane operations 
such as database sorts, mail 
merges, and system backups, 
Auto-Run can help by letting 
your PC run a variety of every- 
day tasks at any time of the 
day or night. 

When you decide which 
operations to automate, you 
use Auto-Run's Memorize 
command, which lets the pro- 
gram watch and learn the 
keystrokes. You then tell it at 
what time and on which days 
to run the task. You can use the 

program to send and receive 
data, update a spreadsheet, 
and perform many other 

Version 2.0 provides pass- 
word protection. You can set 
up a task to prompt you for a 
specific action during an Auto- 
Run session, and you can 
also tell Auto-Run what to 
do if it gets an error message. 

Auto-Run is not a TSR pro- 
gram. It requires 36K bytes 
of RAM on the IBM PC. 
Price: $149. 

Contact: AutoSoft, Inc., 
1850 Lake Park Dr., Suite 
105, Smyrna, GA 30080, 
(800) 252-7144 or (404) 
Inquiry 1165. 

You can instruct Auto- 
mate/Anytime to process 
batch files, generate reports, 
and perform system backups. 
When backing up, the pro- 
gram can compress files to as 
little as 15 percent of their 
original size. 

At the prescribed time, 
Automate/Anytime interrupts 
the current operation, per- 
forms its task, and brings you 
back to the initial operation. 
The program supports unat- 
tended operation. 

Automate/Anytime is a 
TSR program that requires 
20K bytes of RAM. 

Price: $149. 

Contact: Complementary 

Solutions, Inc., Suite 202, 

4470 Chamblee-Dunwoody 

Rd., Atlanta, GA 30338, (404) 


Inquiry 1166. 

Word Tool Knows 
Politics + Delay = 

Microlytics has devel- 
oped a new word utility 
that can function like a dic- 
tionary in reverse. Instead of 
requiring you to look up a 
particular word's meaning, In- 
side Information lets you 
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What's New 


Users Groups Past, 
Present, and Future 

Well, what do I do 
now?" This question 
has been asked countless 
times as new PC users stare at 
the just-unwrapped collection 
of parts that they must assem- 
ble into a working computer. 
From the beginning of the PC 
revolution, the answer has 
often been, "Join a users 

What began a s a n assem- 
bly of users trying to learn 
more about the new machines 
is now a social institution. 
From the beginning, users 
groups have provided technical 
support to novices and expert 
users, beta testers for new 
products, feedback to hard- 
ware and software vendors on 
their new products, and 
much more. 

The first issue of BYTE 
dedicated two pages to users 
group news, including a no- 
tice that the Amateur Com- 
puter Group of New Jersey 
had held its first meeting on 
June 13, 1975. That group 
continues to operate to this day 
and is often associated with 
the Trenton Computer Festi- 
val. For our 15th anniversary 
issue, BYTE asked several 
users group officers across 
the U.S. to reflect on the status 
of users groups and their 
challenges in the future. 

Playing Mom 
to 700 People 

With the responsibility of co- 
ordinating more than 50 users 
groups and 700 volunteers of 
the Boston Computer Society, 
Pam Bybell says that her job 
is "sort of like Mom, with lots 

of children screaming at 

A s manager of users group 
support for the BCS, which 
currently boasts a member- 
ship of about 40,000, Bybell 
helps volunteers refine their 
ideas and find the necessary 
resources for putting their 
ideas into action. 

Bybell says that the BCS 
struggles to some degree with 
the same problems facing 
smaller groups and offers sev- 
eral strategies to deal with 
common problems, particular- 
ly volunteer burnout. 

"One thing we try to get 
across to a group is that you 
have to have a deep bench," 
she says. Often, a person who 
starts a users group or spe- 
cial-interest group is by nature 
creative, exciting, and 
driven. At first, this person 
may think nothing of orga- 

nizing meetings, putting out a 
newsletter, and running the 
group mailing list. Several 
months into the job, however, 
you've got a prime candidate 
for burnout. That's why dele- 
gating tasks, though difficult, 
is so important, she says. 

"If you learn nothing else 
as a volunteer, you better learn 
to delegate," Bybell stresses. 
She often cites the Truck 
Theory to drive this point 
home. The Truck Theory says 
that if a volunteer were hit by 
a truck and died, and the group 
too would die, then that per- 
son is doing too much. She 
also says that if an activity 
isn't fun, you shouldn't be 
doing it, and notes that group 
members are quick to recog- 
nize trouble and political 

As for the challenges for 


Attention U.S. BYTE Subscribers 

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the BCS and other groups in 
the next few years, she cites a 
few. One is that groups must 
serve an expanding range of 
users, from novice to corporate 
member. Another is recon- 
ciling the role of the group to 
the corporate environment. 
Many times, she says, corpo- 
rate members "tend not to 
understand that a volunteer 
can't be called at work" for 
technical support. 

One improvement Bybell 
sees is in the area of support 
provided by hardware and 
software vendors. Here, she 
says, "things are light-years 
better" than in earlier days. 

Like other groups, the 
BCS is also becoming involved 
in community service to non- 
members, matching mentors to 
other nonprofit organiza- 
tions, acquiring used equip- 
ment for the organizations, 

and, in some cases, donating 
time to get the machines up 
and running. 

So what makes the BCS so 
successful? According to By- 
bell, the secret is "letting 
volunteers do the things they 

Computing Down East 

Rowan Wakefield remembers 
the first computer fair spon- 
sored by the Island/Reach 
Computer Users Group and 
how surprised participating 
vendors were by the early- 
morning rush of people. By 
8:15 a.m., he says, the hall 
was packed "shoulder to 
shoulder with people. Around 
here, people just get started 
early." The fair, which attract- 
ed about 30 exhibitors and 
800 people, was going strong 
until a blizzard hit around 

4:30p.m., sending people 

The "here" that Wakefield 
refers to is the area near Ban- 
gor, Maine, where group 
members live in towns such as 
Deer Isle, Blue Hill, and Bar 
Harbor. In three years, the 
group has increased its mem- 
bership from 30 to more than 
300. Wakefield, president of 
the club, says the occupations 
of members range from "lob- 
stermen to retired newspaper 
editors ... to teachers and 

Wakefield saw the need for 
a multiplatform group when he 
attended an Epson users 
group meeting and only one 
other person showed up. He 
and two others envisioned a ge- 
neric users group in a rural 
area that could provide useful 
services. About 30 people 
showed up for the first meet- 

ing, and the group was on its 

Wakefield says that one 
way the group fights burnout is 
to contract out the production 
of its newsletter to a prepress 
production house. Members 
write the stories, which are 
transmitted to the editor via 
the Celebration Station BBS, a 
popular BBS run by Noel 
Stookey, of Peter, Paul, and 
Mary fame. However, burn- 
out is still an issue: Wakefield 
says he will not seek reelec- 
tion for the next term. 

As the group matures, 
Wakefield sees the emphasis 
shifting from growth to pro- 
viding more services for cur- 
rent members. The group 
plans to sell a book called 50 
Ways to Make Money With 
Your PC, which is based on 
one of the group's most suc- 


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cessf ul workshops. 

Wakefield claims that he 
isn't a high-tech person but is 
fascinated by the role of tech- 
nology in society. "Regardless 
of the subject, the group's 
role has been keeping up with 
the leading edge of change 
and helping members under- 
stand it. Users groups have 
the responsibility to interpret 
or translate these impending 
changes and what they mean 
for the guy on the street." 

The $20,000 Question 

Take a users group that's 
growing by leaps and bounds. 
Add an all-volunteer staff, 
particularly a treasurer who 
volunteered for the job think- 
ing it might require just one 
weekend a month. Add a 
$100,000 annual budget, and 
you get a recipe for a disaster 
waiting to happen. 

In the case of the Portland 
Macintosh Users Group, this 
combination resulted in a dis- 
crepancy of about $20,000 be- 
tween what the group thought 
it had and what it really had, 
according to former PMUG 
president Allan Foster. He 
says that the discrepancy fu- 
eled a very nasty political bat- 
tle that polarized the board of 
directors and general members 
alike. [Editor's Note: After a 
lengthy internal investigation, 
no formal charges were filed 
in the case.] 

Of course, PMUG is not 
the only users group to suffer 
from inner turmoil. Almost 
every users group at some time 
sees clashes among members 
with different agendas. For ex- 
ample, the Houston Area 
League of PC Users last year 
revised its bylaws, a process 
that generated considerable 
controversy among special- 
interest group leaders and 
other officers. The process 
also resulted in the abrupt res- 
ignation of key officers. 

According to Foster, these 
growing pains are natural as 
users groups evolve from 
club status to something that 
more closely resembles a pro- 
fessional society. And as new 
members enter the group, 
conflicts arise concerning the 
purpose of the group. 

When PMUG first 
formed, Foster says, the group 
met in someone's living 
room. At that time, the group 
consisted "basically of peo- 
ple who'd just hooked up their 
128K Macs and were won- 
dering what to do with all that 
power." The group now has 
about 1300 members. 

Often, as a group's mem- 
bership increases, you still 
have the same people volun- 
teering their time for the 
group. But as Foster points 
out, "It's easier to manage a 
group of 200 with four or 
five volunteers than a group of 

During the missing-funds 
controversy, Foster says, he 
decided he'd had enough. As 
accusations and counter-accu- 
sations were made at meet- 
ings and in the newsletter, Fos- 
ter thought, "Hang on, I've 
got a real life and there are 
other things I can be doing." 

"What the controversy told 
me was 'Oh, I don't want to be 
a part of this,'" he says. He 
describes the new leadership as 
"a decent bunch, ones who 
care about the group." 

What can a group do when 
faced with massive growth? 
Foster says that one possible 
solution is to hire a paid staff, 
as the Berkeley Macintosh 
Users Group and the Boston 
Computer Society do. "But 
you have to get above a critical 
mass to be able to do that," 
he points out. Another solution 
is to pay consultants their 
usual fee for conducting work- 

shops and cover the fee with 
a nominal tuition charge. A 
more obvious solution is to 
recruit more volunteers. 

But, somehow, the group's 
management structure has to 
change. As Foster says, 
"There's no way that a person 
who stood up and was going 
to [act as treasurer] on the 
weekends is going to manage 
a $100,000 budget." 

Ask Not What Your 
Group Can Do for You 

"What's in it for me?" The 
next time you're asked this as 
you try to recruit a new 
member, instead of explaining 
the virtues of the general 
meetings, software library, 
and free advice, you might 
try this response: "If you have 
to ask, we're not sure you're 
our kind of member." 

This approach seems to 
work just fine for the Central 
Kentucky Computer Society. 
According to newsletter editor 
David Reed, the group en- 
courages new members to get 
involved from the beginning 
instead of just showing up for 
the main meetings. 

The group, which will cel- 
ebrate its sixth anniversary 
next month, now has about 
600 members. Attendance at 
the monthly general meetings 
has increased from about 40 to 

The attitude of the group 
as a whole was reflected last 
April, when the CKCS spon- 
sored a computer show. Ac- 
cording to Reed, the board of 
directors expected about 20 
volunteers to help run the 
show. But on the day of the 
show, the number was closer 
to 50 volunteers. 

It's this kind of enthusiasm 
that pays off: Reed estimates 
that the group added 100 new 
members as a result of the 
computer show. He notes that 
the group encountered burnout 

two years ago. "So we just 
expanded the board of direc- 
tors," he says. 

In addition to editing the 
newsletter and working as a 
news editor for the Lexington 
Herald-Leader, Reed moder- 
ates the Users Group Ex- 
change (UGX) on BIX and par- 
ticipates in the Association of 
PC Users Groups BBS. He says 
that the BBSes are becoming 
a good way for group editors 
and presidents to share infor- 
mation, discuss problems, and, 
in UGX, download daily 
news feeds for their own 
BBSes and newsletters. 

Reed thinks that BBSes are 
also a good vehicle for users 
groups to use to iron out ethi- 
cal problems. "The good 
groups are trying to influ- 
ence the less-than-pure 
groups," he says. 

Flipping Between 
Two Sides of the Coin 

One side of the coin says that 
users groups need to be enter- 
tained by vendors with slick 
product demonstrations and 
free products. The other side 
says that the groups provide 
valuable technical assistance 
for users while helping vendors 
in the product development 
process by acting as beta test- 
ers and suggesting new fea- 
tures. Jay Bartlett is intimately 
familiar with both sides of 
the coin. 

As president of the Gold 
Coast Macintosh Users Group 
of Miami, Florida, and mar- 
keting manager for Tactic Soft- 
ware, he understands the im- 
portance of the users group as 
a marketing vehicle for ven- 
dors. He also knows how hard 
it can be to schedule the 
monthly meetings at which so 
many members expect to be 



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Bartlett says that in addi- 
tion to providing input for 
product features, users 
groups act as a proving ground 
for hardware and software 
products. "Vendors can't pos- 
sibly test their applications 
with every other application 
out there, especially in the 
Mac market," he observes. 
(Tactic Software sells a num- 
ber of utilities for the Mac, in- 
cluding Icon-It, which puts 
icons on the screen for easy ac- 
cess, and Clairvoyant, a tool 
for writers.) 

Because his users group is 
located in a large metropolitan 
area, Bartlett says, he can 
often attract good speakers 
from major developers. 
Eventually, however, members 
come to expect high-quality 
presentations every month, but 
they don't provide much in- 
put as to what they want to see. 

"We need their input," he 
says. "But these people are sit- 
ting in the back with their 
shades on, and as soon as the 
break comes, they're gone." 

Bartlett thinks that users 
groups aren't the only organi- 
zations with this problem. 
"There are always going to be 
those who do the work and 
others who follow, be it com- 
puters or Little League." 

Three Meetings Are 
Better Than One 

One of the realities of attend- 
ing users group meetings is the 
dog-and-pony show, in which 
vendors extol the virtues of 
their products to an attentive 
audience and then sell or do- 
nate the product to members 
after the meeting. These shows 
are valuable to the vendors as 
a marketing tool and to the 
users who want to see the lat- 
est products. 

Conflict occurs when you 
take a users group such as the 

New York Personal Com- 
puter Group, which tries to 
stay away from product-ori- 
ented talks for its general 
meetings while booking 
speakers with a wide knowl- 
edge of the industry. The 
group solves this conflict with 
the sponsored general meet- 
ing concept. 

In sponsored general meet- 
ings, which are arranged on an 
as-needed basis, the group 
makes personal invitations to 
individual members to attend 
company presentations. Ac- 
cording to NYPC president 
David Hoffman, one reason for 
the group's success is this in- 
dependence. The group holds 
its mailing list tightly to its 

Founded in 1982, NYPC 
has more than 50 special-inter- 
est groups. The SIGs' month- 
ly meetings provide a third 
type of meeting format. For 
the past three years, the group 
has also sponsored the Inter- 
galactic Users Group meeting, 
which, among other things, 
features a newsletter 

The North Texas PC Users 
Group, based in Dallas, does a 
variation of the three-format 
meeting. For its general meet- 
ings, the group meets at the 
Infomart with about 50 other 
users groups and sponsors 
three programs over the course 
of the day. Each program re- 
volves around a general theme 
or a specific product. 

Over the years, users 
groups have gained respect 
from the user community, 
vendors, and local dealers, 
Hoffman says. "The concept 
of users groups is still alive 
and well. Although many of 

the groups have leveled off, it's 
still a great idea, and it's 
amazing to see what the volun- 
teers can do." 

From Humble 
to Supergroup 

Jonathan Rotenberg re- 
members the first few 
months of the Boston Com- 
puter Society, when the group 
consisted of just a few peo- 
ple, some of whom didn't even 
own a computer, meeting in a 
high school library. "It would 
be so discouraging. At times 
I thought, if I don't show up to- 
night, this will be the end of 

As a tenth grade student, 
Rotenberg was trying to con- 
vince his high school to buy a 
computer so that he and others 
could learn how to program. 
To make himself more credible 
to school authorities, he de- 
cided to research computers. 
He soon discovered, though, 
that the kind of information he 
needed was scarce. 

In late 1976, Rotenberg 
saw a flyer for a radio talk 
show starting on the Boston 
University radio station and 
contacted the host of the 
show to ask if he knew of any 
local users groups. He 
didn't, but he mentioned that 
several other people had 
asked him the same question. 
The two decided to form 
such a group. Rotenberg still 
hadn't convinced his school 
administrators to buy a com- 
puter, but they did let him 
use the library for the first 
meeting of theBCS. 

Two people showed up for 
the first meeting. "One of 
them had wandered in by ac- 
cident," Rotenberg says. How- 
ever, six people showed up 
for the second meeting, and by 
the fifth meeting, the group 

was inviting guest speakers. 

At one of the meetings, the 
radio show host, who had been 
introducing the guest speak- 
ers, failed to show up for the 
presentation by Wang. Roten- 
berg, whose voice at the time 
was changing, got up and 
very nervously introduced the 
guest speaker. The next day, 
the radio show host said that 
his priorities had changed 
and he could no longer run the 
meetings. Rotenberg says he 
later learned that the host had 
shaved his head and joined a 
commune in Austria. 

Rotenberg thought the BCS 
would fold when he left Boston 
to attend Brown University. 
But members of the group 
moved the BCS paperwork 
and equipment out of Roten- 
berg 's parents' house to a 
tiny storefront space at Center 
Plaza. Occasionally, street 
people wandered into the 
office, which occupied about 
400 square feet. 

The group hired a part- 
time receptionist, and Roten- 
berg took a bus home from 
school on the weekends to help 
run things. Rotenberg re- 
turned one day to find a letter 
of resignation from the recep- 
tionist. Her replacement, Mary 
McCann, eventually became 
the group's executive director 
and editor of the BCS 

It was from these inauspi- 
cious beginnings that the BCS 
eventually became the 
world's largest computer users 

"I had no idea the BCS 
was going to turn into a real 
organization," Rotenberg 
says. "There was really no 
master plan behind it. In the 
tenth grade, I was just trying to 
convince school officials to 
buy a computer." 


Professional Level Performance 

386-25 FC Cache System 








— 1000 


• Intel 80386 25 MHz CPU 

» 2 MB 80ns RAM (exp. to 8 MB) 

► 64K Cache Memory 

► 1 .2 MB High-Density Floppy Drive 

► 89 MB Formatted Hard Drive (16 ms) 

► 2 High Speed Serial Ports and 1 Par. Port 

► 9 Expansion Slots (6 available) 

► 102-Key Enhanced Keyboard 

* Built-in Set-up and Diagnostics in ROM 

► Real Time Clock with 1 Year Battery 

► Super-VGA Monitor 
(1024x786 at .28 mm dp.) 

► SuperVGA Video Card w/5 12k 

► Microsoft DOS 4.01 

► Microsoft Windows 3 

► Microsoft Serial Mouse 

► TRW One-Year On-Site Warranty 




F complete 


(Lease $1 02/mo-48 mos) Non-cache price $2995. 
Non-cache model shown. Desktop caseavailable. 


•Customized solutions for 286, 386, and 486 systems •Optimized to run OS/2, Novell and Unix 
• Ideal for CAD, Page Layout, Graphics, Networking, Multitasking, and more. 


• Free Delivery • Free TRW One-Year On-site Warranty • Price/Performance Leader 

• Guaranteed 48-hour Burn-In • 30-Day Money Back Guarantee • Toil-Free Support 

Circle 1310on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 1311) 

Technology Corp. 

2307 Spencer Highway 
Pasadena, Texas 77504 
FAX (713)450-1836 



Dealer and VAR inquiries welcome. 

Lease and 




© 1990 Automated Computer Technology Corporation. All rights reserved, Other product names and trademarks used for comparison may l> et he property of other companies. Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. A.C.T. canooi be 
responsible for errors in photography or typography. The equipment above is FCC Class A approved. Dell. NEC, and Northgalc are all trademarks of their respective corporations. TRW on-site seivice available in most U.S. Locations. MANLOVE 4165 



1 024 x 768 .28 DOT 













EGA MRU - 640X480, 16 COLORS, 132 COL, HERC. COMP 


VGA 640 - 640X480 W/256K 8 BIT 




VGA EM-16 PLUS — 1024 x 768 256 COLOR, 
256K EXP TO 1 MEG. 16 BIT 


VGA 800/16 - 800x600 W/256K 16 BIT 


EVGA - 1 6/256K - 800X600 W/256K 1 6 COLOR UPGRADE TO 
512K& 1024x768 

1 76.00 

EVGA- 16/512K- 1024X768 W/512K 16 COLOR 


ML-VSI - 800X600 W/256K-EXP TO 512K & 1024x768, 16 BIT 




VGA/T1017 - 800x600 W/256 EXP TO 1024x768 16 BIT 



KALOK - KL320 3.5" 20MB 40MS (MFM) 
KALOK - KL330 3.5" 30MB 40MS (MFM) 
MINISCRIBE - M8438 3.5" 32MB 68MS (RLL) 
MINISCRIBE - M8051/AKS 3.5" 42MB 28MS (IDE) 

CONNER - CP3044 3.5" 40MB 25MS (IDE) 






WD 1003-WA2 AT (MFM) DUAL FD/HD 2:1 






8088/10 MHZ XT 























RS 232 CARD XT/ AT (PII-1 08) 



I/O PAR, SER - XT/AT (PTI 210) 



640K RAM CARD XT (PII-1 29) 

386 RAM CARD EXP TO 8M (PEI-301) 














KEYBOARD EXT (KB-0506) 2.86 

MONITOR EXT (MR-0906) 3.93 

PAR. PRINTER 6FT (PA-1 806) 3.50 

PAR. PRINTER 10FT (PA-1810) 4.95 

RS232 M/F 6FT (RSA-2506) 5.00 

RS232 M/M 6FT (RSA-2506M) 5.00 

SERIAL F/F 1 0FT (RSA-251 OF) 5.50 

SER. MOD. 9F/25M 6' (SR-06) 4.20 

VGA EXT CABLE (PS15M15F) 8.67 

LINE CORD (LC) 3.00 



RS232 M/M 10FT (RSA-2510M) 6.33 AT HARD DRIVE lATHDFD) 3 PC 5.00 


150NS 120NS 100NS 80NS- 

256K x 9 IBM SIMM 
1M x 9 SIMM 
1M x 1 DIP 
256K x 1 DIP 
256K x 4 DIP 
64K x 1 DIP 
64K x 4 DIP 

15.00 20.00 






V-30 REPLACES 8086 
8087-3 (5MHz) 
8087-2 (8MHz) 
8087-1 (10MHz) 
80287-6 (6MHz) 
80287-8 (8MHz) 


80287-10 (10MHz) 
80387-16 (16MHz) 
80387-20 (20MHz) 
80387-25 (25MHz) 
80387-33 (33MHz) 



























1 25.00 











)# 9026 CALL OR WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG P.O.s Accepted from Government, Universities and Fortune 500 Companies Only 


1 5203 Midway Road • 1 Block North of Beltline • Addison, TX 75244 • FAX (214) 386-5642 • Phone (214) 386-5515 • Toll Free (800) 962-7795 



Cirxle 1320 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 1321) 

Microcom Computers 

A HRW Technologies Company 

Custom Configuration Computer Systems 

Pre-Configured Computer Systems 

Standard System Features: 

*Teac 5.25' 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB Diskette Drive 

* 1:1 Interleaved Hard/Floppy Drive Controller 

* Enhanced 101-key Keyboard w/Tactile Click Feedback 

* 2 Serial, 1 Parallel & 1 Game Port 

* High Capacity 200 Watt System Power Supply 

* Real Time Clock/Calendar with Battery 

* Small Footprint Case (14.875' W x 1 6.25* D x 6.75" H) 
(Optional Cases Available) 


Mini-size Desktop Tower Case Add $50 
Full-size Tower Case Add $150 
2 MB RAM {Upgrade from 1 MB) Add $125 
4 MB RAM {Upgrade from 1 MB) Add $350 
Second 5.25* 1 . 2 MB or 3.5' 1 . 44 MB Diskette Drive $85 
Microsoft Mouse with Windows 3.0 $163 
internal 2400 Baud Modem $99 
DOS a30 or 4.01 $69 

Our Commitment to Service 

* Free 4 Month On-Site Servicing Nationwide 

* 1 Year Warranty on Parts & Labor 

* Toll-free Technical Service & Support 

* No Surcharge on Credit Card Purchases 

* Comprehensive 72 Hour Burn-in Testing on AH Systems 

* All Systems Madewith pride in the USA 

* Guaranteed 100% IBM Compatible 

* Best Quality at an Affordable Price 

286/12 Standard System $499 

• Standard System Features plus: 

' 80286 Processor running a! 12 MHz 

• 512 KB RAM Standard (Expandable to 8 MB RAM) 

• Wait State Performance for 16 MHz Effective Throughput 

• Landmark = 16.0 MHz - Norton SI = 15.4x 

• AMI BIOS with MS-DOS, Novell & Windows Support 

' for 1 MB RAM, add 550 

MICROCOM 266/12 

286/12 System Features, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

286/12 Super VGA System $1,499 

• 286/12 Standard System with 1 MB RAM 

• 42 MB Hard Disk w /Quick 28 ms Access Time 

• Second 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB Diskette Drive 

• High Performance 16-bit 512K VGA Graphics Card 
w/ 1024x768 Capability 

• 14" Color Super VGA Monitor with 800 x 600 
Resolution and 0.31 dot pitch 

•DOS 3.30 or4.01 Included 

Hard Drives: 






No Video 






























386SX/16 Standard System $699 

Standard System Features plus: 

• Intel 80386SX Processor running at 16 MHz 

• 1 MB RAM Standard (Expandable to 8 MB RAM) 

• Wait State Performance for 21 MHz Effective Throughput 

• Landmark = 21.0 MHz - Norton SI = 18.4x 

• AMI BIOS with MS-DOS, OS/2, XENIX, UNIX, Novell, 
Windows & 386-Specific Software Support 


386SX/16 System Features, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

386SXJ16 Super VGA System $1,699 

• 386SX/16 Standard System 

• 42 MB Hard Disk w /Quick 28 ms Access Time 
'Second 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB Diskette Drive 

• High Performance 16-bit 512K VGA Graphics Card 
w/1024x 768 Capability 

• 14" Color SuperVGA Monitor with 800 x 600 
Resolution and 0.31 dot pitch 

•DOS 3.30 or 4.01 Included 

Hard Drives: 






No Video 






























386/25 Standard System $1,199 

Standard System Features plus: 

* Intel 80386DX Processor running at 25 MHz 

* 1 MB RAM Standard (Expandable to 8 MB RAM) 

' Wait State Performance for 34 MHz Effective Throughput 

• Landmark = 345 MHz - Norton SI = 29.7x 

• AMI BIOS with MS-DOS, OS A XENIX, UNIX, Novell, 
Windows & 386-Specific Software Support 


386/25 Systerr 

OM 366/25 

he, add $300 

i Features, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

386/25 Super VGA System $2,199 

• 386/25 Standard System 

• 42 MB Hard Disk w /Quick 28 ms Access Time 
•Second 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB Diskette Drive 

• High Performance 16-bit 512K VGA Graphics Card 
w/1024x 768 Capability 

• 14" ColorSuper VG A Monitor with 800 x 600 
Resolution and 0.31 dot pitch 

•DOS 3.30 or 4.01 Included 

Hard Drives: 






No Video 


















• for 64 KB Cache, add $300 

• Landmark = 45.9 MHz - Norton SI = 39.6x 













386/33C Standard System $1,699 

Standard System Features plus: 

• Intel 80386DX Processor ru nning at 33 MHz 

• 1 MB RAM Standard (Expandable to 8 MB RAM) 

• 64 KB Static RAM Cache for Increased Performance 
•7 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Operation 

• Landmark = 56.0 MHz - Norton SI = 45.9x 

• AMI BIOS with MS-DOS, OS A XENIX, UNIX, Novell, 
Windows & 386-Specific Software Support 


386/33C System Features, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

386/33C Hires System $2, 999 

• 386/33C Standard System 

• 105 MB Hard Disk w/Quick 18 ms Access Time 

• Second 5.25" 1.2MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB Diskette Drive 

• High Performance 16-bit 512K VGA Graphics Card 
w/ 1024x768 Capability 

• 14" Color Hi-Res VGA Monitor with 1024 x 768 
Resolution and 0.28 dot pitch 

•DOS 3.30 or4.01 Included 

Hard Drives: 






No Video 






























486/25C Standard System $4,299 

Standard System Features plus: 

• Intel 80486 Processor running at 25 MHz 

• 4 MB RAM Standard (Expandable to 8 MB RAM) 

• 64 KB Stalk RAM Cache for Increased Performance 

• Over 11 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Operation 

• Landmark = 117.0 MHz 

• AMI BIOS with MS-DOS, OS/2, XENIX, UNIX, Novell, 
Windows & 386-Specific Software Support 


486/25C, System Features, Har.d Drive, Monitor & Video Card 

486/25C Hires Sys tern $5,999 

• 486/25C Standard System 

• 205 MB Hard Disk w /Quick 18 ms Access Time 

• Second 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB Diskette Drive 

• High Performance 16-bit 512K VGA Graphics Card 
w/1024x 768 Capability 

• 14" ColorHi-Res VGA Monitor with 1024 x 768 
Resolution and 0.28 dot pitch 

•DOS 3.30 or4.01 Included 

Hard Drives: 






No Video 






























Microcom Computers 1 Customers include: 

Xerox, GTE, Motorola, Raychem, General Electric, Eastman Kodak, SEGA of America, Toshiba, Genetech, Holiday Inn, U.S. Court of Appeals, U.S. Food & Drug Adminstration, 
U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Lawrence Uvermore National Laboratory, U.C. Berkeley, U.C. San Francisco and many, many more 


To Order - Call Toll Free 1-800-248-3398 

Open from 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. PST, Monday-Friday 
Microcom Computers 

48890 Milmont Drive, Fremont, CA 94537 - Teh (415)623-3628 -Fax: (415)623-3620 
3650-18th Street, San Francisco, CA 94110 - Tel: (415)255-2288 - Fax: (415 255-8873 

Prices are subject bo change without notice. Not responsible for typographical errors. CA residents please add 7.25% sales tax. No surcharge on credit card purchases. Personal and company 
checks require 2 weeks clearance. All trademarks acknowledged. Tower Is a registered trademark of NCR Corporation. Microcom Computers reserves the right to substitute any and all items with 
equivalent or better parts. All benchmarks and specifications are for your Information only and may van/ from system to system. Prices do not Include shipping and handling. 

Circle 1317 on Reader Service Card 




Step Back 550 
Million Years 

If Bill and Ted had used 
this time machine on their 
excellent adventure, they 
could have found themselves 
surrounded by dinosaurs 
rather than French nobility. 
The Time-Machine Earth 
lets you view Earth's geologi- 
cal history as far as 550 mil- 
lion years in the past or 40 mil- 
lion years in the future. 

The program lets you see 
the land the dinosaurs walked 
or view the results of the 
comet that may have caused 
their extinction. You can 
view maps of the globe that 
show the positions of the 
oceans and continents at any 
period. A blink comparison 
function lets you toggle be- 
tween views of two eras, and 
you can superimpose images of 
different time periods. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC with 256K bytes of 

Price: $69.95. 
Contact: Sageware Corp., 
1282 Garner Ave., Schenec- 
tady, NY 12309, (518) 
Inquiry 1004. 

Put a Stock Analyst 
in Your IBM PC 

An on-line stock trading 
program called MyWay 
helps you manage diverse 
portfolios by providing buying 

According to the theory of continental movement, shown by 
Time-Machine Earth, the continents may soon, in geological 
terms, fit together like a puzzle. For you and me, that means 
tens of millions of years from now. 

and selling recommendations 
based on your trading style and 
financial resources, Money- 
Won reports. 

MyWay acts like an ana- 
lytical decision support sys- 
tem, calibrating stock posi- 
tions and issuing precise 
recommendations . 

MyWay can calculate rates 
of return on an annual basis 
and includes commission 
costs in all its figures. It also 
oversees your position in the 
market through a profit report 
module and lets you do what- 
if analyses. 

MyWay runs on the IBM 
PC with 5 12K bytes of RAM 
and a modem. The program 
interfaces with most on-line fi- 
nancial information systems. 
Price: $395. 

Contact: Money Won, Inc., 
Ten Tower Office Park Dr., 
Woburn, MA 0180 1,(800) 
463-6639 or (418) 622-2211. 
Inquiry 1006. 

Fetch Missing Files 
from Within DOS 

Zaphod Industries' File 
Fetch utility lets you find 
missing files without having 
to exit your current MS-DOS 
application. You can search 
for other files across subdirec- 
tories, local drives, and net- 
work drives while you're still 
within your current applica- 
tion, the company reports. 
When the program finds the 
file, it returns the file path to 
your current application's 
prompt line, awaiting further 
action by you. This saves 
time and helps to prevent 

Price: $39.95. 
Contact: Zaphod Industries, 
P.O. Box 442, Northwood, 
NH 03261, (603) 942-5077. 
Inquiry 1005. 

Why Put Great Ideas on Boring Paper? 

OK, so you can't mea- 
sure it by MIPS, mega- 
hertz, or MFLOPS, but that 
doesn't mean that your laser 
or dot-matrix printer paper 
must always be the same old 
unglamorous, plain vanilla 

PaperSelect offers a paper 

kit that contains hundreds of 
sheets of paper and enve- 
lopes in many styles, colors, 
weights, and finishes. The 
kit includes a paper selector 
that contains swatches and 
specifications of every paper 
available from the company 
and a catalogue. 

Price: $14.95, refundable 
with your first order; free 
with orders of $25 or more. 
Contact: PaperDirect, Inc., 
57 Romanelli Ave., South 
Hackensack, NJ 07606, 
(800) 272-7377 or (201) 
Inquiry 1007. 

Create Fractal 
Images from Simple 

Cedar Software's new 
fractal drawing program 
for the IBM PC starts with a 
simple pattern that you create 
and draws the rest, generat- 
ing complex fractal images. 

Once the program is done 
drawing the image, you can 
spin, skew, grow, shrink, 
and otherwise manipulate any 
part of it. You can then carry 
all the changes through all 
levels of the drawing. 

Fractal Graf ics consists of 
templates of abstract art, let- 
tering, scientific models, and 
other fractals. 
Price: $79. 

Contact: Cedar Software, 
Morrisville, VT 05661, (802) 
Inquiry 1008. 

Write a Will 
with Your PC 

Jacoby & Meyers Law Of- 
fices has teamed up with 
programmers of the College 
Explorer program to create 
WillPower, which helps you 
write your will. 

WillPower provides legal 
information about the state in 
which you live or own prop- 
erty and helps you plan finan- 
cially for spouses and chil- 
dren, establish trusts, name 
guardians, designate an exec- 
utor, and address other consid- 
erations in creating a will. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC with 5 12K bytes of 

Price: $49.95. 
Contact: Jacoby & Meyers 
Law Offices, 1 156 Avenue of 
the Americas, New York, 
NY 10036, (800) 233=3109 or 
Inquiry 1009. 






Nobody does Portables 
better than BSI 

BSI specializes in COLOR VGA CRT Portables, 
Gas Plasmas, LCDs, and Laptops. Now for the 
first time you can have the power, speed and 
memory of a desktop in the portable format 
without having to sacrifice COLOR VGA 
graphics when changing locations. Our lightest 
and smallest "take it anywhere" portable is your 
best choice for both a compact work station 
and dynamic portable on the road. 
We can custom configure your portable to 486, 
386, 286 and 8088 systems in VGA, EGA, 
CGA or monochrome portable, to meet your 
specific needs. 

If you prefer to build your own portable 
computer and/or put your own brandname, we 
can provide barebone units, parts and assembly 
information to help you. Please call us today to 
get the best dealer pricing. 


VGA Plasma Screen, 640x480 Res. 

External VGA Monitor Adaptor 

80386SX System Board 

1 MB RAM on Board. CUpto 4MB) A^fi 

3.5" 1.44MB Floppy Drive. Cj2-» •) 

k \e> 

(5.25" External FDD Optional) " QO Sa 

40MB, 25ms Conner IDE Hard Drive 
100MB. 19ms Hard Drive + $400 
1 Parallel and 2 Serial Ports. 
87-Key Keyboard, Carring Bag. 
One 16-Bit Exp. Slot Available. 

LAPTOP LT3600 286-16 VGA LCD 

VGA LCD Backlit Screen, 640x480 Res. 

External VGA Monitor Adaptor 

286-16 MHz System Board ^^ C&® 

1MB RAM on Board. §^* 

(Expandable to 2 or 5MB Optional) CO° 

3.5" 1.44MB Floppy Drive. 

(5:25" External FDD Optional) 

40MB, 25ms Conner IDE Hard Drive 

100MB, 19ms Hard Drive + $400 

1 Parallel and 2 Serial Ports. 

84-Key Keyboard, Carring Bag. 

2-3 Hours Rechargable Battery. 

One 16-Bit Exp. Slot Available. 




Prices subject to change 
without notice 
Call (or return policy 


• Built-in SONY 8.5" Color VGA Monitor 
0.26mm Dot Pitch, 800x600 Resolution 

• Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 
■ 220W P/S 1 10/220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

• 86-Key Detachable Keyboard 

• 386-33 MHz CPU, w/32K Cache Memory 

• 1 MB Memory on Board (To 8MB) 

• VGA Graphic Card (256K, 800x600 Res.) 
(51 2K, 1024x768 Res. + $50) 

External Monitor Adaptor ef& 

• 1 .2MB or 1 .44MB FDD ffAP \\ 

• 1 00MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) % D ^ -o^ 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports && 

• Carrying Bag. Weight 27 Lbs. 

• Dimensions: 17.5(W) x 14.1 (D) x 6.8(H) 

• 7 expansion Slots Model Optional 






































• Built-in 9" Amber VGA Monitor 

• Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 

• 205W P/S 1 10/220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

• 86 Keyboard, Detachable Keyboard + $30 

• AT 1 2 MHz System, 1 MB Memory (To 4MB) 

• VGAGraphicCard (256K, 800x600 Res.) 

• Run 48 Grey Scales VGA Internally 

Run Color VGA Externally qQ 

• 1 .2MB or 1 .44MB FDD k ^>^ 

• 65MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) §* 1 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports 

• Carrying Bag. Weight 26 Lbs 

- Dimensions: 17.5 (W) x 14.1 (D) x 6.8 (H) 












































Built-in 9" Amber Monitor 

Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 

205W P/S 1 10/220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

86 Keyboard, Detachable Keyboard + $30 

AT 12 MHz System, 1MB Memory (To 4MB) 

Mono or Color Graphic Card 

Amber EGA Display (option) + $100 qOl 

1 .2 MB or 1 .44 MB Floppy Drive a ^O v 

65MB 26ms Toshiba Drive $fV ^ 

Carrying Bag Weight 26 lbs. 

Dimensions 17.5(W) x 14.1(D) x 6.8(H) 

9440 Telstar Ave., #4, El Monte, CA 91731 

For Order Only Call Toll Free 


1 -81 8-442-0020 Calif. 

Customer Support: (818) 442-7038 

All order will be shipped by UPS COD cashier's check. Company check on approval IBM PC XT/ AT are registered trade marks ol IBM Inc. 

Circle 1312 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 1313) 











































COLOR EGA CRT Portable Available ■ 


■ 640x480 VGA Plasma Display 

■ Detachable 101 -key Keyboard 

• 200W P/S, 1 1 0/220V. 3 Drive Bays 

• 386-33 MHz CPU, w/32K Cache Memory 

• 1 MB Memory on Board (To 8MB) 

• 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD *. 

• 100MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) *OV3 

• Serial and Parallel Ports ttJJ^ 

• External Monitor Adaptor 3? 

• Carrying Bag. Weight: 26 Lbs. 

• Dimensions: 16"(W) x 9.75"(H) x 8.5"(D) 












































• 640X400 CGA Plasma Display 
■ Detachable 86-Key Keyboard 
- External RGB Monitor Adaptor 














































• 640X200 Res. Backlit LCD CGA Display 
640x400 Res. CGA Display + $120 

■ 200W 1 1 0/220V P/S. 6 Exp. Slots 
' Detachable 86-Key Keyboard 

■ AT 12MHz System, 1MB Memory (To 4MB) 

• 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD 

• 65MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) *Q 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports a 3^* 

• External Monitor Adaptor § T* 1 

• 16"(W) x 9.5"(H) x 7.5"(D), 23Lbs 











































(Run 386 Window and Unix) 


See us at 

QcOflifWFall '90 

November 12-16, 1990 

Sahara Hotel 

Las Vegas. Nevada 

Booth S9106 




CompuAdd Debuts 
First Laptop 

CompuAdd's first laptop 
computer, based on the 
16-MHz 386SX processor, 
comes with Windows 3.0, 
DOS 4.01, the DOS Help 
utility, and the LapLink com- 
munication program. The 
316SL also has 2 MB of mem- 
ory (expandable to 6 MB), a 
40-MB hard disk drive, a 3 Vi- 
inch floppy disk drive, and 
a VGA screen. 

The system can display 16 
shades of gray on the 8- by 6- 
inch VGA screen. If that's 
not good enough, you can con- 
nect an external monitor via 
a VGA video port. The 316SL 
weighs 1 1 Vz pounds. 
Price: $2895. 

Contact: CompuAdd Corp., 
12303 Technology Blvd., 
Austin, TX 78727, (512) 
Inquiry 1010. 

Point of Sale 
for Smaller Retail 

The Electric Merchant 
point-of-sale program for 
the IBM PC lets retail clerks 
easily record sales, print re- 
ceipts, and look up stock in- 
formation while providing 
management with security, 
customizable reporting, and 
inventory control, Software 
Creations says. 

With the Electric Mer- 
chant, clerks can save any sale 
before ringing it out, for 
making and printing sales 
quotes without having to later 
re-ring the entire sale. You can 
set up the program so that, 
when entering transactions, 
clerks have to enter only a 
product identification code, 
not an additional vendor 
code. Clerks can access infor- 
mation on more than 20,000 
separate items from anywhere 
in the system to provide cus- 

The CompuAdd 316SL uses 12-V and nickel-cadmium 
batteries and ships with power-management software. The 
316SL weighs 11 Vi pounds. 

tomers with the most up-to- 
date product information. 

You can set up the system 
to tell you when a store has 
reached a minimum number 
of products. Business reviews 
include store sales history on 
any day, sales tax reporting, 
error checking, and cost of 
goods sold. The program 
tracks each sale by category, 
salesperson, and payment 

Price: $995. 
Contact: Software Cre- 
ations, Inc., 10035 Adamo 
Dr., Tampa, FL 33619, 
(800) 767-3279 or (813) 
Inquiry 1011. 

Transfer DXF Files 
Without Losing 

AutoSight DXF Handler 
II modifies complex parts 
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tors can quickly find an ap- 
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time period, keyword, or 

The program contains 
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Literary base of 3000 quota- 
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Quotemaster Plus runs on 
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The utility works with dif- 
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ranging from release 2 up to 
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Inquiry 1013. 

Pop-up Mail 
for LANs 
Requires 7K Bytes 

Nouveau is a pop-up mail 
system designed for the 
rapid entry and retrieval of 
messages on any DOS-based 
network. A TSR program, it 
lets you send and receive mes- 
sages of up to 900 characters. 
When you activate the pro- 
gram, Nouveau displays a 
window with a list of messages 
that you haven't read. 
Price: $25 per workstation. 
Contact: Integra, P.O. Box 
72063, Marietta, GA 30007, 
(404) 973-3586. 
Inquiry 1014. 

Pop-up Calculator 
Solves Time-Based 

With QS-Timecalc, you 
can carry out a variety 
of time-based calculations on 
employee time cards, client 
billing charges, computer us- 
age logging, and totaling time- 
based processes. You can 
make the program RAM-resi- 
dent and use it with your cur- 
rent IBM PC payroll or billing 
application, Quingen says. 
Price: $39. 

Contact: Quingen Systems, 
Inc., 530 Causeway Dr., 
Wrightsville Beach, NC 
Inquiry 1015. 



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Jerry Poumelle 

Fifteen Years 
and Counting 

A black-tie affair lets 
Jerry reminisce 

We're at Spring Comdex, and 
I've just attended BYTE's 
15th anniversary party. It 
was a very elegant black-tie 
affair held at The Mansion, one of Atlan- 
ta's spiffier restaurants. There was cav- 
iar, and an ice sculpture that spelled out 
BYTE, and all manner of expensive food 
and drinks; but I couldn't help remem- 
bering the old days, when you'd see more 
beards than suits at a BYTE affair, and 
the party would be an informal gathering 
in a local pizza place. 

All things change, of course. When 
BYTE first started, the president/CEO of 
a start-up company was likely to be a 
young technoweenie who understood 
computer chips and programming, but 
not much else. Then came the era of the 
financial people, who put up the money 
and wanted to run the show personally, 
often with disastrous results. Now the 
CEO will be in a suit, clean shaven, with 
a background in marketing, and the 
technoweenie who thought up the project 
will be carefully kept in the background, 
if allowed to come to Comdex at all. 

Or worse: I went through one expen- 
sive booth today in which the PR lady 
knew nothing technical about her prod- 
uct. She referred me to the product man- 
ager. He didn't know how much memory 
his device drivers took up (and didn't 
know what a device driver was). He re- 
ferred me to their "technical person"— 
who didn't know it either. So it goes. 

Still, there are start-up companies 
who compete with pure technological ex- 
cellence rather than slick marketing; for 
example, Sota and US Video. Many were 
at the BYTE party. Others showed up at 
the Silicon Northwest party. (This is a 
consortium of Northwest-based compa- 
nies who show their products while 

guests scarf up northwestern salmon, 
clams, wines, and suchlike.) Others 
were at Tech Southeast, now the best 
party at Comdex. 

Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston, the 
original "beards who made good," were 
there. They haven't much changed, and 
are still BYTE readers. Ironically, their 
VisiCalc program was the beginning of 
the end for the computer industry that 
BYTE originally served. 

VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet, was 
the first program that every business not 
only needed, but instantly knew that it 
needed. I recall businesspeople in com- 
puter stores saying, "I want a VisiCalc." 
The clerks explained that VisiCalc was a 
program, and you needed an Apple to 
run it on. (Bricklin and Frankston wrote 
VisiCalc on an Apple because that's what 
they happened to have.) "Yeah, yeah, 
fine, whatever it takes, but I gotta have a 

Prior to VisiCalc, most people who 
owned computers understood them or 
wanted to. They wanted to learn more 
about programming and how to upgrade 
their system and which chips were best. 
They read BYTE, and complained if the 
articles weren't technical enough. Many 
built computers from kits. 

Those were the times of incredibly 
rapid change. Memory boards doubled in 
size from one issue to the next. Every 
month, there were amazing new pro- 
grams that could do things we had confi- 
dently predicted wouldn't happen for 
years. Bill Godbout's CompuPro would 
have a new marvel at every show. Mar- 
keting consisted largely of bragging 
about technical specifications. You can 
read all about those days in my two 
books, The User's Guide to Small Com- 
puters and Adventures in Microland, 
both from Baen Books. 

After VisiCalc, there was a shift. The 
computer community never lost any of 
the enthusiasts— indeed, their numbers 
continued to grow— but they were first 
outnumbered and then swamped by the 

influx of the suits, and the users who 
didn't care what was in the computer or 
how it worked, as long as it got the job 
done. I can hardly complain, of course, 
since I'm one of them; but I do remain 
curious about how the machines work. 

As the senior writer on the editorial 
staff— the only editor who's been with 
BYTE longer than me is my copy editor 
Warren Williamson— I've watched all 
these changes happen, but it was particu- 
larly brought home tonight by the ele- 
gance of BYTE's 15th anniversary party. 
I enjoyed that party very much, and I col- 
lected a ton of business cards and listened 
to glowing descriptions of products that 
are shipping, and others that will be out 
Real Soon Now. 

But I also enjoyed getting away from it 
and out to a smaller gathering of the 
hackers who love this technology for its 
own sake and whose enthusiasm makes it 
happen. I can drink champagne with the 
new market-oriented CEO, and that's 
fine; but I'm glad I can still get out to a 
pizza parlor with the beards. BYTE still 
talks to beards and hackers as well as to 
suits and users; and I like that a lot. 

Pournelle's Laws 

Over 10 years ago, my BYTE columns 
proclaimed "Pournelle's Laws." I con- 
fess that the number of those laws has 
varied over the years, but the first two 
have been here from the beginning: "One 
user, one CPU"; and "Silicon is cheaper 
than iron." 

I have modified the First Law. It now 
reads, "One user, at least one CPU." 
This is not a change in principle, since 
from the beginning the point was to ad- 
vocate decentralized computing. That's 
a battle that has largely been won; but 
some of today's readers may not realize 
just how bitter that fight was. In the early 
days, computing, especially in corporate 
centers, was highly centralized. There 
would be a great Hulking Giant of a 
machine enthroned on platforms in an 




air-conditioned room, attended and ap- 
proachable only by priests in white coats. 
Ordinary users seldom even saw the ma- 
chine, and none were allowed to touch it. 

Moreover, departments weren't al- 
lowed to have small computers. The 
usual trick was that the central comput- 
ing department would buy what was then 
a machine of great capacity, because that 
was thought to be needed for some pri- 
mary problem. That task wouldn't use 
anything like all the central computer's 
capacity, so other departments would 
then be required to use its services and 
pay for them. 

If a department head wanted a particu- 
lar kind of report, the director of com- 
puting would have special programs 
written to provide it— and would charge 
the department an outrageous fee for the 
service. There were few commercially 
available programs; nearly every pro- 
gram was custom-written for a particular 
company. Often the programming was 
done by IBM or another mainframe ven- 
dor, and the customized programs were 
not sold but leased for tens of thousands 
of dollars a year. 

From early on this was silly, but after 

the development of VisiCalc and dBASE 
II, the absurdity became obvious: even in 
8080/Z80 days, microcomputers could 
provide more information, faster and 
better tailored to a department's needs, 
than ever could the Hulking Giant in the 
basement. Pournelle's Law, One user, 
one CPU, was a declaration of indepen- 
dence from Central Computing. 

After that battle was won, there was 
still the war against multiuser microcom- 
puters, which I consider a compound ab- 
surdity. The corollary to Pournelle's 
First Law is "Networks, not multiuser." 
It was one reason I remained opposed to 
Unix, which has always been a multiuser 
scheme and has been used to justify 
enormous central systems. 

I have no objections to large central 
systems, provided that there's something 
real for them to do and, more important, 
that they are networked to independent 
workstations. The central system can 
provide central databases, networked 
automatic backup capabilities, and such- 
like; but the heart of the computer revo- 
lution is to provide each employee with 
tools not lock-stepped to everything else; 
to liberate individual creative energies; 

to let people do things their own way. 
That battle is not yet won. Diskless work- 
stations are the latest ploy in the eternal 
war of the centralists against the rest of 
us. It's important to remain vigilant. 

The Second Law— "Silicon is cheaper 
than iron"— originally referred to bus 
systems. When first formulated, the Law 
referred to the S-100 bus versus "all-up" 
or turnkey machines like the Exidy Sor- 
cerer. In modern times, it's the differ- 
ence between machines with slots for 
third-party hardware and those without. 

What I meant, then and now, was that 
it is a lot cheaper to upgrade your system 
by changing or adding boards than to 
throw it away and start over. A large part 
of my original opposition to the Apple 
Macintosh was because the original Mac 
was an all-up machine with a proprietary 
bus and operating system, designed to 
cut out third-party hardware developers. 
That tends to be forgotten now that the 
Mac II has slots. 

I see no reason to apologize for the 
Second Law, but it did lead to the least 
successful of my predictions. I thought 
that mass storage systems based on high- 



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Finds out-of-bounds memory accesses — 

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precision spinning metal would soon go 
away, to be replaced by some kind of 
chip-based device: bubble memory, ho- 
lographic memory, nonvolatile memory 
chips; I wasn't sure what would do the 
job, but I was certain something would 
come up to replace the hard disk. 

That's likely to be true sometime in 
the future; but I thought it would happen 
well within the decade of the 1980s, and 
clearly it has not. In my defense, when I 
said this in 1978, even 10-megabyte hard 

disk packs were as large as— and sounded 
like— washing machines. What I failed 
to do was to factor in the success of the 
microcomputer revolution: decentral- 
ized small computers not only allowed 
the design of better hard disk drives, but 
by controlling robots, greatly lowered 
the cost of their production. 

The Information Revolution 

In one of my first BYTE columns, I said 
that by the end of the millennium, any 


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member of Western Civilization would 
be able to get the answer to any question 
that has an answer— and this at reason- 
able cost. I see no reason to revise that. 

At the time, my only model of elec- 
tronic networking was the ARPANET, 
but that proved to be a good harbinger. 
Now we have a dozen other information 
utilities, with more coming all the time. 
We have the beginnings of electronic 
publishing, with companies like Softserv 
offering "paperless books." There are 
commercial information networks like 
Dialog. There is also BIX, which con- 
tinues to amaze me: there are few ques- 
tions I have seen (or asked myself) in my 
BIX conference that have not been an- 
swered, usually within hours. The infor- 
mation revolution continues at an ever 
more rapid pace. 

I am not sure that we have given 
enough thought to the consequences of 
that revolution. 

The Soviets Are Here 

My most bizarre prediction was made in 
1980, when I said that the small com- 
puter would, by the end of the millen- 
nium, bring down totalitarian Commu- 
nism. The argument was simple enough: 
armies without sophisticated computing 
power would be unable to compete. All 
aspects of modern military power, from 
outer space to smart bombs to battle 
management to logistics to tank intercep- 
tion, depend on sophisticated technol- 
ogy, which itself depends on small com- 
puters for both its development and its 

So long as the U.S. had even a margin- 
ally rational strategy of technology, the 
U.S.S.R. was faced with an intolerable 
dilemma: import or develop computing 
power, or give up all pretense of being a 
modern military power. Moreover, such 
computing power must be distributed; 
keeping a few great Hulking Giants 
under careful control isn't going to do 
the job. 

As early as 1946, Arthur Koestler said 
that the sufficient condition for the de- 
struction of totalitarian Communism 
would be the free exchange of ideas in the 
Soviet Empire. Distributed computing 
power automatically brings the free ex- 
change of ideas. The small computer is 
the ultimate in samizdat (self-publishing) 
capability. It is literally impossible to 
prevent people with small computers 
from communicating with each other, 
nor is it possible to censor what kinds of 
information they exchange. 

The result was glasnost; and that has 
come so far that ParaGraph, the joint 



Circle 219 on Reader Service Card 






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Circle 295 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 296) 


venture of the U.S. S.R. and the U.S. that 
I described in the August issue, had a 
booth at Spring Comdex, the first atten- 
dance of a Soviet firm at a U.S. computer 
trade show. Two years ago, Soviet citi- 
zens coming to the U.S. had to stay in 
groups, and they were usually shepherd- 
ed by large men in ill-fitting brown suits. 
No more. 

ParaGraph was demonstrating their 
Cyrillization programs, which will auto- 
matically install Cyrillic characters and 
fonts into a number of word processing 
programs; if you write or publish in Cy- 
rillic, call ParaGraph at (800) 872-8777 
to get the details. 

Incidentally, ParaGraph is not the 
only company with Cyrillic capability: 
Bob Wallace's successful shareware PC- 
Write Lite now has a Cyrillic module. 

The Next Revolution 

In the 15 years since BYTE was founded, 
we have seen incredible changes in the 
hardware available to us. The 486 I now 
have on my desk (under it, actually; it's 
in a tower configuration) has far more 
power than did the Hulking Giants of 
1975. This trend hasn't stopped. Micro- 

computers will become increasingly 
powerful for lower and lower costs. 

The microcomputer revolution has ir- 
retrievably changed the way we do busi- 
ness. It has brought glasnost, if not pere- 
stroika, to the U.S. S.R. (see my August 
column). The development of informa- 
tion networks and utilities continues 
apace. What remains? 

I think the next great impact will be on 
the schools. Earlier this decade, a Presi- 
dential Commission on Education re- 
ported that "if a foreign government had 
imposed this system of education on the 
U.S., we would rightly consider it an act 
of war." Another report noted the simi- 
larity—in both organization and re- 
sults—of the U.S. school system to the 
Soviet system of collectivized agricul- 
ture. Little to nothing has changed since 
those reports— indeed, in some places 
things are worse, not better. 

On the other hand, the computer has 
had almost zero impact on American 
education. This is in part because there is 
no decent educational software, in part 
because we've yet to have really wide- 
spread distribution of small computers 
into the educational system, and in very 

large part due to the resistance of the 
educationist establishment, which fears 
these machines as the Soviet nomenkla- 
tura rightly feared the introduction of 
microcomputers into the U . S . S . R. 

All this will change in the next de- 
cade. As I write this, IBM is announcing 
new emphasis on computers intended for 
the home and the schools, with introduc- 
tion of new machines designed to com- 
pete in those markets. Commodore has 
come out with a new machine for home 
and school. The makers of Nintendo 
game systems have plans. Philips/Poly- 
gram continues development of Compact 
Disk Interactive drives. CDI will cer- 
tainly have a major impact on the infor- 
mation revolution. And the installed base 
of the CD-ROM doubles each year as the 
price of CD-ROM drives falls. 

As the installed base of really power- 
ful home computers grows without limit, 
the schools will be unable to resistbring- 
ing these machines into the classrooms. 
With such large market potentials, capi- 
tal will be available to write and promote 
exciting new educational software. 

Even more impact will come from the 









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development of new authoring tools. Owl 
International's Guide, Apple's Hyper- 
Card, Microsoft QuickBASIC, and other 
such programs will let the ordinary user 
develop sophisticated educational pro- 

We'll have a lot of false starts. The 
centralists will try to dictate the form and 
content of educational software, and for a 
while they will succeed, as they have 
generally succeeded in controlling text- 
books. But they will not be successful 
enough. Large U.S. corporations are al- 
ready concerned that the schools aren't 
producing graduates with enough educa- 
tion to be put to work without extensive 
reeducation and training. Most compa- 
nies remain snowed by educationist 
hype, but business by its very nature de- 
mands results; and there will come a 
time when business itself will, in self-de- 
fense, begin educating not only its em- 
ployees, but their children. 

I have earlier proposed that large cor- 
porations provide their employees not 
only day care, but on-site schools for 
their children; and that they demand that 
the teachers in these schools get results, 
not offer excuses for why the kids didn't 
learn anything. I think this will happen; 
and that these and other private schools 
will be a sufficient market for educa- 
tional software that actually accom- 
plishes something. 

Meanwhile, many classroom teachers 
will despair of changing the system and 
will begin to make use of educational 
software that works. After all, most 
teachers don't want kids to fail. Many 
have been taught so many "diagnostics," 
which is to say excuses for failure, that 
they no longer expect the children to suc- 
ceed; but most teachers hate that, and if 
they can be shown that there are methods 
that work, they'll adopt them. 

It will be a long and difficult battle, as 
difficult as anything that has happened 
yet; but in my judgment, the small com- 
puter will bring decentralization— pere- 
stroika— to the American school system 
as surely as it has brought glasnost to the 

The Real Hit of the Show 

Normally, it's a bit hard to pick the most 
impressive item at Comdex: not only is 
there a lot to choose from, but there's no 
way to be sure that what they're demon- 
strating is real. 

This time it was easy: a week before I 
came to Comdex, Larry Aldridge of 
Sterling Microsystems (3164 East La 
Palma, Suite K, Anaheim, CA 92806, 
(714) 632-7429) brought over the new 
Cheetah Gold 486. Larry puts together 
systems based on the Cheetah mother- 
board. The Gold 486 is itself one fantas- 
tic bit of hardware; and in it was the Per- 

ceptive Solutions, Inc. (PSI) hard disk 
drive controller. 

The PSI Hyperstore 1600 card uses 
configuration modules to run as an 
MFM, RLL, ESDI, or SCSI controller; 
in the SCSI version, it will let you chain 
CD-ROM drives to the controller. What- 
ever configuration, this system is fast, 
blindingly fast, so fast I'd have suspected 
a trick if I hadn't been running this my- 
self. Now understand, to get the kind of 
performance I'm getting, you need a su- 
perfast computer like the Cheetah Gold 
486; hanging the PSI controller on your 
old AT will improve performance, of 
course, but you need a really hot ma- 
chine to take full advantage of it. 

When you have both, the result is little 
short of amazing. As an example, nor- 
mally to run DataDesk Animator, you 
want to load the images into a RAM disk 
or into extended memory. With the PSI 
controller, you don't have to: this will 
run those images directly off the hard 
disk at any speed you'd ever want. It does 
it smoothly, with no jerks or glitches; in- 
deed, the disk light blinks with percepti- 
ble pauses between blinks. Of course, 
the light isn't supposed to stay on; the 
PSI system uses all kinds of tricks with 
cache memory to anticipate what the pro- 
gram will need and be ready to provide 
it. As PSI Vice President Eric Lenington 
put it, "If that light stays on, we haven't 
done the job right." 

I haven't had the PSI controller long, 
but I'd say the company has done the job 


My Cheetah 386 has a Distributed Pro- 
cessing Technology (DPT) hard disk 
drive controller, which was the fastest 
controller we knew about back when Big 
Cheetah was put together. That control- 
ler has been in continuous use, 16 hours a 
day of hard usage and left turned on the 
other 8 hours about 90 percent of the 
time, and has performed extremely well. 

Bill Godbout used to say that if the 
error rate is large enough to measure, it's 
too large; I feel the same way. In the past 
year plus that I've used the DPT control- 
ler with Big Cheetah, I've had precisely 
two incidents in which I got retry errors 
in reading or writing to the hard disk. In 
both cases I tried to get them to repeat, 
couldn't, and finally saved all my work 
and hit the Reset button just in case. My 
guess is that the problem had nothing to 
do with hardware at all, but was some 
clash resulting from multitasking under 
Desqview; and neither incident lost me 
any data. 

In other words, the DPT controller has 


Circle 60 on Reader Service Card 


been both very fast and very reliable for 
over a year, and I can unhesitatingly rec- 
ommend the product. 

I told the DPT people about the PSI 
controller's performance. They were 
aware of the company. DPT has not been 
standing still and has improved their con- 
troller since they sent me the one I use. 
The upshot is they'll send their newest, 
the PM3011/70, which I'll install in the 
Cheetah Gold 486; meanwhile, I'll put 
the Hyperstore 1600 into Big Cheetah. 
Then I'll run speed tests, so we can see 
just what performance is due to the com- 
puter and what's due to the controller. I 
should have that information next month. 

Meanwhile, I love it when two really 
competent outfits compete to give us bet- 
ter performance; the whole industry 
benefits, especially when it's something 
as fundamental as a hard disk drive con- 
troller. Stay tuned. 

New Speed Tests 

Everyone has system and disk speed 
tests. The BYTE Lab has one you can get 
copies of. So do most other magazines. I 
even devised one myself: filling two ma- 
trices, multiplying them together, and 
summing the elements of the result. 
Mine had the advantage of doing a lot of 
both floating-point and integral arith- 

For disk speed tests, I tend to use the 
Coretest utility; this gives you a lot of in- 
formation and compares your machine 
with a number of "standard" machines. 
The Coretest index is based on both data 
transfer rate and seek times, and people I 
trust say it's the best speed index there is 
(see table 1). 

For general speed testing, I've tended 
to use my matrix test, but in fact I got 
away from doing that during the past year 
or so. 

At Comdex, Robert Hurt handed me 
yet one more system test. I've known 
Hurt for some time, and I tend to respect 
his judgment. Anyway, it's called the 
Landmark System Speed Test and is dis- 
tributed by Hurt's Landmark Research 
International. They needed it: they were 
demonstrating what they called "the 
fastest computer in the world," to wit, a 
486 jacked up to 44 MHz. The chip was 
cooled by a gadget known as Icecap, 
which stands about 4 inches tall— they 
had to saw away part of the disk bay to get 
it into the machine— and has some kind 
of active refrigeration. 

The Landmark test's great merit is 
that you can't peg the meter: it will mea- 
sure computer speeds beyond anything 
we're likely to have in this century. Inci- 
dentally, Landmark has some other neat 


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stuff, including a kit for cleaning, test- 
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write for their flier. Core International 
makes disk systems as well as the test 

It's hard to tell just how accurate the 
Landmark test is, but I've just tried it on 
nearly every machine in the house, and it 
seems to work just fine; certainly the re- 
sults are about what you'd expect (see 
table 2). 

It also shows the very respectable per- 
formance of the Premier 9000, and the 
truly awesome speed of the Cheetah 
Gold 486 with the Hyperstore 1600 con- 


I'm often credited with making CP/M 
the standard back in S-100 days. True or 
not, I've always had a soft spot in my 
heart for Digital Research; the full story 
of why the company didn't make a deal 
with IBM— and how Seattle Engineering 
got its first DOS, which it sold to Micro- 
soft—hasn't yet been told in print. Per- 
haps one day I will. 

I've been experimenting with a beta 
version of DR DOS 5.0; this version 
works with Microsoft Windows 3.0, al- 
though I understand that Microsoft tried 
a number of tricks to prevent that. What 
it doesn 't work with is the new Cheetah 
Gold 486. "Timing problems," I'm told, 

that will be fixed Real Soon Now. 

In fact I rather hope so, because there 
are good features in DR DOS. DR DOS's 
main claim to fame is enormous tempo- 
rary program areas; we were getting as 
much as 639K bytes of free memory with 
VGA! (It would be 1 K byte larger— yes, 
640K bytes of free RAM— but the Hy- 
perstore 1600 uses IK byte out of main 
memory.) It's said to work with Desq- 

It has a number of features MS-DOS 
doesn't have or doesn't do well. It also 
comes with a quite competent 386 mem- 
ory management program, standard, that 
claims "VCPI compatibility"— meaning 
that programs that use extended mem- 
ory, such as Lotus 1-2-3, AutoCAD, and 
Mathematica, can run directly. 

I'd sure like for DR DOS to be a suc- 
cess, if only to give Microsoft some com- 
petition: look how much better QuickBA- 
SIC got when Borland came out with 
Turbo Basic. 

Alas, we've run into problems. We 
can't make their 386 memory manager 
work with AutoCAD; nor will QEMM- 
386 5.0 behave properly with DR DOS. 
Desqview runs only with no memory 
manager installed at all. 

I want DR DOS to work, but it's not 
quite there yet. However, when I sent a 
draft of this column to Digital Research, 


SEPTEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 73 

Circle 129 on Reader Service Card 

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Table 1 : The Coretest measures the performance of 
data throughput of its hard disk drive system. 

a computer 

based on the 


Data transfer 

Average Track-to-track 
seek (ms) seek (ms) 


Cheetah 486/ 





Cheetah 386/ 





Premier 9000 





IBM PS/2 80 (70-MB) 





Compaq 386/20 





Kaypro 386/ 





Zenith Z-248 





IBM XT (10-MB) 







Table 2: The Landmark System Speed Test rates the computers in megahertz 
relative to an IBM AT running at 6 MHz with an 80287 math coprocessor. 



FPU Video 
(MHz) (characters/ms) 

Cheetah 486 




Premier 9000 (386) 




Cheetah 386 




Goldstar 386 



1962 3 

Kaypro 386 




Zenith Z-248 (286) 




1 Tseng Laboratories video chip. 

2 Video Seven. 

3 Paradise Systems Super VGA. 

4 EGA. 

it sparked a flurry of activity; we now 
have a DR DOS that appears to work with 
386 machines; and they're working on 
the 486 version. More next month, but it 
looks as if they are moving on this. 

Ad Lib Visual Composer 

I am not musical. I can't sing, I don't 
play any instruments, and I can't read 
music. However, Mrs. Roberta Pour- 
nelle was a music major in college and 
has sung professionally; the result is that 
I'm a founder member of the Los Ange- 
les Opera Association, and we go to all 
the opening nights. 

Despite not being musical, I've always 
liked what's usually called "classical 
music," and since what I grew up to re- 
gard as "popular music" no longer exists 
except as "golden oldies," I tend to keep 
my radio fixed on KUSC, the local good- 
music station. I have, therefore, devel- 
oped some store of knowledge about clas- 
sical opera. I've also learned to hate most 
modern opera. As for minimalism, as 

KUSC's Jim Sveda says, common sense 
tells you there isn't much there, even if 
politeness makes us pretend there is. 

It was with some trepidation, there- 
fore, that I went to the world premiere of 
two "fantastic" modern operas based on 
the children's books by Maurice Sendak: 
Higglety Pigglety Pop! and Where the 
Wild Things Are. In fact, they were quite 
interesting: the staging was excellent, the 
actors were good, the costuming was 

The only problem was the music by 
Oliver Knussen: there wasn't much, and 
certainly there were no arias; in fact, 
there wasn't a bar of it that couldn't have 
been something else. 

I'd be willing to bet that with the pos- 
sible exception of the conductor, no one 
hearing the same opera again with simi- 
lar but different music would know the 
difference— with the possible exception 
of a very irritating repetitive atonal line 
always ending in the word hot sung in a 


Every thingYni Ever Vfomed In UNIX. 

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Kernel Size 



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30 meg 

Min. Memory Required 640K 

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38.7 sec 

100.3 sec 




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falsetto rising tone. So it goes. 

But it got me to thinking. I recently in- 
stalled the Ad Lib Synthesizer Card in 
the Cheetah Gold 486. 1 confess I did that 
largely for games: many games now use 
the Ad Lib sound system. The Railroad 
Tycoon game sounds great with the Ad 
Lib system. The card doesn't require any 
software overhead, so except for using up 
a slot, it's no problem to have it there; 
and adding it gives your PC about the 
same sound capability as the Mac. 

The Ad Lib card came with the Visual 
Composer program. This, it turns out, is 
extremely easy to use: when you invoke 
it, the program comes up with a display 
of a piano keyboard over on the left. 
Click on a key, and it plays. You can also 
click in the grid-lined space out to the 
right of the keys, and any notes put there 
will play when you tell the program to 
play your "tune." 

You can put in notes in the "first 
voice," adjust them until you like them, 
and then add the "second voice." Notes 
put in that voice will play simultaneously 
with those in first, but nothing you do in 
second voice mode will affect first voice. 
When you have those two right, you can 
add a third— up to 1 1 voices, each inde- 
pendently editable. You can play any sin- 
gle voice, or all at once. There is also a 
whole bunch of preset instrument sounds 
you can add. 

When we got back from the opera, I 
put up Visual Composer and began noo- 
dling around. The results are a bit weird, 
but I like it better than what I heard at the 
Music Center. I've heard that the opera 
Holy Blood and Crescent Moon was writ- 
ten on a computer by a man who doesn't 
read music. Maybe I'll be able to do 
something of the sort. As a writer, I 
should be able to do my own libretto. I 
suppose if I do attempt an opera, I'll 
need the MIDI Supplement, which lets 
you attach a MIDI device, play on that, 
and record the result. I'll also need In- 
strument Maker, which lets you create 
new instrumental sounds. 

The program will copy, cut, paste, 
and transpose. The notation is not stan- 
dard music notation, and if there's a way 
to get it to print in standard notation, I 
haven't found it. This is a severe limit to 
using it for professional work. 

There are better programs for the 
Atari ST and the Amiga that really do 
print out in standard music notation, but 
the Ad Lib card and program are a start. I 
know you can do some pretty good music 
for it, because many games now have 
tunes as well as sound effects. I would 
be willing to bet that in five years there 
won't be many PCs without really good 

sound capability. 

Incidentally, I play the Ad Lib music 
through a $25 set of battery-powered am- 
plified speakers I got at Radio Shack; I 
can also input it into my stereo system. 
Either works fine. 


Artisoft started off as a tiny little outfit at 
Comdex with a display out in the periph- 
ery; now their booth is right near the 
BYTE booth, which shows there's some 
justice in the world, because Artisoft's 
LANtastic is one neat product (see "Net- 
works of Peers," June BYTE). 

My friend Greg Bear, retiring presi- 
dent of Science Fiction Writers of Ameri- 
ca (I can say from experience that retir- 
ing from that job is one heck of a relief), 
uses LANtastic in an unusual way. He 
has a 286 machine set up as a server: it 
has a backup hard disk drive, an Amdek 
Laserdek CD-ROM drive, and some 
other stuff. This links with LANtastic to 
his 386 system running Windows/386. In 
one window of that, he has the CD-ROM 
with Microsoft Bookshelf running un- 
derneath WordPerfect 5. 1 . The window 
has to be 544K bytes in size; anything 
smaller would crash. Fortunately, LAN- 
tastic takes up only about 16K bytes of 
regular RAM; the rest is stuffed up into 
extended memory. With Windows/386, 
you can just manage. 

I intend to set up my system that way, 
with two Denon CD-ROM drives, the 
Maximum Storage WORM (write once, 
read many times) drive, and a Bernoulli 
Box on a 386 clone server; the whole 
mess will link with the Cheetah Gold 486 
through LANtastic. While I'm at it, I'll 
set up Mrs. Pournelle and John Carr with 
LANtastic networking capability as 
well. The only reason I haven't done it 
yet is that I'm still experimenting with 
DR DOS; pretty soon I'll decide whether 
to keep that or dump it, and I can get to 
work. Whether I'll use Windows or 
Desqview isn't yet decided. 

LANtastic is available either as coax- 
ial connected Ethernet or in the older 
2-megabit-per-second twisted-pair con- 
figuration. It's a true peer-to-peer net- 
work—no net server required, so my des- 
ignation of the "service machine" as a 
"server" isn't really correct. They've re- 
cently greatly improved the installation 
procedure so that it's understandable for 
ordinary people. They have also added 
speech-synthesizer capabilities: you can 
now telephone over LANtastic and leave 
a message in your own voice. They're 
working on a program that will let you 
program speech synthesis as well, but 








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(800) 683-6696 

Inquiry 991. 

(602) 293-6363 

Inquiry 986. 


Inquiry 995. 

Cheetah Gold 486 


(price not available) 

PC-Write Lite 1.02 


Cheetah International, Inc. 

Cognivision Research 

Quicksoft, Inc. 

1003 West Cotton 

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(800) 888-8088 

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Inquiry 988. 


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2700 Flora St. 

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Core International 

Dallas, TX 75201 

7171 North Federal Hwy. 
Boca Raton, FL 33487 

(800) 486-3278 

Railroad Tycoon 


(214) 954-1774 

Microprose Software 


Inquiry 993. 


Inquiry 989. 

Hunt Valley, MD 21030 

Instrument Maker 


(301) 771-1151 
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(408) 649-3896 

Ad Lib, Inc. 

Inquiry 990. 


50 Stanford St., Suite 800 
Boston, MA 02114 
(800) 463-2686 

Inquiry 994. 

that's not out yet. 

One reason, perhaps, that LANtastic 
hasn't received more notice is that it just 
works. Unlike Novell networking, which 
literally requires thousands of dollars of 
schooling to sell, LANtastic is simple 
and easy to use. True, Novell has many 
sophisticated features, like security and 
internetworking, but most people don't 
need them. 

If you need an inexpensive peer-to- 
peer network, LANtastic is the clear 
choice. It gets a well-deserved Chaos 
Manor User's Award. Recommended. 

Winding Down 

I'm out of space, and I haven't had a 
chance to talk about the USVideo TVGA 
Video Card, which allows us to run Mrs. 

Pournelle's Reading Program, mix in a 
camcorder video of her explaining it all, 
and put the whole thing on videocassette. 
This is one of the most exciting things 
that we've done recently. 

The game of the month is Microprose 
Software's Railroad Tycoon; I'd hate to 
tell you how much time I've wasted with 
that. If you ever liked to play with trains, 
you will love this. 

One of the most interesting programs 
this month is HyperMap from Cognivi- 
sion Research. This makes visual data- 
bases on an EGA or VGA system. 

The book of the month is by Geoffrey 
Hosking, The Awakening of the Soviet 
Union (Harvard University Press). The 
computer book of the month is by Doug- 
las W. Nance, Fundamentals of Pascal 

(West Publishing); mirabile dictu, a 
readable introductory textbook that's 
both systematic and thorough. 

Next month, a whole bunch of stuff on 
Windows 3.0 and Desqview. ■ 

Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy- 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ- 
ing about computers present and future. 
Jerry welcomes readers* comments and 
opinions. Send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to Jerry Pournelle, c/o BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. Please put ycur address on 
the letter as well as on the envelope. Due 
to the high volume of letters, Jerry cannot 
guarantee a personal reply. You can also 
contact him on BIX as 'jerryp. " 


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THE UNIX /bin ■ David Fiedler 

Future History 

Who says there 
is no Unix 
business software? 

Therearemanygreatmyths in the 
computer industry, like "With 
just a minor modification to this 
software, our computer will run 
your entire business. " One I hear a lot is, 
"There aren't any good business applica- 
tions available yet on Unix." And yet 
there are almost 400 pages of application 
programs listed in UniForum's 1990 
Unix Products Directory. 

I'm not going to reveal a secret con- 
spiracy involving evil DOS software ven- 
dors bribing computer tabloid writers. 
There aren't any. Neither will I recite the 
litany of reasons why this unfortunate 
state of affairs did occur. And, in spite of 
the growing popularity of this column, 
I'm under no illusions: Misconceptions 
and prejudices of this magnitude don't go 
away after being exposed to logic. 

Without getting on any soapboxes, 
though, I' d like t o make sure the facts are 
clear. There are at least a dozen Unix 
spreadsheets and even more word proces- 
sors. Accounting packages and DBMS 
platforms abound. There are many per- 
sonnel, sales, project management, and 
office-automation programs. 

And then there are vertical market 
packages. If your company is involved in 
farming, construction, medicine, retail 
sales, law, finance, real estate, manufac- 
turing, insurance, or a host of other in- 
dustries and professions, there are many 
packages to choose from. Do you run a 
bank? Perhaps a blood bank? A speak- 
ers' bureau? A funeral home? Are you a 
yacht broker? An importer? Do you sell 
off-road accessories? Lumber? There are 
packages for all these and more. 

Enough already. The point is that 
Unix applications do exist, and the main 
reason they do is, clearly, that companies 

are using Unix in the real world. After 
all, how much difference is there be- 
tween typing "123" under DOS and typ- 
ing " 123" under Unix? 

And if that's not good enough, there 
are over 70 windowing and menu pack- 
ages available that you can use for friend- 
ly front ends. 

Let's See What Develops 

Even with all the applications available 
now, there's plenty of room for more, es- 
pecially better ones. I know there are 
many developers reading this column, so 
here's some free advice, guaranteed to 
be worth at least what you paid for it. 

Look at the rapid growth in several 
technology areas: high-performance 
CPUs (both RISC and more traditional 
designs, such as the i486), high-resolu- 
tion graphics (SuperVGA and 8514/A on 
the IBM PC end, and low-cost worksta- 
tions on the other end), digital signal 
processors, and homogeneous networks. 

The end result is surely going to be high- 
performance interconnected worksta- 
tions with video and audio I/O. The key 
here is that things will have to be stan- 
dardized at some level so that they will 
all work together. 

From the software end, you want to be 
developing on one of two main fronts. 
Users will demand applications that are 
not only intuitive (from a real user's 
point of view), but work intelligently and 
invisibly with whatever resources are 
available. In other words, the application 
should automatically find and use things 
like color graphics, a mouse, voice I/O, 
network connections, and printers. It 
shouldn't require a guru to install or a 
supervisor to type chmod commands. 

The other way to succeed is to make 
the glue that holds all this together. De- 
velop a program that can locate resources 
across a network, for instance. Write a 
universal driver for a pop-up window. 




THE UNIX /bin 

Figure out a way to wrap applications 
software in a self-installing package so 
you don't need that guru. Develop soft- 
ware that makes network administration 
easier. Invent an expert system that will 
generate optimally intuitive software. 
Then sell all this stuff to the developer in 
the previous paragraph. 

Daze of Future Past 

It's certainly hard to believe that 15 years 
have passed since I saw my first issue of 

BYTE. Fifteen years is an appreciable 
period of time in anyone's life, and it is 
several generations in the computer in- 
dustry, of which even Unix is but one 
small part. 

In 1975, Unix was already six years 
old, but it had still been ported only to 
Digital Equipment architecture, and it 
had just been rewritten in C (from assem- 
bly language) two years before. Com- 
puter scientists outside Bell Labs had 
learned of the existence of Unix a little 

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over a year before that, with the publica- 
tion of the paper The Unix Time-Sharing 
System by Dennis Ritchie and Ken 
Thompson in the Communications of the 
ACM. And the first "modern" revision 
of Unix, called version 6, was still about 
a year away. 

Without gazing nostalgically at the 
past too long, I think it's important to re- 
alize how far Unix has come before I talk 
about where it is going. Those who have 
been involved almost exclusively with 
Unix have seen it grow into a major force 
in the industry. Yet, until quite recently, 
Unix has not had much impact on the 
public, compared to, say, hardware prod- 
ucts such as the IBM PC and the Apple 

On the other hand, how many software 
products are still around, let alone grow- 
ing as fast as Unix, 20 years after their 
introduction? This in spite of the confu- 
sion created by the relatively large num- 
ber of revisions and semicompatible ver- 
sions of Unix that have existed at just 
about every moment of its life span. 

A Patch of Blue Sky 

The next 15 years is almost too far ahead 
to predict, at least in terms of the com- 
puter industry. It seems clear, however, 
that Unix itself will cease to be a major 
issue, just as "to C or not to C" is no 
longer the question for many software de- 
velopers. After all, how many other 
technical issues do manufacturers as di- 
verse as Apple, AT&T, Compaq, Cray, 
Data General, DEC, IBM, and Sun agree 
on? Even now, people are starting to use 
the term "open systems" to avoid being 
associated with Unix exclusively; yet 
"open systems" is little more than a eu- 
phemism for "Unix and Ethernet." 

In the years to come, Unix— or what- 
ever name the megaconsortia of the fu- 
ture give it— will be the core of a com- 
pany's information resource network 
(except for those companies too small to 
have more than one computer). Whether 
the users deal with Unix directly (which 
I think is unlikely) or with a front end, 
such as a graphical user interface (GUI), 
is a moot point; Unix will someday be as 
ubiquitous as microprocessors are today. 
The reason has nothing to do with its 
many benefits to developers. It is simply 
that there's no other nonproprietary sys- 
tem that supports multiple hardware plat- 
forms, not to mention networking and 
other standards. Users and developers 
have agreed that it's the training and sup- 
port costs that make or break software, 
and a common standard for all types of 
computers— not just Intel-based ones— is 





^ ' 

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the only way to go. 

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no more than a front end for Unix. That's 
happening now, with interface products 
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A Real Product 

Of more concern to users will be what I 
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Hack (GOSH) or Multimedia User Envi- 
ronment (MUSE)— two terms that I will 
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These are what today are known as GUIs 
but will evolve into intelligent multitask- 
ing environments that will themselves be 
available across multiple software and 
hardware platforms. 

IXI Software's current X. desktop 
product is an early example of this type 
of thinking. While it was originally writ- 
ten for Unix, there are ports under way 
for both DEC'S VMS and IBM's MVS. 
X. desktop is a complete graphical front 
end that lets a user deal with files, direc- 
tories, and applications without knowing 
anything about the underlying operating 
system. It's a perfect analogy to Unix, 
which was designed to let a user or pro- 
grammer deal with files, directories, 
and applications without knowing any- 
thing about the underlying hardware. 
When was the last time you, as a user, 
cared about hexadecimal load points? Yet 
many computer users routinely dealt 
with such problems not very long ago. 

Of course, the technical developments 
occuring even now make it obvious that 
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ness, of current hardware and software. 
After the dust of new standard-making 
settles, though, you'll finally have com- 
puters that will do more of what people 
really need them for. Just wait till you 
see MegaRogue Turbo Plus, with live 
dragons! ■ 

David Fiedler is executive producer of 
Unix Video Quarterly and coauthor of 
the book Unix System Administration. 
He has helped start several Unix-related 
publications. You can reach him on BIX 
as "fiedler. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
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Is the Mac really 
the best machine for 
desktop publishing? 

In my line of work, I occasionally 
use desktop publishing (DTP) soft- 
ware to produce some pretty basic 
camera-ready items— stationery 
and business cards for my consulting 
company, an occasional flier or short 
brochure for my university department, 
that sort of thing. But I'm no pro, that's 
for sure. 

Imagine my surprise when I found out 
that I was supposed to talk about the hot- 
test DTP tips at the recent MacWorld 
Expo. Well, I'm a member of the Expo's 
advisory board, so I wanted to give it my 
best shot. For me, it meant getting to 
know DTP from the point of view of the 
pros who live that life every day. Along 
the way, I found out something very in- 
teresting: The Macintosh's reputation as 
the microcomputer of choice for DTP 
work is well deserved. 

Surprising Facts 

First, most of the professional desktop 
publishers I talked with weren't ardent 
MacFolk. This surprised me, as I ex- 
pected just the opposite. But the dozen or 
so people I worked with in Chicago, Bos- 
ton, San Francisco, and Cupertino were 
not in that league. They use the Mac for 
their DTP work because it suits their 
work flow the best. They've tried other 
systems, including high-end 386 and 486 
machines running DOS and Windows or 
OS/2 along with PageMaker or Ventura 
Publisher; several have also tried a Sun 
SPARCstation and a NeXT Computer, 
both running Unix and FrameMaker. 

The overall consensus was that the 
Mac is the best compromise of perfor- 
mance, an easily learned interface, ex- 
pandability, known value, and reliabil- 


The Place to Be 

for DTP 

ity. These desktop publishers also men- 
tioned the ease with which they can sell 
or upgrade an older Mac to get a high- 
powered Mac Ilci or Ilf x. The Mac is the 
machine of choice for people in this type 
of work. 

What I next learned startled me. It's 
the software, not the Mac's WYSIWYG 
display, that first got their interest. An- 
other surprise: It wasn't page-layout soft- 
ware like PageMaker, but high-resolu- 
tion drawing software that won them 
over. Virtually all the desktop publishers 
I consulted have commercial art back- 
grounds, so they understand color and 
graphical elements better than I do. 

The raft of good monochrome and 
color drawing programs for the Mac 
(e.g., Illustrator, FreeHand, PixelPaint 
Professional, MacDraw II, ImageStudio, 
and Cricket Draw) convinced them that 
the Mac is the place to be for DTP. They 
all mentioned that DOS, Windows, and 
OS/2 machines (or Unix workstations) 

couldn't come close to the array of spe- 
cialized drawing software on the Mac. 

Less Surprising Facts 

Finally, though, I started to validate a 
few things I expected (whew!). Page- 
Maker is the most popular page-layout 
program for DTP, but Quark XPress is 
close behind. PageMaker 4.0 excels at 
flowing text, and its typographic features 
(e.g., hyphenation, kerning, and lead- 
ing) are much improved over version 3 .0. 
It also includes a useful Story Editor that 
most of these desktop publishers believe 
is a huge improvement over the largely 
nonexistent editing tools in 3.0. 

According to these experts, Quark 
XPress provides more features than 
PageMaker does, but it's also harder to 
use. However, Quark XPress does four- 
color separations with aplomb, and its 
graphical placement capabilities and ty- 
pographic features are more accurate 



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Vector Based 

The Automatic 
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QuickTrace is an automatic tracing 
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Instead of drawing by hand, try 
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Corporation. ©Harvard Graphics is a trademark of Software Publishing Corporation 


than PageMaker's. That's why they use 
PageMaker for longer, less critical publi- 
cations, while Quark XPress is reserved 
for smaller, snazzier pieces. 

I was also reminded of the kinds of 
damage that page-layout programs can 
do in the hands of inexperienced users. 
Each of my DTP friends showed me 
some "publications"— done by novices— 
they had been asked to "fix." 

Conclusion: Mac page-layout pro- 
grams can produce high-quality docu- 
ments in the hands of experienced users. 
But that's also their biggest collective 

To use one of these systems, you have 
to already know a lot about how a fin- 
ished publication is supposed to look and 
how it gets to that finished stage. You 
need to know how graphical elements 
(i.e., photos, charts, tables, and the 
other visual devices) should be placed, 
how text should be flowed around your 
graphical elements, how much white 
space should appear between characters 
and lines, and what "feeling" the whole 
document is trying to give you. 

The Mac has made a generation of 
computer users literate in the basic two- 
dimensional ways of graphics-based 
desktop computing. The problem is that 
publications aren't really 2-D entities. 
They have a pseudo "third dimension" 
operating all the time, even if it's just 
text on a page. A well-designed publica- 
tion draws you into it, as if it were a 3-D 
environment that you could wrap around 
yourself. A poorly designed publication 
draws you nowhere; it leaves you flat and 
doesn't immerse you in its alternate uni- 
verse. If you think I'm overstating this 
effect, think back to the time you read 
that really good book. 

The problem is that the Mac makes all 
its users think that they can do anything, 
as long as they have the proper software. 
You say you need to create a four-color 
glossy recruiting publication for your 
company? Punch up Word, PageMaker, 
and FreeHand, and you're on your way. 
You've got the Mac behind you. You can 
do anything. It's the power to be your 

That's the problem. While the Mac 
can be a powerful computing engine, it 
can't make you a subject matter expert— 
or at least not overnight. The Mac does 
such a good job of taking us over the 
start-up learning hump that we forget 
about that niggling little problem of sub- 
ject matter expertise. 

There are worse problems to have in 
the realm of personal computing, I 
think. Like the problem of getting started 



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Circle 260 on Reader Service Card 

Circle 313 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 314) 


in the first place. Pretenders to the Mac 
throne should keep that in mind as they 
try to duplicate and exceed the machine 
that put the personal into personal com- 
puting and windows on desktop com- 
puters everywhere. 

Windows 3.0— An 85 Percent Mac? 

This, of course, brings me to Microsoft 
Windows 3.0. 1 beta-tested this baby and 
now use the release version. Of all the 
windowing systems that have tried to 
beat the Mac at its own game, Windows 
3.0 is the first one that could really do it. 
OS/2, while much improved, still seems 
bloated for what it does. 

Compared to OS/2, Windows 3.0 
seems almost lean. It will even run on a 
640K-byte XT! Also, it automatically 
configures to your hardware on start- 
up—getting the most functionality out of 
an 8086-, 286-, or 386-based system with 
1 megabyte of RAM, and a 386-based 
system with more than a megabyte of ex- 
tended RAM. If you want to know more 
about Windows 3.0, see Jon Udell's ex- 
cellent First Impression "Three's the 
One" in the June BYTE. My bottom line 
is simple. Windows 3.0 gives you about 
85 percent of a Mac on almost any kind 
of PC, and that could be enough to induce 
Mac software developers to look at IBM 
platforms lovingly. 

Tip of the Month: On Location 

Mitch Kapor is one of the really bright 
guys in the computer business. Founder 
of Lotus Development, Kapor now heads 
a small start-up company called On 
Technology. Its first product, a desk ac- 
cessory (DA) called On Location, por- 
tends good things for the company. 

On Location lists for $129.95, which 
is much too high for what it does. It pro- 
vides an active index of files and file con- 
tents on your disks that can be searched 
at high speed. You can get much of what 
On Location does in other DAs and util- 
ities, including CE Software's excellent 
DiskTop, but On Location is arguably 
faster and easier to handle. But it's also 

I have been using version 1.0 since 
March, and I like it. But I don't like the 
fact that I've had to recreate the indexes 
at least a dozen times because of a repeat- 
ing "This index is damaged" problem. 
This is especially troublesome, since it 
takes On Location over an hour to index a 
big disk. It takes about 2 Vi hours to do a 
Jasmine DirectDrive 180 of mine that 
holds 170 MB in 9200 files, and that's on 
a processor-cached 8-MB Mac Ilci. On 
slower Macs, the indexing performance 
is even slower. Once the indexes are 


DiskTop $99.95 

CE Software, Inc. 

1854 Fuller Rd. 

P.O. Box 65580 

West Des Moines, IA 50265 


Inquiry 981. 

On Cue 1.3 $59.95 

Icom Simulations, Inc. 
648 South Wheeling Rd. 
Wheeling, IL 60090 
(708) 520-4440 
Inquiry 982. 

On Location 1.0 $129.95 

On Technology, Inc. 
One Cambridge Center 
Cambridge, MA 02142 
(617) 225-2545 
Inquiry 983. 

PageMaker 4.0 $795 

upgrade from 3.x $150 

Aldus Corp. 
411 First Ave. S 
Seattle, WA 98104 
(206) 622-5500 
Inquiry 984. 

QuarkXPress 3.0 $795 

Quark, Inc. 

300 South Jackson St. , Suite 100 

Denver, CO 80209 


Inquiry 985. 

created, the searches are done in real 
time, and blindingly fast, even on less 
prodigious iron than the Ilci. 

On Location also has intermittent 
start-up trouble with some shareware IN- 
ITs, especially SuperClock, and with 
Icom Simulations' On Cue menu-bar ap- 
plication launcher. For what On Loca- 
tion costs, and considering that it's the 
company's only product, On Technology 
needs to get version 1 . 1 out quickly, with 
a large dollop of robustness added. Drop- 
ping the list price to $75 wouldn't hurt, 
either. ■ 

Don Crabb is the director of laboratories 
and a senior lecturer for the computer 
science department at the University of 
Chicago. He is also a contributing editor 
for BYTE. He can be reached on BIX as 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 




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SEPTEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 91 

TOOLS '91 

Technology of Object-Oriented Languages and Systems 

International Conference & Exhibition 

CNIT Paris (La Defense), March 4-8, 1991 

Program Chairman: Jean Bezivin, Conference Chairman: Bertrand Meyer 

. * ■ 

TOOLS '91 will continue the tradition of 

excellence and practicality which have es- 
tablished TOOLS as the major international 
conference devoted to the practice of object- 
oriented programming. TOOLS '91 will 
include tutorials, workshops, invited pre- 
sentations, submitted papers, and an exhibi- 
tion of industrial and research object-ori- 
ented tools. 
The conference format will include: 

□ Tutorials (on March 4-5) address- 
ing major topics in the field of object- 
oriented methods, languages, tools 
and applications:: 

Invited presentations by interna- 
tional object-oriented experts. 
Submitted papers on important 
practical aspects of object-oriented 

An industrial exhibition of object- 
oriented tools, languages, environ- 
ments, databases and their applica- 
The conference will once again be held in the 
exciting new CNIT center in Paris (La 
Defense), a business arid conference center 
devoted entirely to technologies of the future. 

submitting a paper 

TOOLS l 91 is now soliciting papers on all 




aspects of object-oriented technology. All 
submitted papers should have a strong practi- 
cal bent and emphasize applications. A non- 
exhaustive list of suggested topics includes: 

□ Reports of actual experiences with 
object-oriented tools and methods. 

G New developments in the technology. 

'□ Development and use of reusable 
component libraries. 

Q Management and educational issues. 

If you intend to submit a paper, check the 
appropriate box on the coupon below to re- 
ceive a copy of the Guidelines for Authors and 
maximize your chances of acceptance, 
Submissions may be made in the form of either 
full papers (8 to 15 single-spaced paged) or 
extended abstracts (5 or more pages including 
basic bibliography). Submissions will be 
evaluated by the International Program Com- 
mittee, chaired by Professor Jean Bezivin of 
the University of Nantes. Six copies of each 
submission should be sent to: 

TOOLS '91 

Attn: Jean Bezivin 

Laboratoire d * i n form at iq ue 

Faculte de.s Sc iences et Techn iques 

U niversite de Nantes 

2 , rue de (a Houssin iere 

44072 Nantes Cedex - France 


All submissions must be received by November 
1. 1990 to be considered for inclusion in the 
conference. Submissions should be in English. 
Notification of acceptance will be mailed by 
December 15; final manuscripts will be due Janu- 
ary 15. 


One of the most exciting parts of TOOLS is the 
International Object-Oriented Programming Week, a 
set of meetings on topics related to the theme of 
TOOLS. Friday, March 8 has been set aside for 
ihdependently organized events, such as User Group 
meetings or standardization committees; 

The TOOLS "91 organizers will help coordinate 
such events if they fall within the scope of object- 
oriented techniques, and will include the an- 
nouncements in the final TOOLS program. If you 
are interested in setting up such a meeting, please 
contact TOOLS 1 91 for details at the Paris or 
Goleta address below. 

Electronic Mail:! bezivin {from the US) 

geocub.grec o - p ro g . IV ! be/, i vi n ( from Europe ) 

NOTE: Tools Pacific A special edition of the TOOLS conference will be held in Sydney (Australia) during the last week of November 1990, to reflect 
the growing activity of the object-oriented field in the Pacific Area. For Information, please contact Myriam Wever, 8 Jane Street, Balmain, NSW 2041 
Australia. FAX +6 1 -2-8 1 0-3726 or one of the addresses below. 

TOOLS '91 

14, rue Jean Rey 
75015 Paris - France 
Phone:+33-1-40 56 03 58 
Fax:+33-1-40 56 05 81 

In the US please contact: 

TOOLS '91 


270 Storke Road, Suite 7, 

Goleta, CA 931 17 USA 


Fax: (805) 685-6869 

Circle 284 on Reader Service Card 

□ Please send me subsequent announcements relative to TOOLS k 91 

□ I wish to submit a paper. Please send me the Guidelines for "Prospective Tools Authors". 
This will be □ a full paper □ an extended abstract 


□ My company is interested in exhibiting. Please send me exhibitor information. 

□ I would like to purchase the proceedings of: □ TOOLS '89 □ TOOLS '90 
Please send me an order form. 

Name and address (please type): 

First Name Last Name 

Company Name 

Company Address 

City, State, Zip, Country 


_ E-mail 


Wayne Rash Jr. 


moving down 
to Micros 

systems are beginning 
to appear on 

Throughout the years of growth in 
the microcomputer industry, a 
great variety of applications 
have moved from the world of 
the mainframe to the world of the micro- 
computer. A few major areas began with 
small computers and moved to their 
larger cousins. There have, however, 
been some classes of applications that 
have resisted moving, because of their 
size and complexity or because of the 
number of users that they must support. 
Those areas include large databases and 
decision-support systems (DSSes); now 
it appears that they will move to micro- 
computers as well. 

I discussed the role of Structured 
Query Language database servers last 
year (see the November 1989 BYTE), 
and that move of the SQL database func- 
tions from the mainframe to the micro- 
computer-based LAN continues. In what 
may be an even more important move, 
mainframe-quality DSSes are beginning 
to appear on microcomputers. While this 
trend is new, it's also clear that the move 
will be inexorable. The reason is cost. 

What's a DSS? 

To explain why cost is such a factor, I'll 
look at what a DSS really is. While, in 
the broad sense, a DSS is any software 
that allows you to see information in a 
way that helps you make a decision, the 
term is normally used in a more restric- 
tive sense. In the past, DSSes have been 
taken to mean large, complex financial 
or mathematical modeling software that 
will support a wide variety of queries 



with a great deal of flexibility. Now that 
they are moving to microcomputers, of 
course, they mean the same thing. 

Over the years, DSSes have been so 
important to large corporations and 
agencies that companies have been will- 
ing to purchase and support mainframe 
computers dedicated to them. Despite the 
hundreds of thousands or millions of dol- 
lars involved, the ability to perform the 
complex modeling was profitable. 

Many DSSes were custom software, 
designed specifically for the organiza- 
tions that they were to support. While 
some still are custom systems, now there 
are also commercial DSS packages avail- 
able in the mainframe and minicomputer 
worlds, and they are very popular. These 
packages enable users to link standard 
modeling functions in such a way that 
verified functions can take information, 
pass it from one function to the other, 
and produce a result or group of results. 

You can, for example, project finan- 

cial performance for a year for an entire 
business or division. You can also project 
or analyze such diverse business charac- 
teristics as production-line performance 
or the effect of foreign currency changes 
on profitability. 

Micro DSS Packages 

Two packages have arrived on the market 
that attempt to bring the power of the 
mainframe DSS to the desktop. As you 
might expect given their ancestry, both 
are massive, complex, and enormously 
powerful. They are also unlike nearly 
anything else in the industry. Using them 
is not a trivial matter— but then, the re- 
sults they produce and the importance to 
the businesses that use them are not triv- 
ial, either. 

Business Wits is the initial product of- 
fering from Decisus, a new subsidiary of 
the Xerox Corp. From its introduction, 
Business Wits has been billed as a DSS, 






Business Wits $695 

Advanced Financial 

Applications $ 1 95 

Banking and Investment 

Applications $195 

Statistics and Sampling 

Applications $195 

Decisus, Inc. 
9938 Via Pasar, Suite A 
San Diego, CA 92126 
(800) 433-0307 
Inquiry 1101. 

SPSS for OS/2 $995 

SPSS Advanced Statistics for 

OS/2 $495 

SPSS Tables for OS/2 $495 

SPSS Trends for OS/2 $495 

SPSS, Inc. 

444 North Michigan Ave. 

Chicago, IL 60611 


Inquiry 1102. 

Stats $475 

Know Ware 
P.O. Box 17788 
Boulder, CO 80308 
(800) 759-5669 
Inquiry 1103. 

and it's a classic example of such sys- 
tems. SPSS for OS/2, on the other hand, 
makes no claim to be a DSS, although it 
does fit the definition. 

Gathering Your Wits 

Business Wits is a collection of well over 
100 functions designed to support analy- 

sis of business activities. These functions 
have been written so that calculations can 
be taken from an initial set of data and 
passed through the functions as needed. 
The package will support graphing, and 
with it you can create data files for use by 
other packages. 

What's important about Business Wits 

is that the standard functions have been 
chosen specifically for use in a DSS. The 
specific choice of functions means that 
the software will perform a wide variety 
of interest calculations, but it's tough to 
use it to find the amount of your next car 
payment. Of course, it's not designed for 
that. Instead, Business Wits uses calcu- 
lations to support projections such as the 
present value of future payments, or to 
figure such a value in terms of foreign 
currency fluctuations. 

The hundreds of functions that come 
with Business Wits are designed so that 
they can't be changed by the end user. 
Decisus had each function validated for 
correctness and conformity with gener- 
ally accepted accounting standards; al- 
lowing changes would make the valida- 
tion meaningless. But if you need a 
function that Business Wits doesn't sup- 
port, you can create it. 

Number Crunching 

SPSS for OS/2 is the desktop version of a 
successful DSS already in use on main- 
frames and minicomputers. The soft- 
ware requires OS/2 1 . 1 or higher, and it 



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supports Presentation Manager (PM) but 
will also work without it. SPSS performs 
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The only way to describe SPSS is that 
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Learning Curve 

Both of these DSSes are complex sys- 
tems, and they require that the user have 
some knowledge of the subject. You will 
never be able to use Business Wits suc- 
cessfully, for example, if you don't 
understand at least the basics of business 
math and finance. You will be able to use 
the software, but you won't be able to 
produce meaningful results. The same 
concept applies to SPSS: Unless you 
understand mathematical analysis and 
statistics, you'll get little benefit from 
this package. 

In addition, both packages are suff i 
ciently complex that they require you to 
have some training to be really useful. 
The user interfaces are well designed, 
and even the rank beginner can produce 
output, but you must have training in the 
use of the systems to take advantage of 
their power. In this way, they are like 
their mainframe cousins. The immense 
power and flexibility, though, mean that 
you can do nearly anything you want to 
do if you know what you are doing. 

This power and flexibility are some- 
thing new in personal computing. In the 
past, users took decision support to mean 
packages such as Stats from Know Ware. 
Stats lets you view and analyze figures 
and statistics related to your business. 
While it is a very useful package, and 
with it you can see trends in your busi- 
ness you might not catch otherwise, it is 
not in the same league as the other pack- 
ages discussed here. It's not a DSS, and it 
makes no claims to be one, but for busi- 
nesses that don't need or don't want to try 
a full-blown DSS, software like Stats 
makes an excellent bridge. 

Your organization will get used to 
using personal computers in decision 
making and in analyzing business opera- 
tions. Then, once the time comes when a 
move to a full DSS makes sense, your or- 
ganization will be used to the concept, 
and the infrastructure will be in place to 
take advantage of the power of a DSS. 

Growth Area? 

DSSes will be one of the business areas 
in which microcomputer applications 
will grow in importance as the millenni- 
um draws to a close. Now that personal 
computers finally have enough power to 
support and run actual mainframe appli- 
cations, those applications will begin to 
migrate to the desktop. The reason for 
this, as I mentioned earlier, is cost. 
As businesses find themselves in a 



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more competitive world, the way in 
which they take advantage of access to 
information will determine their success 
or failure. Those who can manage, ana- 
lyze, and interpret information on a 
desktop will have the competitive lead 
over those who must use mainframes, 
because they will have used fewer re- 
sources to accomplish the same end. 

The role of microcomputers is clear. 
Despite their size, personal computers 
can offer the individual user more com- 
puter resources than he or she can get 
from the company mainframe, because 
the mainframe must be shared with 
dozens or hundreds of other users. Your 
personal computer, on the other hand, 
offers performance comparable to some 
minicomputers, and it is yours alone to 
use. For this reason, applications (such 
as DSSes) that once were considered to 
be useful only in the province of the cor- 
porate mainframe environment are now 
moving to the individual, giving the indi- 
vidual the power once reserved for the 

DSSes are one of the first of these 
mainframe systems to make the move, 
because they were often used only by a 
few users in any corporation regardless 
of the platform. Now that personal com- 
puters are powerful enough, it makes 
more sense to give the user a powerful 
microcomputer and save the money spent 
on using the mainframe. 

To date, most of the DSSes have been 
limited in scope. They have been pack- 
ages like Stats, which, although useful, 
lacks the scope and power of a true DSS. 
Power has a price, of course, and the 
price is the level of performance required 
to support these systems. On the other 
hand, performance requirements will be 
one factor that will drive the next genera- 
tion of hardware. SPSS and Business 
Wits are still packages that have func- 
tions that once required a mainframe, 
and to replace the mainframe, the micro- 
computer must have similar power. The 
1990s will see the power arrive, and the 
power of the user will grow with it. ■ 

Wayne Rash Jr. is a contributing editor 
for BYTE and technical director of the 
Network Integration Group of American 
Management Systems, Inc. (Arlington, 
VA). He consults with the federal govern- 
ment on microcomputers and communi- 
cations. You can contact him on BIX as 
"waynerash," or in the to.wayne con- 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 

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OS/2 NOTEBOOK ■ Douglas A. Hamilton 

OS/2 Threads 

OS/2's unique style of 
lightweight multitasking 
taxes developers 
and rewards users 

Don't make me wait! When I 
select Print, insert a new value 
into a spreadsheet, or resize a 
desktop publishing window, I 
don't want to be ignored while the appli- 
cation grinds away. None of us likes to 
wait, and applications designers have 
heard that message. 

So spreadsheets today come with 
background recalc features, for exam- 
ple. But these features have taken forever 
to arrive, and they still aren't universally 
provided. If everyone knows what the 
problem is, why don't they just go ahead 
and fix it? 

The answer is that background any- 
thing under DOS or Windows has to be 
custom-made. OS/2 is the first and only 
widely distributed system to provide a 
specific mechanism for dealing with 
problems of this class without building 
everything from scratch. OS/2 lets a de- 
signer cleave off compute- or I/O-bound 
activities as separately scheduled threads 
and thereby ensure crisp user interaction 
at all times. 

Modes of Concurrency 

When I talk about threads, I'm talking 
about concurrency: doing more than one 
thing at a time. The whole idea is to avoid 
having a processor sit idle when it could 
be doing something useful, and to be 
sure that what it is doing is most im- 

Key factors that determine the perfor- 
mance of a concurrency mechanism are 
the time required to create and switch be- 
tween tasks and the ease with which 
tasks can share information. Because 
threads carry less state information than 

normal OS/2 or Unix processes, the sys- 
tem can create and switch among them 
quickly. Because they share memory, 
tasks enjoy high-bandwidth communica- 

The idea isn't completely new. Re- 
searchers in the Unix community, par- 
ticularly at the Carnegie Mellon Univer- 
sity Mach project, have talked about 
lightweight processes for several years. 
But OS/2 is the first commonly available 
system to implement this strategy. 

A thread is a simple flow of control 
within a process. Its state consists of an 
instruction pointer, a stack, a register 
set, its priority, and certain types of 
semaphores. Everything else— memory 
(i.e. , instructions and data), file descrip- 
tors, even the current disk and direc- 
tory—is shared with the other threads in 
the process. Threads, like interrupt rou- 
tines, require the designer to identify 
critical sections and implement resource- 
sharing protocols. 

Threads run inside processes, which 
in turn run inside screens. The progres- 
sion from threads outward to screens en- 
tails more and more "fire- walling" on 
the part of OS/2. 

But the most important distinction is 
that while processes and screens are nor- 
mally used for sharing the processor be- 
tween applications, threads are uniquely 
a way of sharing the processor inside an 
application. That means more responsive 
single-user applications and, just as im- 
portant, high-performance server appli- 
cations. Distributed databases that man- 
age transactions using threads, rather 
than entire processes, can be highly effi- 

Where Are the Applications? 

So now I'm back to almost the same 
question: If everyone knows what the 
problem is, and if OS/2 provides the 
means of solving it, why don't you see 




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many great multithreaded OS/2 applica- 

To start, building a multithreaded ap- 
plication takes a tremendous amount of 
hard work. Elaborate handshaking is re- 
quired to ensure that threads don't tram- 
ple over each other. Everything has to be 
reentrant, compiled with the right op- 
tions, and linked with the right libraries. 
Any shared resources have to be sema- 
phored, and all that semaphoring has to 
be carefully constructed to avoid race 
conditions anywhere that could result in 
"deadly embrace." If the term deadly 
embrace is a bit fuzzy, trust me, writing 
your first multithreaded application will 
give you a good visceral feel for it. 

Whenever a thread needs to "own" 
something, you have to invent a mecha- 
nism for the purpose. For example, when 
building the Hamilton C shell, a highly 
multithreaded command processor for 
OS/2, I had to come up with a way for a 
thread to maintain the notion of a current 
directory. It would hardly have been 
acceptable if a script running quietly in 
the background could suddenly, without 
warning, change the foreground current 
directory. Building a high-performance 
mechanism to re-create a current direc- 
tory notion for each thread turned out to 
be a challenging project. 

Debugging can be a real treat. Since 
the kernel's decisions about what thread 
gets to run next depend on what segments 
are loaded, setting a breakpoint can (by 
forcing a segment to be loaded) cause a 
different execution order. Here's the 
software analog of the hardware bug that 
disappears when you put the scope probe 
on it. 

Not for the Faint of Heart 

When I began working on the C shell in 
the summer of 1987, 1 worried a lot about 
possible competitors doing the same 
thing (i.e., building Unix-style tools for 
OS/2). It seemed like an obvious need, 
and I knew others were equally capable 
of writing such things. But mostly, that 
didn't happen. I wondered why. 

One thing that I suspect is that most 
people who did try to build OS/2 applica- 
tions came from the DOS world. 
Swamped by the sea change to multitask- 
ing and multithreading, they had diffi- 
culty making headway. Time invested 
with DOS, unless it was spent working 
on device drivers (which raise acute 
issues of concurrency), isn't good train- 
ing for OS/2 threads. 

Documentation didn't help. I remem- 
ber opening my first OS/2 Software De- 
velopment Kit (SDK) and reading that "a 
continued on page J JO 










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by request. Call us for details. 

CP— copy-protected; NCP— not copy-protected. 

The four-digit number next to each product 
is the product's ITEM NUMBER. Please refer 
to this number when ordering. Thank you. 


We only carry the latest versions of products. 
Version numbers in our ads are current at 
press time. 

Products listed here in red work under 
Microsoft Windows. 

Adobe Systems ... NCP 

6591 B Illustrator Windows 1.0 $279. 

7547 H Adobe Type Manager for Windows. 59. 

6590 HStreamline Windows 1 .0 229. 

7392 HAdobe PostScript Cartridge 249. 

(Entire Adobe Type Library, from 1 to 133 

is available. Call for more information.) 

Aldus ... NCP 
1332 DPageMaker 3.01 499. 

Alpha Software ... NCP 
5104 HAIpha Four 1.1 319. 

Application Techniques ... NCP 
1214 HPizazz Plus 2.0 69. 

Ashton-Tate ... NCP 
4450 DdBASEIV 1.0 499. 

Asymetrix ... NCP 
7384 Toolbook 1.0 for Windows 309. 

Autodesk ... NCP 
4519 DAutosketch 2.0 95. 

Avery ... NCP 

6006 HLabel Pro 1 .0 49. 

7336 HLabel Pro 1.0 for Dot Matrix 49. 

Adobe TypeM onager 

Rated til 

Alpha Software ... NCP 

5104 HA/jp/m Four 1. -/-The award-winning 
fully relational database management & 
application development system for business 
people ; not programmers. Offers sophisticated 
reports and customized applications . . $319. 

Before Adobe Type Manager: 

ZEEiOOEE S@S ill 5 

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in « ■ zjb Bar Esm *_ 

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Manager (ATM) brings ihc 

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After Adobe Type Manager. 

lobe Systems ... NCP 

7547 HAdobe Type Manager for Windows- 
Adobe Type Manager software from Adobe 
Systems really does Windows. The program 
automatically cleans up the jagged or stick 
figure type displayed on yourscreen ; as well 

as text printed from dot matrix printers. It 
comes with 13 scalable font programs and 
enables you to use other high-quality PostScript 
language typefaces ; even if you don ; thave a 
PostScript printer $59. 

Bitstream ... NCP 

HCollections: Newsletters, Flyers, Books 

& Manuals, Reports and Proposals, 

Presentations or Spreadsheets each 159. 

HFontware each 99. 

Borland International ... NCP 
7346 e Turbo C + + 1 .0. introductory price 95. 
7356 ElTurbo Pascal Professional 2nd Ed. . 179. 

6242 HQuattro Pro 1 .0 325. 

1514 EParadox 3.0 469. 

Brightbiii-Roberts ... NCP 
5408 DHyperpad 2.0 85. 

Broderbund ... CP 
1434 DNew Print Shop (NCP) 39. 

From Access Softek 

7288 HPrompt 1.0 for Windows 79. 

7289 H Dragnet 1.0 for Windows 89. 

Button Ware ... NCP 

6419 BPC-File 5.0 75. 

Caere ... NCP 
6004 HOmnipage386 2.1 599. 

Central Point ... NCP 

5039 HPC Tools Deluxe 6.0 89. 

5038 DCopy II PC 5.0 27. 

Chronos Software ... NCP 
4387 HWho»What»When 2.0 179. 

Concentric Data Systems ... NCP 
6575 BR &R Relational Report Writer 3 B 109. 

Corel Systems ... NCP 
5506 DCorelDRAW! 1.2 329. 

Crosstalk Communications ... NCP 

2908 DCrosstalkXVI 3.71 119. 

5611 DCrosstalk for Windows 1.0 129. 

Custom Applications ... NCP 
7474 □ Freedom of Press 2.2 255. 

Data Storm ... NCP 
4798 HPROCOMM PLUS 1.1 65. 

Delrina Technology ... NCP 
4325 HPerFORM 2.1 ($30 rebate!) .... 159. 
7351 BPerFORMPRO 1 .0 for Windows . 299. 

Delta Technology ... NCP 
5829 H Direct Access 5.0 55. 

Digital Composition Systems ... NCP 
6799 Hdb Publisher 1.0 for Ventura. . . . 149. 

Dow Jones ... NCP 

5494 E News/Retrieval Membership Pkg. 24. 

5th Generation ... NCP 

5504 H Brooklyn Bridge 3.0 79. 

2762 DMace Utilities 1990 99. 

3950 HFastback Plus 2.1 119. 

FNN Data Broadcasting 
7005 HNewsReal 1 .0 99. 

FormWorx ... NCP 
5810 □ FormWorx with Fill & File 2.5 .... 85. 
7311 HForm Publisher for Windows 1.2 . 145. 

Fox Software ... NCP 
6188 (BFoxPro 1 .02 489. 

Franklin Software ... NCP 

7071 HLanguage Master 2.0 59. 

7416 HLanguage Master 3.0 for Windows 59. 

Funk Software ... NCP 

2228 DSideways3.21 42. 

7380 HP.D. Queue 1 .0 (print spooler) ... 55. 

Generic Software ... NCP 
2265 eGeneric CADD Level 3 1.1.3. . . 225. 

Reality Technologies ... NCP 

6572 H WeahhBuilder by Money Magazine 1 . 1- 
Save & invest wisely. Set financial goals & 
achieve them. Plan for retirement a child's 
education ; a home. Optimize your portfolio 
& track all of your investments $ 145. 


in your orders! 

Great American Software .. . NCP 

4880 DOne Write Plus Acct. Sys. 2.06. $179. 
5825 HMoney Matters 1 .0 55. 

Harvard Associates ... NCP 
2324 EIPC Logo 3.0 59. 

hDC Computer Corp. ... NCP 

7389 HWindows Express 3.0 55. 

7383 HFirst Apps 1 .0 55. 

Hilgraeve ... NCP 
2323 H HyperACCESS/5 1.1 (DOS &QS/2J 115. 

IBM ... NCP 
6599 DCurrent 1.1 239. 

Individual Software ... NCP 
6222 SResume Maker 1.1 29. 

Inset Systems ... NCP 

7298 HHijaak1.1 85. 

7300 HlnsetPlusHijaak 99. 

Intuit ... NCP 
2426 BQuicken3.0 39. 

Isogon ... NCP 
7478 DFontSpace 1.16 59. 

LaserTools ... NCP 
6882 HPrintCache 2.3 99. 

Lord Publishing ... NCP 
5191 HRonstadt's Financials 1.02 75. 

Lotus ... NCP 

5417 D1-2-3 3.0 call 

5653 D1-2-3 2.2 349. 

5134 HMagellan2.0 119. 


2798 DManaging Your Money 6.0 119. 

7002 HHome Lawyer 1.0 69. 

Microcom ... NCP 

6234 □CarbonCopy Plus 5.2 119. 

7024 □CarbonCopyPlus+ Host 5.2 .. . 199. 

Micrografx ... NCP 
6597 DDesigner3.01 489. 

Micro Logic ... NCP 
6787 Hlnfo Select 1.1 55. 

Microlytics ... NCP 
2731 □GOfer2.0 45. 

Microsoft ... NCP 

7010 DWindows3.0 99. 

7388 HProject for Windows 1.0 469. 

Microsoft ... NCP 

7010 □ Windows 10-It's what the GUI 
("gooie") gurus have been waiting for. The 
latest in Graphical User Interface for MS- 
DOS machines. Lets each application access 
much more memory and do it faster . . $99. 

7387 SPowerPointfor Windows 1.0. . . $329. 

2904 DWorks2.0 99. 

2901 DWord 5.0 209. 

6195 E Word for Windows 1.0 329. 

2856 HExcel2.1 call 

2894 DQuickBASIC 4.5 69. 

2895 DQuickC 2.0 69. 

2853 HC Compiler 6.0 339. 

Multisoft ... NCP 
4925 DPC-Kwik Power Pak 1 .5 79. 

Nolo Press ... NCP 
2982 DWillMaker 3.0 35. 

Norton-Lambert ... NCP 

4928 DCIose-Up Customer 3.0 135. 

4929 DCIose-Up Support 3.0 165. 

PC Globe ... NCP 

5902 DPCGIobe3.0 39. 

5900 DPCUSA1.0 39. 

Personics ... NCP 

4384 BUItravision 2.0 79. 

7048 HMonarch 1 .0 (Data Mgmt. Tool) . 319. 

Microcom ... NCP 

7024 □ CarbonCopy Plus + Host 5.2-Control 
or monitor a remote PC from your PC using 
standard dial-up modems. Get both controller 
and client software in one package . . $199. 

Peter Norton ... NCP 

3152 HNorton Commander 3.0 99. 

3146 BAdvanced Utilities 4.5 99. 

6397 BThe Norton Backup 1.1 99. 

Precision Software ... NCP 
6600 HSuperbase 4 for Windows 1.2 . . 429. 

Qualitas ... NCP 
7539 D386MAX 5.0 75. 

Quarterdeck ... NCP 

6422 DQRAM1.0 49. 

3221 DExpanded Memory Mgr. 386 5.1 . 59. 

3220 DDESQView 2.26 79. 

4586 DDESQView 386 1.1 129. 

Reality Technologies ... NCP 
6572 ®WealthBuilder1.1 145. 


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Custom Applications ... NCP 

7474 UPreedom of Press 2.2-Print PostScript 
language files from your PC to over 50 non- 
PostScript printers. Comes with 35 scalable 
PostScript fonts and works with any applica- 
tion that can produce PostScript files . $255. 

Reference Software ... NCP 



. 52. 


HGrammatik Windows 1.0 

Revolution Software ... NCP 

. 52. 


SVGA Dimmer 2.01 (screen saver) 
RightSoft ... NCP 

. 19. 



Samna ... NCP 

. 54. 


® Ami Professional 1.2 

Softlogic Solutions ... NCP 



DSoftware Carousel 4.0 

Software Publishing ... NCP 

. 55. 


□ PFS:First Publisher 3.0 

. 99 


□ PFS:First Choice 3.02 



□Professional Write 2.2 



□Harvard Graphics 2.3 

Symantec ... NCP 






□Timeline 4.0 

Systems Compatibility ... NCP 



□Software Bridge 4.1 

. 79 

fefo Seh 

Micro Logic ... NCP 

6787 Mnp Select -M-The fastest most excit- 
ing new way to deal with notes ; ideas ; plans ; 
contacts ; and all your RANDOM informa- 
tion. Easy yet powerful. Endless uses . $55. 



Newsprint and boxes 


RightSoft ... NCP 

4155 B/?/gte Writer 3. f-Make your business 
writing clear ; concise and powerful. Award 
winning RightWriter checks your grammar ; 
style, word usage and punctuation. Works 
with most popular word processors. . . $54. 


2987 DTimeslips III 3.4 169. 

6994 □PercentEdge 1 .0 69. 

Timeworks ... NCP 
6253 HPublish-lt! 1.1 115. 


6675 DTOPS Network Bundle 3.0 159. 

3720 Flashcard2.1 (AppleTalk network card; 

1 year warranty) 155. 

Touchstone Software ... NCP 
7420 HCheck It 2.1 89. 

Traveling Software ... NCP 

4190 Battery Watch 2.0 (3V 2 " only) 35. 

5179 HLapl_inklll3.0 95. 

True BASIC ... NCP 
3561 HTrue BASIC 2.1 52. 

Vericomp ... NCP 
6771 HMemory Master 1 .0 45. 

WordPerfect Corp. ... NCP 

3804 DWordPerfect 5.1 265. 

6685 HDrawPerfect 1.1 279. 

Stone & Associates ... NCP 

3439 mnd Math- WILL YOUR CHILD 
COMPETE... at the college of your choice? 
Excellent math skills equal academic success! 
2nd Math teaches basic math skills, 
fractions-even pre-algebra $27. 

WordStar International ... NCP 

6791 DWordStarProf. 6.0 $279. 

Xerox ... NCP 
3812 DVentura Publisher Gold 3.0 559. 

6161 BXTreePro Gold 1 .4 75. 

ZSoft ... NCP 
7016 BPC Paintbrush IV Plus 1.0 119. 


Broderbund ... CP 

5701 □Where/Time Carmen Sandiego? ... 32. 

6295 HThe Playroom 32. 

5851 HSimCity 33. 

Electronic Arts ... NCP 

5804 BDeluxe Paint II (Enhanced) 89. 

Microsoft ... NCP 

2858 DFIight Simulator 4.0 39. 

Penton Overseas ... NCP 
HVocabuLearn/ce Levels I & II (French, 
Italian, German, Spanish, Russian, 
and Hebrew) each 39. 

Qualitas ... NCP 

7539 D3^MAX5^-Powerful new 
MAXIMIZE feature finds and uses all the 
memory you paid fon Automatic install makes 
this industry standard memoiy manager 
indispensable for all level of 386 users . $75. 

Sierra On-Line ... CP 

6023 H Leisure Suit Larry III 39. 

6796 BCodename: Iceman 39. 

6972 HConquestsof Camelot 39. 

Software Toolworks ... NCP 

6436 OHuntforRed October 20. 

4659 HChessmaster2100fCP y ) 35. 

Stone & Assoc. ... NCP 

3438 HYoung Math (ages 5 to 8) 22. 

3439 H2nd Math (ages 7 to 16) 27. 

True BASIC, Inc. ... NCP 
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10 titles each 45. 


Manufacturer's standard limited 
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Some products In their line may 
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Corel Systems ... NCP 

5506DCordDRAWl 12-The world's leading 
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American Power ... 2 years 

7108 APC Smart-UPS 400 339. 

6812 200DL (stand-by power source) .. 155. 
6811 360SX (stand-by power source). . . 255. 
7107 450AT (stand-by power source). . . 339. 
7106 520ES (stand-by power source). . . 399. 
7105 600LS (stand-by power source). . . 469. 

AST Research ... 2 years 

1299 SixPakPlus384kC/S/P 179. 

6795 SixPak286512k 209. 

4107 RAMpage Plus 286 512k 419. 

6980 VGA Plus (w/512K)(800x 600 res) 229. 

Boca Research ... 5 years 
7001 BOCARAM/AT PLUS (0-8 Meg) 

(UM 4.0 extended) 125. 

7061 BOCARAM/XT OK (U2 Meg, /_/M4.0J 99. 
7135 TophAT (16-bit backfill 51 2K to 640K) 99. 

6998 I/O Boardfor AT 59. 

6999 I/O Board for MicroChannel S/S/P . 109. 
6995 SuperVGA (800 x 600, 16/8 bit). .. 135. 
7026 1024 VGA (16 bit non-interlaced, 

512K) 219. 

Bravo Communications 
7400 2 Pos. Laser Compatible Switch Box 109. 
Brother International ... 1 year 

5787 HL-8e Laser Printer 1699. 

5788 HL-8Ps PostScript Laser Printer . 2949. 
CH Products ... 1 year 

7341 Gamecard III Plus (for MicroChannel 

PS/2s) 49. 

7340 FlightStick 49. 

7345 Rollermouse (Trackball) serial 85. bus 99. 

Compucable ... 2 years 
1604 2-Position switch box 25. 

Cuesta .. . 1 year 
1 608 Datasaver 400 Watt (power backup) 429. 

Curtis ... lifetime 
1694 Emerald SP-2 36. 

1707 RubySPF-2(6o^/ersj 55. 

1708 Ruby-Plus SPF-2 Plus 65. 

7358 Command Center 93. 

Glass Filter Plus (anti -glare screen 
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Targus ... lifetime 

7028 Foliopac 1 $79. 

4899 Nylon Laptop carrying case 55. 

6037 Premier leather carrying case .... 199. 

TheComplete PC ... 2 years 

5140 TheComplete Page Scanner 549. 

5828 TheComplete Communicator 559. 

Tripp Lite ... 2 years 

6199 Isobar 4-6 ( 4 outlets, 6 ft. cord) 49. 

6200 Isobar 6-6 (6 outlets, 6 ft. cord) 59. 

Video 7 ... 7 years 

5883 1024iVGA (includes 512k) 269. 

4931 VRAM VGA 512k 379. 


IOMEGA ... 1 year 

5116 Bernoulli II Single 44 Meg Internal 995. 

5117 Bernoulli II Dual 44 Meg External 1969. 
5113 44 Meg Cartridge Tripak fiW). . . 249. 

2499 PC2 Controller 169. 

7551 Bernoulli II Transportable 4 4 Meg . 1299. 

Mountain Computer ... 1 year 

2917 40-60 Meg Internal Tape Drive 379. 

5502 83-152M Ext. Tape Drive 799. 

5500 83-152M Int. Tape Drive 629. 

5190 DC2000 Pre-formatted Cartridges ea. 35. 

FormWorx ... NCP 

7311 Hftm* Publisher for Windows 1. 2-Desktop 
publishing designed especially for creating 
professional-quality forms. Use unique 
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graphics. Over 600 forms included! . . $ 145. 

Pacific Rim ... 1 year 

5010 1 .2 Meg External (forPS/2's) 215. 

6602 1.44 External (for PC/XT/AT) 239. 

Plus Development ... 2 years 

6425 Hardcard II 40 Meg (19 ms) 599. 

6424 Hardcard II 80 Meg (19 ms) 699. 

Seagate .. . 1 year 

2285 20 Meg Int. Hard Drive ST225 

(\n /controller and cables, 65 ms) . . 275. 

2286 30 Meg Int. Hard Drive ST238 
(w/controller and cables, 65 ms) . . 289. 

4554 40 Meg Int. HD ST251 -1 (28 ms) . . 359. 

TEAC ... 1 year 
4951 720k Drive (specify XT or AT, 31/2") . 75. 
4670 1 .44 Meg Drive for PC/XT (3W). . . 89. 
4326 1 .44 Meg Drive for AT (includes Bastech 

software utilities, 3 1 h" copyprot.) . 109. 



6360 CheckFree (electronic checking srv.) $25. 

7546 DOS Membership Kit 23. 


Maxell ... lifetime 

2789 5 1 /4" MD2-D 360k Disks (Qty V) ... . 12. 

Reflection Technology ... lyear 

7127 Private Eye- A large screen in a small 
box. A tiny virtual display which offers a 
full-size, 12 ;; IBM CG A auxiliary screen to 
PCs & laptops. View privately in planes or 
meetings. Brighter than LCDs $499. 

I fi^ E 

ButtonWare ... NCP 

6419 ftPC-Ftle 5.0-The most friendly 
comprehensive database available. It includes 
letter-writing with mail merge ; business 
graphing, and a powerful report writer. It 
also works directly on dBase files $75. 


6556 256k DRAMs (700 nanosecond). . . call 

3248 256k DRAMs ( 120 nanosecond). . . call 

4366 1 Meg x 9 SIMMs (100 nanosecond) call 

5510 1 Meg x 9 SIMMs (80 nanosecond) call 

5746 1 Meg Chips (80 nanosecond) .... call 


• We accept VISA and MASTERCARD only. 

• No surcharge added for credit card orders. 

• Your card is not charged until we ship. 

• If we must ship a partial order, we never charge 
freight on the shipment(s) that complete the order 
(in the U.S.). 

• No sales tax. 

• All U.S. shipments insured; no additional charge. 

• APO/FPO orders shipped 1st Class Mail. 

• International orders U.S. $250 minimum. 

• Upon receipt and approval, personal and company 
checks clear the same day for immediate shipment 
of your order. 

• COD max. $1000. Cash, cashier's check, or money 

• 120 day limited warranty on all products. * 

• To order; call us Monday through Friday 8:00 AM to 
1 :00 AM, or Saturday 9:00 AM to 5:30 PM. You can 
call our business offices at 603/446-3383 Monday 
through Friday 9:00 AM to 5:30 PM. 

2790 5V4" MD2-HD 1.2Mb Disks (Qty. V). . 19. 

2792 3V2" DS/DD 720k Diskettes (Qty. V). . 14. 

2793 3V 2 " DS/HD 1 .44Mb Diskettes (Qty. V) 27. 
Sony ... lifetime 

3291 5V<" DS/DD 360kDisks(Qty 10) . . . . 10. 

3292 5V 4 " DS/HD 1.2Mb Disks (Qty. 10)... 19. 

3297 3V 2 " DS/DD 720k Diskettes (Qty. V). . 13. 

3298 3V 2 " DS/HD 1 .44Mb Diskettes (Qty. 10) 22. 
6659 QD 2000 Tape Cartridge 19. 

Iomega ... lyear 

7551 Bernoulli II Trmsportiible-The compact 
version of the Bernoulli Universal family 
removable media drive ; offering users the 
freedom to easily move his/her Bernoulli 
drive from one AC outlet to another $ 1299. 


Note: Accounts on net terms pay actual shipping. 
Continental US: 

• For heavy hardware items such as printers, monitors, 
Bernoulli Boxes, etc. pay actual charges. Call for UPS 
2nd-Day & Next-Day-Air: 

• For all other items, add $3 per order to cover UPS 
Shipping. For such items, we automatically use UPS 
2nd-Day-Air at no extra charge if you are more than 2 
days from us by UPS ground. 


• For monitors, printers, Bernoulli Boxes, computers, 
hard drives, and power backups, actual UPS Blue 
charge will be added. For all other items, add $3 per 

Alaska and outside Continental US: 

• Call 603/446-7721 for information. 


Nothing obnoxious. 

. The Intel 

I Coprocessor 


Intel ... 5 years 

4275 Connection CoProcessor-Sends and 
receives faxes from within many popular 
applications. Communicate without inter- 
rupting your work. Includes Central Point's 
PC Tools Deluxe 6.0 $529. 

Datadesk ... 3 years 

6901 Switchboard 175. 

Diconix ... 1 year 
5655 150 Plus Printer (Parallel) 359. 

Epson ... 1 year 

We are an authorized Epson Service Center. 
1906 FX-850(80 col., 264 cps, 9 pin) . . . call 
1904 FX-1050 (736 col., 264 cps, 9 pin) . . call 

5183 LQ-510 (BO col., 180 cps, 24 pin). . . call 
1930 LQ-850 (80 col., 264 cps, 24 pin) . . call 
6765 LQ-1010 (736co/., 180 cps, 24 pin) call 
1917 LQ-1050 (736 col., 264 cps, 24 pin) call 

5184 LX-81 0(80 col., 180 cps, 9 pin). . . . call 
1052 Printer-to-IBM cable (6 feet) 15. 

5th Generation ... 1 year 
7157 Logical Connection Plus 512k. . . . 599. 

Hayes ... 2 years 

2307 Smartmodem 2400 349. 

7391 Ultra 9600 Modem 899. 

Hercules ... 2 years 
2318 Graphics Card Plus 189. 

Hewlett-Packard ... 1 year 

6754 LaserJet III (w/toner) 1699. 

6582 LaserJet IIP (w/toner) 1069. 

Intel ... 5 years 
6421 2400B MNP Internal Modem .... 199. 
2352 2400B Internal Modem 2 (for PS/2) 249. 

5119 2400 Baud External Modem 179. 

6420 2400EX MNP Modem 229. 

2346 Inboard 386/PCw/1 Meg (w/free Ami) 519. 

4266 Above Board Plus 512k 419. 

4267 Above Board Plus I/O 512k 449. 

5336 Above Board Plus 8 2 Meg 599. 

5342 Above Board Plus 8 I/O 2 Meg . . . 629. 

4272 Above Board 2 Plus 512k 469. 

5396 Above Board MC 32 0k 359. 

4275 Connection Coprocessor 529. 


7385 80287XL (for 80286 CPU's) 229. 

4750 80387SX (for 80386SX CPU 's). . . . 309. 

2371 80387 (for 76 MHz 80386 CPU's). . 349. 

2372 80387-20 (for 20 MHz 80386 CPU's)399. 
Keytronic ... 3 years 

4518 101 Plus Keyboard 99. 









Kraft ... 5 years 

3 button Thunder Joystick $29. 

Trackball 69. 

Logitech ... limited lifetime 

C9 Mouse for PS/2's 69. 

HiREZ Mouse (C9) 85. 

Trackman (Trackball) serial 85. bus 89. 
Sea nM an Plus (hand scanner) ... 185. 
Micron Technology ... 2 years 
Intensify 2 Meg Expansion for HP 
LaserJet II (upgradeable to 4 Meg) . 219. 
Beyond Memory Board for PS/2 

Model70(2/WeoJ 265. 

Microsoft ... lifetime 

Mouse with Paintbrush 109. 

Mouse with Windows 3.0 149. 

MicroSpeed ... 1 year 
PC-TRAC Trackball serial 75. bus 85. 
Mouse Systems ... lifetime 
Trackball (7 yr. wrnty.) serial 75. bus 85. 

PC Mouse II w/PC Paint-f 89. 

NEC ... 2 years 

Multisync 2A(VGA Monitor) 499. 

Multisync 3D Monitor 689. 

Intel ... 5 years 

Above flo^s-FREE Quarterdeck QRAM 
and Manifest with any Above Board or 
piggyback; now through December 31 ; 
1990! see Intel listing for prices. 





Orchid Technologies ... 4 years 

ProDesigner VGA II (7024 x 768J. . 299. 
PC Power & Cooling ... 1 year 

Turbo Cool 150 (25° - 40° cooler) 129. 
Silencer 1 50 (84 % noise reduction) 115. 
InnerSource 2210 (internal backup) 399. 
Pacific Data Products ... 1 year 
25 Cartridges in One! (for U 11, IIP, ID) .275. 

25 Cartridges in One! (for U III) 349. 

Memory upgradefor LaserJet IIP/Ill 
1Meg.... 179. 7055 2 Meg. . . . 249. 




PC Connection 

6 Mill Street 

Marlow, NH 03456 

SALES 603/446-7721 FAX 603/446-7791 

Intel ... 5 years 

2346 Inboard 386/PC with Free Samna Ami- 
Gives you 80386 processing power ; 1 Mb 
RAM ; and Samna ; s powerful Windows- 
based word processor (regularly at $129). 
30 Day Money Back Guarantee $519. 

6839 Memory upgrade for LaserJet II 

1 Meg 179. 2 Meg 249. 

7158 Pacific Page (PostScript Cartridge for 

Laser Jet IIP/HI) 379. 

Practical Peripherals ... 5 years 

3101 1200 Baud Internal Modem 65. 

3100 1200 Baud External Modem (mini) . 77. 
3103 2400 Baud Internal Modem 135. 

3102 2400 Baud External Modem 179. 

5286 2400 Baud Int. MNP Modem (Lev. 5) 175. 
5285 2400 Baud Ext. MNP Modem (Lev. 5) 209. 
4542 2400 Baud Internal Modem for PS/2. 229. 
7008 P /NET (peripheral sharing) 1189. 

Reflection Technology .. 1 year 
7127 Private Eye (virtual display) 499. 

SAFE Power Systems ... 2 years 
4562 Safe 425W (standby power bkup) 329. 
6747 Safe400S (new) 399. 

SOTA Technology ... 2 years 
5111 SOTA 286i-12 (72 MHz accelerator) 269. 
5402 SOTA 386i-16 (76 MHz accelerator) 389. 

Intel ... 5 years data compression 
error correction & a built-in buffer providing 
compatibility with OS/2. 

6421 2400B MNP Internal Modem $199. 

6420 Z400EX MNP Modem 229. 



Circle 155 on Reader Service Card 



8086/88, 80x86/88 
Z80, 64180, 8080/85 


Fast, reliable operation 
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C language support 
Preemptive scheduler 
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Configuration Builder 
Complete documentation 
Intertask messages 
Message exchanges 
Dynamic operations 

— task create/delete 

— task priorities 

— memory allocation 
Event Manager 
Semaphore Manager 
List Manager 
InSight™ Debugging Tool 


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IBM is a registered trademark of IBM Corp. 
Z80 is a trademark of Zilog, Inc. 
AMX, AMX 86, InSight are trademarks of 
KADAK Products Ltd. 

KADAK Products Ltd. 

206-1847 West Broadway 
Vancouver, B.C., Canada 
Jl: Telephone: (604) 734-2796 
IF Fax: (604)734-8114 

thread is a dispatchable element used by 
MS OS/2 to track execution cycles of the 
processor." Three years later, that still 
doesn't tell me anything. 

Then came the infamous MTDYNA 
.DOC. At first, you couldn't use the C 
library if you wanted to use threads, be- 
cause the library routines weren't reen- 
trant. In the spring of 1988, a new release 
of the C compiler brought the multi- 
threaded library and headers and a 1039- 
line read-me file, MTDYNA.DOC, bur- 
ied on one of the disks. For two years, 
that was the only official documentation 
for most of us. 

Other roadblocks have been the con- 
stantly changing "musical header files." 
I know I've not been alone in just dread- 
ing each new SDK or Toolkit release. 
Each one seemed to bring a new set of 
seemingly gratuitous changes to all the 
names defined in the headers. First it 
was all uppercase, then mixed case; first 
English, then Hungarian. Each release 
meant nothing would compile until I'd 
made all the same gratuitous changes to 
all my own source code. 

Least Common Denominator 

The other big reason that there aren't 
many great multithreaded applications is 
that once you write one, it's not portable. 
Conversely, if you're porting something 
in from another environment, you don't 
just add threads and stir. To really use 
threads, you have to weave them pretty 
tightly into the fabric of your product. 
And let's face it: It's one thing to be non- 
portable if you're selling to an installed 
base of 50 million users, and quite an- 
other to a base of only 300,000. 

Not surprisingly, most of the first 
wave of applications for OS/2 have been 
ports from DOS or Windows. Micro- 
soft's own Word 5.0 and Excel are two 
very disappointing but typical examples 
of programs that do absolutely nothing to 
take advantage of OS/2. Neither Word 
nor Excel will do background printing; 
Excel doesn't even let you move its win- 
dow around while it prints. 

The arrival of Windows 3.0 clouds 
things further. With the upcoming capa- 
bility of OS/2 2.0 to run Windows bina- 
ries unmodified, many developers may 
think that the right answer is the purely 
opportunistic one: Write it for Windows, 
and if it works on OS/2, fine, but don't 
do anything special. In other words, 
don't use threads. 

What's the Prognosis? 

In my view, the prognosis is mixed. On 
the technical side, things have improved. 
Documentation is much better. Many 

books show how to write a multithreaded 
program. From discussions I see on BIX 
and elsewhere, most developers seem to 
be gaining the familiarity and experience 
they need. 

OS/2 2.0 promises a new, improved 
semaphore application programming in- 
terface that's touted as easier to use, al- 
though I'm skeptical. In my experience, 
it's not the semaphore primitives that are 
at fault, it's that semaphores are inher- 
ently tricky. Race conditions are just 
plain tough to avoid and even tougher to 

I see nothing that changes that. Some 
version 2.0 changes appear to be more 
musical headers. For example, the so- 
called FS (fast, safe) semaphores intro- 
duced with great fanfare last year are 
gone. What possible reason could there 
have been to introduce these semaphores 
at all if they were going to be eliminated 
so quickly? 

But the biggest impediments to seeing 
all those great multithreaded applica- 
tions now and through the rest of the year 
will be nontechnical. If sales of OS/2 
continue at current levels, don't expect 

Still, there's hope. Although Windows 
3.0 will likely give all of us in the OS/2 
community gas pains, it may ultimately 
be the best thing that could happen to 
OS/2. If you have the hardware to run 
Windows 3.0 acceptably, OS/2 should 
run fine also. OS/2 2.0 will make the mi- 
gration easier. I have one DOS box right 
now, and, for me, it's one too many, con- 
sidering how often I bother with it. But I 
admit even I was strangely captivated to 
see multiple DOS applications like good 
old Lotus 1-2-3 running in Presentation 
Manager windows under OS/2 2.0. 

Ultimately, competitive pressures will 
grow as more users and developers learn 
just what can be done with threads. Un- 
like breakfast cereal, where you can eat 
the whole box and still have no idea 
whether it's any good for you, most folks 
figure out pretty quickly whether new 
software is any good for them. Take 
heart: OS/2 threads, used properly, are 
very good for you— enough so anyone 
can notice. ■ 

Douglas A. Hamilton is the founder of 
Hamilton Laboratories in Wayland, Mas- 
sachusetts, and the author of the Hamil- 
ton C shell, a command processor and 
utilities package for OS/2. He can be 
reached on BIX as "hamilton. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 



640K DOS 

Go Beyond 
640K DOS. 

Build multi-megabyte 
programs with Phar Lap's 
386| DOS-Extender.™ 

If the DOS 640K limit is driving you nuts, 
get all the memory you want with 
386| DOS-Extender from Phar Lap? 

Large-scale benefits. By turning DOS 
into a true 32-bit operating system, 
386 1 DOS-Extender shatters the 640K 
barrier. It lets you create protected mode 
applications that use all the memory in 
the machine - up to 4 gigabytes. You work 
within a flat, 32-bit address space. No more 
suffering with overlays, bank-switched 
EMS, or segmentation. 

With full 32-bit memory and power, you 
can finally build workstation-class applica- 
tions for the PC. Your Extended-DOS 
programs will run considerably faster, have 
room for more features, and be more re- 
sponsive than those in 16-bit DOS. 

And if that's not enough, add Phar Lap's 
386| VMM" virtual memory manager. With 
true demand-paging, 386 1 VMM enables 
your application to grow bigger than availa- 
ble RAM. Both code and data are automati- 
cally swapped to disk as needed. 

Total compatibility. Because 386 1 DOS- 
Extender is embedded into your program, 
it is invisible to the end-user. Your program 
looks exactly like any other DOS applica- 
tion. There's no new operating environment 
for your end-users to buy or learn. 

Every 80386 PC that can run MS-DOS or 
PC-DOS can run 386 1 DOS-Extender. It is 
completely compatible with all DOS-based 
software, including TSRs and network 

386| DOS-Extender is backed by a full 
complement of 32-bit languages. Choose 
your favorite from among C, Fortran, Pas- 
cal, Ada, Assembler, and others. And with 

Trademark holders: 386IL)iS-Extender ,H and38<3 1 VMM' M - Phar Lap Software, Inc.; Interleaf Publisher'" - Interleaf, Inc.; Paradox 1 " 
Software, \nc; Kda % - Vi.S.DepLoflefense; MS-DOS® - Microsoft Corp.; AutoCAD® - Autodesk, Inc.; IBM® - IBM Corporation, i 

Circle 222 on Reader Service Card 

Phar Lap, you'll be using the finest, most 
widely used 386 software development 
tools in the world. 

Proven success. AutoCAD 386, IBM 
Interleaf Publisher, and Paradox 386 are just 
a few of the hundreds of Extended-DOS 
applications already being shipped with 
386 1 DOS-Extender. Utilizing this exciting 
new technology, industry leaders are keep- 
ing their competitive edge by delivering the 
speed and power that 386 users have been 
waiting for. 

So if DOS is looking smaller than ever, 
call Phar Lap today. 

And see what it's like beyond 640K. 
PharLap386| DOS-Extender. 
We open a world of memory. 

Phar Lap Software, Inc. 
60 Aberdeen Avenue 
Cambridge, MA 02138 
FAX 617-876-2972 

- Borland International. Registered trademark holders: Phar Lip® - Ptotr Uip 
1 1989 Phar Lip Software, Inc. 





No Impact 

on Your DOS or 
UNIX Applications! 

Your applications shouldn't 
have to compete with 3270 
communications for your PC's 
scarce resources. 

That's why we deliver our 

Supports NetView, HLLAPI I 
3^andOmSownAPL I 

DataTalker 3270 high-perfor- 
mance PC-to-mainframe con- 
nectivity software on powerful 

co-processor boards with on- 
board memory. 

With DataTalker 3270, you 
can offload all communica- 
tions processing and screen 
storage to the co-processor, 
freeing your DOS or UNIX 
system for applications 
processing. As a result, 
users can perform up 
to 32 simultaneous 
mainframe sessions 

without affecting performance. 

DataTalker 3270 provides 
full emulation of IBM 3278 
terminals and 3274 controllers, 
along with 32 LUs, 512K 
RAM, file transfer 
SNA support, and 
IBM 3287 printer em- 
ulation. Line speeds 
of up to 56K baud 
are supported. 

| Adds only IK to DOS appli- 
cations, 40 K to UNIX 

To learn more, call us today 
at 1-800-233-2536. Or write 
to us at 3796 Plaza Drive, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108. 
FAX: 313/662-1965. 


CLEO Communications 

A Division of Interface Systems, Inc. 


In Europe, call Sintec Peripherals Ltd. in Slough, England, at 0753-811888 (FAX: 0753-811666). 


NETWORKS ■ Mark L. Van Name and Bill Catchings 


Unite or Die 

For LANs to continue 
their explosive growth, 
networks must 
become essential parts 
of everyday life 

Like mainframes and minicom- 
puters before them, LANs are 
rapidly approaching a critical 
juncture at which they must 
either make a major leap forward or face 
diminishing sales. Mainframes and 
minicomputers never made that leap, but 
we hope that LANs will. To do so, they 
must evolve from a merely useful tech- 
nology into an essential one. 

Current LAN applications won't take 
LANs over this hurdle. The vast majority 
of today's LANs let their users share 
files and printers. Those functions are 
important, to be sure, but cheaper solu- 
tions—such as peripheral-sharing de- 
vices and sub-LANs— are available. 

The future of LANs will involve a 
union of three of today's hottest applica- 
tion areas: groupware, database servers, 
and multimedia. Each of these areas 
holds a key component that the others 
lack. Alone, each will undoubtedly enjoy 
a great deal of success, but together, 
either united into stand-alone applica- 
tions or as pieces in a cooperative sys- 
tem, they have the potential to help 
LANs take that next step forward. To see 
why, we'll briefly consider each area 


Many industry observers have hailed 
groupware as the class of killer applica- 
tions that will "make" LANs. Indeed, 
the idea of groupware— software that 
helps people work together better— is a 
good one. Most groupware products aim 
first at the central problem of any group 

interaction: communication. 

Not surprisingly, E-mail is typically 
the cornerstone of most groupware pack- 
ages. For example, the heart of Higgins, 
a package from Enable Software (Ball- 
ston Lake, NY) is a strong E-mail sys- 
tem. Higgins's other features, such as 
group scheduling, are closely linked to 
its E-mail. 

With a basic communication mecha- 
nism in place, different groupware pack- 
ages concentrate on other aspects of 
group interactions. For Syzygy from In- 
formation Research (Charlottesville, 
VA), the focus is project scheduling. 
Syzygy uses a central database of proj- 
ects and resources to let users coordinate 
work on potentially large endeavors. 
Notes from Lotus Development (Cam- 
bridge, MA) concentrates on managing 
shared documents. And so on. 

All those goals are worthy ones, but 
they are neither particularly new nor 
enough to maintain the phenomenal 

growth rate that LAN sales have enjoyed 
to date. Many of the same features have 
been available for years in such mini- 
computer "office automation" (read 
"groupware") packages as Digital 
Equipment's All-In-1 and Data Gener- 
al's CEO Mail (CEO stands for Compre- 
hensive Electronic Office). The mini- 
computer packages definitely helped 
minicomputer sales and even landed 
many new sales, but the march of tech- 
nology is still, for the most part, leaving 
minicomputers behind. 

Database Servers 

Like groupware, database servers, the 
usual center of the oft-touted "client/ 
server" architecture, have played the 
role of LAN savior for some time. They 
hold the promise of many LAN users not 
just sharing files, but also running trans- 
actions against the same data sets. Before 
long, these LAN database servers will 





ship in large quantities. 

The primary feature of these LAN 
database servers will be one that has long 
been available on minicomputers: con- 
currency control, the good management 
of multiple users of a single database. In- 
stead of the file-locking or manual rec- 
ord-locking of most current LAN ap- 
plications, these servers will provide 
integrated transaction-management sys- 
tems that correctly handle multiple si- 
multaneous users. Solid, record-level 
concurrency controls are a crucial aspect 
of sharing data, and they are generally 
lacking in LAN applications. 

LAN database servers also will bring 
to LANs a feature that is not available 
from minicomputers: the ability to move 
a large part of the application process- 
ing—the client portion— off the server 
system and onto the client systems. This 
step, however, is not as new as it might 
seem. Most minicomputer database sys- 
tems already run as their own processes, 
with applications as separate processes. 
The client/server architecture involves 
little more than moving the application 
process from the server machine to the 
client machine and making sure that the 



in the areas of 

groupware, database 

servers, and multimedia 

must work together in 

cohesive packages. 

two processes can communicate effi- 
ciently—not a trivial task, but certainly 
not one that represents a major step for- 

Regardless of their technical virtues, 
database servers alone won't save LANs. 
Like office automation packages, data- 
base systems prolonged the life of mini- 
computers and mainframes and in some 
cases even gave those large systems new 
jobs as powerful central servers, but they 
were not enough to maintain the high 

sales growth that those systems once 


People don't communicate solely with 
the written (or typed) word. Sound and 
visual information are a key part of the 
interactions in any office. No matter how 
automated an office gets, people will 
still hold meetings, want to see each 
other's faces, and just talk. A picture 
will still be worth a thousand words. 

The current push toward multimedia 
on many different fronts is the computer 
market's recognition of this fact. Most of 
the push is coming in two areas. The one 
that gets the most ink these days is the 
multimedia presentation, in which often- 
dazzling, MTV-like demonstrations 
combine traditional computer displays, 
animation, video, and digital audio. The 
other, only slightly quieter area is the re- 
wiring of America with fiber-optic cable 
and other high-bandwidth technologies. 
Fiber-optic cable's high capacity gives it 
the potential to bring computer data, 
telephone calls, TV, and streams of 
other data surging into our homes and 


Customer Sui 

• • it 

rt BBS 

...for the IBM PS/2, XT, AT and compatibles. 

Support your customers via modem. Electronic mail between your 
customers and you gives them the answers they need, 7 days a week! 

• They can upload questions and problem reports to you 

• You can download updates and product information to them 

• Multiple users may be online at once, on one computer 

• SIGs, teleconferencing, and questionnaires too 

• Very easy to install and configure, works under MS-DOS 

• Works with COM1/COM2/COM3/COM4, or multi-port 
serial cards or multi-modem cards 

Only $59 for the complete 2-line software! 
^^ Call our "demo" system with your modem: (305) 583-7808 


© 1990 Galacticomm, Inc. • 4101 S.W. 47th Avenue, Suite 101, Fort Lauderdale FL 33314 • Voice: (305) 583-5990 


Circle 123 on Re ode r Service Card 

Announcing the end of the 
SCSI compatibility crisis: 

The SCSI disk controller from DPT 
that's so intelligent, it doesn't 
need special software drivers! 





f/\akcs the aratk. 
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SCSI connectivity hassles are a thing of the past! SmartConnex 
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though you were using a standard ST506 drive. And, you'll enjoy 
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rf 7^. X> m '0. compatihili-kf 

SmartConnex is compatible with all PC ATs and operating sys- 
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3ocMed butk^ie^: lypT 

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132 Candace Drive 
Maitland, FL 32751 
Phone: (407) 830-5522 
FAX: (407) 260-5366 

Circle 96 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 97) 

Circle 202 on Reader Service Card 




Stock Market Forecasting 

r*i felwork U,*t* ftrtarwoa (hklwr 

Expert Systems 

MeuralWare, Inc. presents MeuralWorks 
Explorer, a neural network tutorial that pro- 
vides the novice user with a method of 
learning neural network theory as well as an 
environment in which to build practical 
applications. Available on both the MAC 
and PC Price $199.00. Visa and 
Mastercard accepted. 

The MeuralWorks product line is 
currently used in: 

• Oil Exploration 

• Medical Diagnostics 

• Industrial Inspection 

• Credit Approval 

• Process Control 

• Insurance Underwriting 

• Economic Modeling 

• Noise Filtering 

• Signal Processing 

• Fraud Detection 

• Bankruptcy Prediction 

• Targeted Marketing 

NeioralWare, Inc. 

Penn Center West, Bldg. IV, Suite 227 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1 5276 


businesses on a single glowing cable. 

Both of these areas— particularly the 
high-bandwidth technologies— have the 
potential to help LANs, but they are still 
young. We're only just beginning to deal 
well with sharing text documents on 
LANs; sharing multimedia presentations 
is necessarily a step or two behind. 
Fiber-optic cable has the potential to be 
great, but it's still relatively expensive, 
and we're just learning how to use it 

All Together Now 

If LANs are to make the crucial transi- 
tion from useful to essential, products in 
the areas of groupware, database servers, 
and multimedia must learn to work to- 
gether in cohesive packages. Each offers 
an answer to some of the crucial weak- 
nesses of the others. Consider the follow- 
ing cases in point: 

• Groupware provides textual communi- 
cation (e.g., E-mail) and the ability to 
share selected information (e.g., proj- 
ects and documents), but the database 
core is rarely strong enough to let many 
users work simultaneously without com- 
promising the integrity of the shared 

• Database servers handle the above 
problems, but they don't yet deal well 
with crucial information like text and 

• The database systems now commer- 
cially available also don't do a good job 
with truly distributed databases, where 
single logical databases are spread across 
multiple servers— a must in almost any 
organization with multiple sites. Concur- 
rency problems are hard enough on a sin- 
gle-system database, but they become ex- 
tremely difficult when the data is on 
multiple machines. The theoretical 
answers to these problems have been 
around for years, but vendors are just 
now beginning to ship systems with two- 
phase transaction commits and the other 
necessities of distributed databases. 

• Groupware and E-mail products are 
also facing their version of this distrib- 
uted data problem, because it is increas- 
ingly important for users on different 
servers in a local- or wide-area network 
to be able to exchange messages. Many of 
these products now can work with multi- 
ple servers, but, as on a single server, 
they generally do so without a strong 
database core. 

• Multimedia packages let people merge 
voice, video, and computer-generated 
graphics with more traditional data, but 
they are generally not integrated with 
databases or with underlying communi- 

cation (e.g., E-mail) technologies. 
• The high bandwidth of fiber-optic 
cable offers the potential for LANs to 
move the large amounts of data that these 
complex unions necessarily involve, but 
first we must figure out how to store and 
manage such integrated messages. 

A system that unites all these elements, a 
network in which your personal com- 
puter is your gateway onto a network of 
shared information of all kinds— from 
today's record- and file-oriented data to 
voice and video— now that's a system 
that you'll rapidly find essential. 

We don't expect such a system to come 
from a single vendor. We don't even want 
it to come from one vendor. Instead, such 
a system will probably be a set of cooper- 
ating products from several different 

For that to happen, these different 
technologies must be able to work togeth- 
er cleanly. Standard interfaces, such as 
the E-mail MHS (Message Handling 
System) and X.400 protocols that let dif- 
ferent packages exchange messages, are 
an important part of the answer. They let 
vendors of different components concen- 
trate on their particular slices of the pie, 
knowing that, as long their products use 
the standard interfaces, they will be able 
to work with the important products in 
the other areas. 

Equally important are new capabili- 
ties that each of these products must offer 
the others. Databases, for example, must 
provide tools for storing and managing 
text and graphics better. Groupware and 
multimedia packages must, in turn, yield 
their data management problems to the 
more capable hands of the database sys- 
tems. You get the picture. 

If such systems actually appear, being 
tied to a network will be as natural as 
holding a meeting or making a call— and 
as crucial to successful business. Per- 
sonal computers, and the networks that 
link them, will become information ap- 
pliances much like telephones and phone 
networks, and they'll be just as essential. 
With such systems, the question about 
LANs will not be who needs them, but 
rather, who can afford not to have one. ■ 

Mark L. Van Name and Bill Catchings are 
BYTE contributing editors. Both are also 
independent computer consultants and 
freelance writers based in Raleigh, North 
Carolina. You can reach them on BIX as 
"mvanname " and "wbc3, " respectively. 
Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 


Our Printer Sharing Unit 
Does Networking! 

An Integrated Solution 

Take our Master Switch 1M , a sophisticated 
sharing device, combine it with MasterNet™ 
networking software for PCs, and you've 
got an integrated solution for printer and 
plotter sharing, file transfer, electronic mail, 
and a lot more. Of course you can also 
share modems, minis, and mainframes or 
access the network remotely. Installation 
and operation is very simple. 


Or you can use the Master Switch to 
link any computer or peripheral with a serial 
or parallel interface. The switch accepts 
over 20 commands for controlling the flow 
of data. It may be operated automatically, 
by command, or with interactive menus. Its 
buffer is expandable to one megabyte and 
holds up to 64 simultaneous jobs. The 

MasterLink™ utility diskette for PCs 
comes with every unit and unleashes the 
power of the switch with its memory-resident 
access to the commands and menus. 

Other Products 

We have a full line of connectivity solutions. 
If you just want printer sharing, we've got 

it. We also have automatic switches, code- 
activated switches, buffers, converters, 
cables, protocol converters, multiplexers, 
line drivers, and other products. 

Commitment to Excellence 

At Rose Electronics, we're not satisfied 
until you're satisfied. That's why we have 
thousands of customers around the world 
including large, medium, and small 
businesses, factories, stores, educational 
institutions, and Federal, state, and local 
governments. We back our products with 
full technical support, a one-year warranty, 
and a thirty-day money-back guarantee. 

Call now for literature or 
more information. 
(800) 333-9343 

. &i&e a 1£&ie fo yaun c&mfmten, . 

P.O. Box 742571 • Houston, Texas 77274 • Tel (713) 933-7673 • FAX (713) 933-0044 • Telex 4948886 

Circle 255 on Reader Service Card 


Cure For The 
Common Clone 

IMAGINE. 386SX power, 200 IMB-HD, 8 MB RAM, 1 024 x 768 VGA 

with an internal modem—and it fits in a briefcase! 

Introducing the Brick? 
A 386sx with enough 
power, storage and 
graphics capability to 
run the most demanding 
applications. And it's 
the first desktop PC 
that's quiet enough, 
small enough 
and elegant 
enough not to 
be banished 
instantly to the 
floor. This 
and weighs 
only 8.3 lbs. 

More Practical 
Than A Portable 

The Brick offers an alterna- 
tive to the usual trade-offs 
associated with laptops. 
Simply keep a full sized 
monitor and keyboard at 
your home and office, and 
carry just the Brick in 
between. You save half the 
cost, half the weight, and all 
the hassle of coordinating 
files between multiple 
machines. You can have 
one machine with all your 
files wherever you need it. 

A Powerful And 
Quiet Desktop 

Bricks are available with a 
16 or 20 MHz 386sx; a 387sx 
coprocessor; 1 to 8 MB 
RAM; and your choice of a 
40 (25ms), 100 (25ms), or 
200 MB (16ms) hard disk. 
Bricks also deliver superb 
VGA graphics with 1MB 
video RAM supporting 800 x 

600 and 1024 x 768 resolu- 
tion for CAD, DTP or Win- 
dows. As an added benefit, 
the Brick is very quiet. Its 
rugged aluminum case 
serves as a heat sink so the 
whisper fan rarely runs. 

832k for DOS 

The Brick provides another 
welcome bonus: an extra 
192k of memory above the 
DOS 640k limit. This unique 
feature allows you to load 
resident programs, such as 
a network or TSRs, into a 
contiguous 192k block of 

The Brick fits in half a briefcase, leaving 
room for everything else you have to carry. 

Circle 111 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 112) 




high memory, and 
still leave the lower 
640k free. The regu- 
lar Brick shown above also 
accepts an internal ISA 16- 
bit half length card, while 
the "Stretch Brick," shown 
at right, accepts one full 
and one half length card. 

Great Value 

Complete Brick systems 
start at just $2,495. For 
your convenience, we also 
offer pre-installed software 
packages - including the 
DESQview™ or the new 
Windows® 3.0 environ- 
ments - and top-rated 
applications. For example, 
the system (shown above) 
including all standard Brick 
features with optional color 
VGA monitor; 4 MB RAM; 
and a 100 MB hard disk 
pre-programmed with 
DESQview 386, Quattro®, 
Sprint®, askSam™, DOS™ 
and Tree86™ is only $3,995! 
With this package, we also 
include our exclusive 
interactive "Talking 

The Brick 

3"x8"x 11" 
Only 8.3 lbs. 

Tutorial" that 
quickly teaches you how 
to use each program. 
Yes, the Brick actually talks. 

Optional paper white VGA 
LCD display with back-lit 
super twist technology. 


Because we are a direct 
selling manufacturer 
we have a direct 
interest in the com- 
plete satisfaction of 
each and every 
customer. To 
ensure that 



set A hel 

Ergo offers: a 30-day money 
back guarantee, a One Year 
Warranty, unlimited 800- 
line support and our exclu- 
sive Advanced Diagnostics 
via modem. 

Free Catalog 

You'll find complete 
information on all Brick 
systems, plus a full comple- 
ment of enhancements 
including FAX and network- 
ing cards, tape backup unit, 
cases, monitors and more 
in our 32-page catalog. 
Why not call for it today? 

Ergo also offers a line of 
traditional 386 computers, 
from 16 to 33 MHz, starting 
at just $1,895. Call us at 
1-800-633-1925 and well 
help you select the 
system that best meets 
your needs. 


System Includes 

A Stretch Brick 

A 16 MHz Intel 386sx 

A 1 MB RAM, Exp. to 8 MB 

A 40 MB hard disk with 

password protection 
A Mono VGA monitor 
A 16-bit full and 8-bit half 

card expansion slots 

Standard Features 

A 1024 x 768 VGA 
controller with 1 MB 
video RAM and EGA, 
CGA, MDA support 
A 101 keyboard 
A 2,400 bps modem 
A 3.5" 1.44 MB floppy 
A 2 serial &. 1 parallel port 
A World wide AC power 
A Hypertext manual 
A 832k DOS capable 
A LIM 4.0 EMS support 
A One Year Warranty 
A Freight included 

Free 32-Page Catalog 

^ i 1-800-633-1925 


Ergo Computing, Inc., One Intercontinental Way, 
Peabody, MA 01960 

Short Takes 

BYTE editors' hands-on views of new and developing products 

RasterOps Accelerator 


Norton Utilities 5.0 

Hard Facts 

RasterOps Accelerator Speeds Mac Graphics 

A Mac II combined with a 
24-bit color video board 
produces dazzling graphics. It 
makes the Mac a useful tool 
for professional art, graphic 
design, image manipulation, 
and color desktop publishing. 
However, working with near- 
photo-quality images or fancy 
graphics is slow. That's be- 
cause you're working with 32- 
bit pixels (only 24 of the bits 
actually contain color data, 
hence the term 24-bit color). 
This means the Mac must 
muscle around about a mega- 
byte or more of data when the 
screen is redrawn. 

A faster Mac does little to 
help the situation: Even a 24- 
bit color screen redraw on a 
Mac Ilfx using a 640- by 480- 
pixel display is a trifle poky. 
The solution is to off-load 
some of the QuickDraw graph- 
ics operations performed by 
the Mac's CPU onto a dedi- 
cated graphics coprocessor. 
Several vendors — Radius, 
SuperMac, and even Apple — 
have introduced graphics 
boards that accomplish this. 

Now there's the RasterOps 
Accelerator, which off-loads 
and boosts the speed of certain 
QuickDraw operations like 
fills and window movement. 
Like Radius, RasterOps uses a 
separate NuBus board that 
contains the accelerator logic. 
The Accelerator can't gener- 
ate video signals itself: It 

boosts screen performance by 
minimizing CPU-to-NuBus 
traffic and directly manipulat- 
ing the frame buffer of a sepa- 
rate NuBus video board. 

An Accelerator cdev/ 
INIT patches QuickDraw so 
that certain drawing operations 
become coprocessor com- 
mands. It is these commands, 
not the usual pixel data, that 
the CPU writes out onto the 
NuBus. This reduces the 
amount of data that passes 
through the slow NuBus inter- 
face logic. These commands 
are executed by the Accelera- 
tor, which then modifies the 
frame buffer's contents at 
NuBus transfer rates. The 
Accelerator supports both 
NuBus block transfers (a spe- 
cial mode where up to 64 data 
bytes are rapidly sent across 
the bus) and bus locking (the 
Accelerator owns the bus con- 
tinuously over numerous 
transfers). This last feature 
provides a claimed 25 percent 
to 50 percent boost for accel- 

erated graphics operations. 

Finally, like the Radius and 
Apple graphics boards, the 
Accelerator operates as a 
NuBus bus master. This lets it 
control and accelerate not only 
its Imager 8L and Imager 24L 
video boards, but other NuBus 
video boards that support 
block transfer operations (e.g., 
Apple's 8*24 card and 
Radius's DirectColor/24). The 
Accelerator's bus-locking fea- 
ture also boosts the speed of 
video boards that support this 
capability, such as RasterOps 
video boards and Apple's Mac 
II 8-bit board. 

The Accelerator provides 
four single in-line memory 
module sockets, where you 
can mount four 1- or 4-mega- 
bit-density, 80-nanosecond 
SIMMs to create a RAM 
buffer that is 4 or 16 MB in 
size. The Accelerator inter- 
cepts special graphics func- 
tions (called GWorld) and 
routes the off-screen image 
data they work with into this 


RasterOps Accelerator 

32-Bit QuickDraw and 

without RAM, $495; 4-MB 

2 MB of RAM. 

RAM expansion kit, $795 



2500 Walsh Ave. 

Mac II running System 

Santa Clara, C A 95051 

6.0.3 or higher with 

(408) 562-4200 

Inquiry 999. 

buffer. This lets the Accelera- 
tor operate on the image in its 
local buffer, rather than wait 
for the Mac's CPU to write it 
to the frame buffer. GWorld 
functions are new; not many 
Mac applications take advan- 
tage of them, so the buffer can 
serve as a RAM disk. You 
don't need this RAM for the 
board to operate. 

I tried the Accelerator with 
its version 1 .0 software, a Ras- 
terOps Imager 24L 24-bit 
color video board on a Mac 
Ilci and a Mac Ilfx running 
System 6.0.5. Both machines 
were equipped with 4 MB of 
RAM and an 80-MB hard disk 
drive. The Mac Ilci drove a 
1024- by 768-pixel monitor, 
while the Mac Ilfx drove a 
640- by 480-pixel monitor. 

Screen updates and desktop 
drawing were noticeably faster 
with the Accelerator. I used 
PageMaker 4.0 to create a 6- 
MB test file populated with 
two 24-bit PICT images, two 
24-bit TIFF images, and sev- 
eral typefaces. I then scrolled 
about the document's pages 
and recorded the times. De- 
pending on the position and 
type of image on the pages, 
scrolling rates improved by 
from only a few percent to 
nearly 50 percent. I also tried 
Apple's 8*24 board with the 
Accelerator and observed a 
perfor-mance improvement of 
about 1 1 percent peak — not as 
fast as RasterOps' own board, 
but an improvement. I also 
installed 4 MB of RAM on the 
Accelerator, and when I re- 
booted, a RAM disk of that 
size appeared on the desktop. 
Both the Accelerator and the 
Imager 24L worked reliably. 
The fact that the Accelerator 
works with other vendors' 
boards and multiple boards is 
aplus. Ifyou plan on doing lots 
of 24-bit color work on your 
Mac, you might want to check 
out the Accelerator. 

— Tom Thompson 


Stuff Your Data 
into a Backpack 

You wouldn't take Micro- 
Solutions Computer Prod- 
ucts' Backpack on a hike, but 
it does hook up to the back of 
most computers, and it adds 
an extra external floppy disk 
drive (either VA- or 5/4-inch) 
to your system with an abso- 
lute minimum of fuss and 

Backpack's biggest selling 
point is that it doesn't need an 
expansion slot or special gad- 
gets to get connected; it sim- 
ply plugs into a parallel port. 
And that doesn't mean that 
you lose a printer port, because 
Backpack has a jack on its own 
panel where you plug in your 
printer. The drive and the 
printer cooperate and manage 
to share the port without get- 
ting in each other's way. 

To install the Backpack, I 
plugged it into my computer's 
parallel port, hooked up its 
power supply, and switched it 
on. Then the installation soft- 
ware installed the device 



MicroSolutions Computer 

5/4-inch (360K-byte or 


1.2-MB), $425; 3^-inch 

132 West Lincoln Hwy. 

(720K-byte or 1.44-MB), 

DeKalb,DL 60115 



Inquiry 1000. 


IBM PC, PS/2, or 

compatible with a 

parallel port. 

driver that Backpack needs 
and copied a special format- 
ting program to my hard disk. 
It was then a simple matter to 
reboot the system and get to 
work. Backpack became the 

next drive (E) on my system. 
No muss, no fuss. 

The Backpack that I tested 
was the newest version, han- 
dling the new 2.8-megabyte 
extended-density disks that 

will undoubtedly soon become 
a standard. Backpack format- 
ted an ED disk in just a bit 
more time than a 1.44-MB 
floppy disk, showing a format- 
ted capacity of a healthy and 
handy 2,93 1 ,7 1 2 bytes. Back- 
pack also handles 720K-byte 
and 1.44-MB floppy disks 

Backpack expects a fully 
IBM-compatible parallel port, 
and some ports on low-cost 
clones aren't. They may work 
fine with a printer, but Back- 
pack gets terminal indigestion. 
You should try before you buy. 

Of course, at about $10 a 
crack, the special ED disks are 
expensive. You have to decide 
if you really need the storage 
space (and want to spend the 
extra $75 the ED drive costs). 
If not, there are MicroSolu- 
tions' lower-capacity (and 
lower-cost) alternatives. 

The drives aren't cheap, but 
if you need to add a drive to a 
computer that doesn't have 
room for one, or want to add 
some utility to your laptop, 
Backpack fills the bill. 

— Stan Miastkowski 

Legacy: Processing Words Under Windows 3.0 

If a Macintosh is the com- 
puter fortherest of us, NBI's 
Legacy must be the word 
processor for those rich in free 
space on their hard disk. 

Legacy is a flexible and 
powerful program in most 
ways, but it is a disk-space pig. 
How so? Well, a file contain- 
ing four printable ASCII char- 
acters takes up 15,322 bytes of 
storage space when stored in 
Legacy (.CHP) format. By 
way of comparison, the same 
file in Amf Pro (.SAM) format 
takes up 4183 bytes on the 
disk; in Word for Windows 
(.DOC) format, 1754 bytes; in 
Microsoft Windows Write 
(.WRI) format, 640 bytes; and 

in raw ASCII, 6 bytes. 

As the amount of text in the 
file grows, the disparity be- 
tween it and the disk space 
used shrinks, of course. For 
example, this entire Short 
Take, before editing, required 
3393 bytes of disk space as an 
ASCII file. In Legacy format, 
it took up 1 8,706 bytes, and in 
Word for Windows format, 
5338 bytes. This means that if 
your writing runs to memos, 
single-page letters, and other 
short compositions, Legacy is 
probably not the program for 
you. However, if you're look- 
ing for a program that adds 
some desktop publishing capa- 



bility to a full-featured word 
processor, Legacy should be 
on your check-it-out list. 

Legacy requires DOS 3.2 or 
higher and Microsoft Win- 
dows 3.0, so you may need to 
upgrade your software. It's a 
full WYSIWYG word proces- 
sor and allows screen images 
of up to 200 percent of actual 
page size. I found its draft- 
mode screen to be rather clut- 
tered: Draft mode, in addition 
to displaying the actual text, 
also displays all tokens as a 
guide to what the formatted 
page would look like. 

All the expected word pro- 
cessing features (e.g., cut, 
copy, and paste; search and 
replace; style sheets; spelling 
checker; thesaurus; automatic 
footnote, list, and endnote 



higher, Windows 3.0, 


a Windows-compatible 

display device, and 


a mouse. 


computer with at least 

NBI, Inc. 

640K bytes of RAM 

3450 Mitchell Lane 

(1 MB is recommended), 

Boulder, CO 80301 

a hard disk drive (20 MB 


minimum is recom- 


mended), DOS 3.2 or 

Inquiry 1001. 

generation; hyphenation; 
headers and footers; and mail 
merge) are there. Dynamic 
Data Exchange and file link- 
ing are supported. 

It can import and export text 
files in 15 different formats 
and import and export graph- 

ics files in 13 different formats. 
Tabular data in Lotus 1-2-3 
and Microsoft Excel format 
can be imported, also. 

Formatting and page layout 
are very powerful. There's no 
limit to the number of text, 
graphics, or table frames that 

can be used on a page. (A 
frame is simply a virtual box 
that holds a specific type of 
data. By having unlimited 
frames, it is — at least in the- 
ory — possible to build such 
complicated documents as a 
newspaper's supermarket ad 
or an illustrated page for an 
electronics component supply 
catalog.) A built-in editor can 
create vector graphics using 
object-oriented methods, 
much as high-end design pro- 
grams like Micrografx De- 
signer and Corel Draw can do. 
Text can flow across pages and 
columns into linked frames. 
Type sizes range from 1 to 792 
points, and in normal, bold- 
face, italic, overstrike, under- 
line, superscript, and subscript. 
— George Bond 

New Norton Utilities Puts on a Too-Happy Face 

Norton Utilities 5.0 is 
loaded (or perhaps more 
accurately, weighed down) 
with a huge array of features 
that can be lifesavers for files, 
hard disk drives, and even 
whole systems. They're all 
tied together with a new 
Common User Access-like 
textual (pseudographic) inter- 
face that (for the first time) 
works with a mouse. 

Ever since 1982, when Pe- 
ter Norton released his semi- 
nal unerase utility and got the 
PC utility business off to a 
rousing start, the thing that I've 
liked best about Norton soft- 
ware is that it's always been 
lean, mean . . . and superb. 
Previous versions of NU were 
never chocked with features. 
They just did their job with a 
minimum of hassle. Sure, 
naive users could do real 
damage to a hard disk if they 
didn't know what they were 
doing, but that was part of the 

In NU 5.0, Norton has un- 
fortunately succumbed to the 
blatant featuritus that's re- 
cently affected the PC utility 
business. It's a cruel and com- 
petitive world out there, and 
today's conventional wisdom 
says you have to stuff your 

products with every possible 
feature under the sun, and then 
add a few more. 

Don't get me wrong. Some 
of NU 5.0's new features are 
ground-breaking, as Norton 
attempts to stay ahead of arch- 
competitors like Mace Utilities 
and PC Tools. In the limited 
space I have here, I can't do 
more than scratch the surface 
of the long list of what the new 
NU can do. 

All the old familiar NU 
abilities are still in NU 5.0. 
Some have been vastly ex- 
panded. Norton Disk Doctor II 
is the most obvious example. 

Like the original, it does a 
highly competent job of diag- 
nosing (and recovering from) 
even the most esoteric hard 
disk problems. But in a nod to 
competitors like Disk Techni- 
cian and SpinRite II, it now 
includes various levels of 
schedulable disk diagnosis and 
interleave tuning. If your 
drive's being occasionally 
cranky, you can even run a 
diagnosis that will chunk along 
for a few days. 

Going beyond fixing a 
whole disk, Norton has come 
up with a new File Fix utility 
that attempts to recover the 


Norton Utilities 5.0 


IBM PC, AT, PS/2, or 
compatible; hard disk 
drive required to run 
advanced diagnostics. 

Peter Norton Computing 

100 Wilshire Blvd., 

Ninth Floor 

Santa Monica, CA 90401 


Inquiry 1003. 

contents of corrupted files. The 
first release of NU 5.0 works 
with Lotus 1 -2-3 and dBASE 
files, and the Norton folks say 
that file fixers for other popu- 
lar applications are in the 
works. No utility can recover 
all damaged data; there are just 
too many variables involved. 
But NU comes close indeed. 

NU 5.0 is the first Norton 
Utility that works on a net- 
work, and new utilities like 
Disk Monitor and Diskreet are 
designed for connectivity. 
Disk Monitor (a TSR pro- 
gram) keeps a record of all 



for l he 


Microprocessor Fan 


, <^-. 

^ et 


Embedded systems designers have already used CrossCode C in over 577 different applications. 

CrossCode C comes with four 

powerful tools to help you program your 

68000-based ROMable applications 

From C source to final object, each tool takes you 
one step closer to your finished ROMable design 

CrossCode C is designed specifically 
to help you write ROMable code for 
all members of the Motorola 68000 
fam ily . Four powerful tools take you from 
C source to object code: 

1. COMPILER: To get truly ROMable 
code, you have to start with a truly 
ROMable compiler. Here are three 
CrossCode C features that you won't find 
in any ordinary C compiler: 

• Compiler output code is split into five 
independent memory sections that you 
can assign into ROM or RAM as you 

• You can optimize the code for your 
application because)?*™ control the sizes 
of data types. For example, you can 
optimize for speed by using two byte 
itits, or get maximum versatility by 
using four byte ints. 

• You can easily write assembly language 
routines that call C functions and vice 
versa, because the compiler uses simple, 
well documented parameter passing 

2. ASSEMBLER: CrossCode C 

comes with a Motorola-style assembler 
that has all the features that assembly 
language programmers require. In fact, 

you could write your whole application 
with it: 

•The assembler features an advanced 
macro language, conditional assembly, 
"include" files, and an unlimited size 
symbol table. 

• Detailed cross references show you 
where you've defined and referenced 
your symbols. 

• After a link, you can actually convert 
your "relocatable" assembler listings 
into "absolute" listings that contain 
absolute addresses and fully linked 
object code. 

3. LINKER: The CrossCode C linker 
is designed to handle truly huge loads. 
There are no limits on the number of 
symbols in your load or on the size of your 
output file. And you can always count on 
full 32 bit target addressability, because 
the linker operates comfortably in the 
highest ranges of the 68030's address 

4. DOWNLOADER: CrossCode C 

comes with a downloader that puts you in 
touch with all EPROM programmers and 
emulators. It can convert your load into 
Motorola S-Records, Intel Hex, Tek Hex, 
Extended Tek Hex, and Data I/O ASCII 

Hex. You can also produce a binary image 
and convert that image into any format 
you might want. In all formats, bytes can 
be split into EPROMs for an 8, 16, or 32 
bit data bus. 

Why Wait 

Once you start using CrossCode C, you 

may just wonder how you ever got the job 
done before! It's available under 
MS-DOS for just $ 1 995, and it runs on all 
IBM PCs and compatibles (640K memory 
and hard disk are required). Also available 
under UNIX, XENIX, and VMS. 

CALL TODAY formore information: 


(ask for extension 2002) 
Outside the United States, please dial 

PHONE: 1-708-971-8170 
FAX: 1-708-971-8513 





CrossCode™ is a irademark of SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEMS, INC. MS-DOS® is a registered irademark of 
Microsoft. UNIX® is a registered trademark of AT&T. XENIX® 
is a registered trademark of Microsoft. 


disk reads and writes, and of 
who does them. Diskreet (get 
the pun?) lets you store files 
in an encrypted form with 
password protection. Even 
better, the newest incarnation 
of File Find works across 
multiple drives (and across a 
network). Since I'm always 
tucking files away in some odd 
directory, File Find is the util- 
ity that I use most. 

NU 5.0 keeps delivering 
surprises. A case in point is 
File Save, which essentially 
assigns priorities to files so 
that when you delete them 
(accidentally or on purpose), 
the areas they're stored on 

aren't immediately overwritten 
the way DOS normally does. 
It works like this: Say you've 
purposely erased an old ver- 
sion of a spreadsheet file and 
you realize several days later 
that you shouldn't have. With- 
out File Save, chances are its 
area would already have been 
overwritten. But if you used 
File Save and gave the files 
high priority, there's a good 
chance you can still recover 
the original file by using NU 
5.0's unerase utility. 

Probably the biggest change 
in NU 5.0 is the System Infor- 
mation utility. In previous 
versions, it was a single screen 

of essential data about your 
system. In NU 5.0, it's been 
vastly expanded. The new SI 
gives you 20 screens full of 
data, from the essential to the 
esoteric. The whole thing's 
capped off by a little graphics 
show that presents your 
system's Norton SI rating on 
a graph and compares it to 
some other common hardware. 
Topping off the list of new 
bells and whistles are Norton's 
first caching utility and a 
vastly improved disk sector 
editor (with split screen, cut 
and paste, and data links). 
Last, and certainly not least, 
Norton's unerase utility is 

faster and much easier to use. 
The Norton folks say 
they've redesigned their utili- 
ties for today's "real business 
world," with many computer 
users who don't have lots of 
technical expertise. True. 
Norton Utilities 5.0 is chock 
full of text screens filled with 
explanations and helpful sug- 
gestions. But I can't help but 
feel that by stuffing in features 
and making it so user- friendly 
that it's almost bothersome, 
something's been lost for ad- 
vanced users. There was some- 
thing to be said for living dan- 

— Stan Miastkowski 

Hardware Directory Fits on Your Hard Disk 

One of the nice things 
about this industry is that 
when you go to buy some- 
thing, there are so many 
choicesavailable. But that can 
easily be frustrating as well. 
How do you keep up with all 
the new products that become 
available? How do you decide 
among them? 

A new software product for 
IBM systems that's called 
HardFacts attempts to solve 
this problem. This product in- 
cludes approximately 6 mega- 
bytes of data on about 6000 
hardware products. Almost 
every type of hardware prod- 
uct is included, from light- 
weight laptops to desktop 
i486-based systems, from 
keyboards to color monitors, 
and from scanners to tape 
backup systems. 

HardFacts includes a large 
amount of information about 
each product. For most prod- 
ucts, this entails about 50 
pieces of information. Also, if 
the product has been reviewed 
in a magazine or has won any 
awards, that information is 
included. HardFacts mentions 
both the list price of the prod- 
uct and the street price, along 
with its distributors. 

HardFacts was created 
using Nantucket's Clipper 
database manager and has a 
fairly straightforward user in- 
terface. When you are looking 

for a particular product, Hard- 
Facts lets you easily narrow 
the criteria for your search. 

For example, HardFacts 
presents you with a large 
number of product categories. 
If you are interested in look- 
ing at tape backup systems, 
you simply select that category 
from the list. You can then 
choose to look at a list of all 
140 tape backup systems, or 
you can narrow the search 
simply by selecting criteria 
from a criteria menu. You can, 
for example, select to see only 
those backup systems with 
capacities of less than 40 MB. 

Of course, in any product 
like this, the value of the prod- 
uct depends on the quality and 
timeliness of the information 

presented. HardFacts solves 
the problem of timeliness by 
providing monthly updates for 
its database on a yearly sub- 
scription basis. As for the 
quality of the information, I 
will have to wait for a shipping 
version of the product before I 
give the final word. A prere- 
lease version I worked with 
contained some good informa- 
tion. You can also judge the 
quality for yourself, since 
HardFacts has a 30-day 
money-back guarantee. 

But no matter how good the 
database is, once you zero in 
on a particular product, you 
will usually want to see a bro- 
chure on it as well. And Hard- 
Facts has a good solution for 
this. For most products, all you 

need to do is call a special tele- 
phone number using the phone 
that's connected to your fax 
machine and feed in your sub- 
scription number and the code 
number of the product you are 
interested in, and the Hard- 
Facts folks will fax you the 
manufacturer's spec sheet. 

HardFacts is a fairly expen- 
sive product and is not for 
everyone. But it is one of those 
products that can surely be 
used by everyone at one time 
or another. The question is 
whether you will need it often 
enough to justify the cost. For 
people who purchase or work 
with large amounts of hard- 
ware, HardFacts will be ex- 
tremely hard to pass up. ■ 

— Rich M alloy 





IBM PC or compatible 

with 640K bytes of 

memory and a hard disk 

drive with 6 MB of free 


292 Cabot St. 
Beverly, MA 01915 
(508) 927-1370 
Inquiry 1002. 

124 BYTE • SEPTEMBER 1990 



. the world how we protect your hard work. 
But then, why should we? It's not that we're hard 
to get along with. On the contrary. We'll show you 
how our unwordy approach to software protection can 
actually work better for you. We'll deliver the best balance 
of guaranteed copy control and cost-effective installation. 
Unlike other manufacturers, our hardware is uniquely 
custom-wired for each developer and supplied with a specific 
enoypted intetrogation routine for maximum security 

The precise routines assume responsibility for all hardware, 
software and timing issues so your time and money isn't 
wasted engineering protection schemes. 


The Products That Protect Your Revenues 

Identically reproduced packages. 


Active protection, modular packages, customized packages, 
serialization, demo control, access control. 

Customized packages, modular packages 

Non-operating system specific protection based on RS232C 

communications for minicomputers, workstations, etc. 


MICROPHAR, 122 Ave. Ch. De Gaulle 92200, 

Neuilly Sur-Seine FRANCE Tel: 33-1-47-38-21-21 Fax: 33-1-46-24-76-91 

For distributors in: 

• BELGIUM/NETHERLANDS, E2S (091 21 11 17)- GERMANY, Delta Xmit (0621 41 08 178) 

• IRELAND, TMC (021 87 37 1 1 ) • ITALY, Siosistemi (030 24 21 074) 

• PORTUGAL, HCR ( 1 56 18 65) • SPAIN, Hal 2000 (023 37 3105) 
•SWITZERLAND, SAFE (024 21 5386)- UNITED KINGDOM, Market.! (1 44684 31) 



In the U.S., the AMERICAS & the PACIFIC: 
PROTECH, 9600-J Southern Pine Blvd., 
Charlotte, NC 282 1 7 Se Habla Espatiol 
Tel: 704-523-9500 Fax: 704-523-7651 
Hours: Mon-Thurs: 8:30-7:00 ET, Fri: 8:30-5:30 ET 

*Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc 
*NEC is a registered trademark of NEC Information Systems, Inc. 


For Europe Circle 232 on Reader Service Card For Americas & Pacific Circle 233 on Reader Service Card 





©1990Sun Microsystems, Inc. ,?D Sun Microsystems and the Sun logo are registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. OPEN LOOK is a trademark of AT&T. All other products or services 


The OPEN LOOK" user interface. 
It's a real hit with independent software 
vendors, in-house developers and end 
users. In fact, over 300 applications are 
in development today. By people like 
Lotus! INFORMIX^ Island Graphics^ 
Interleaf® and Frame! And it's the most 
popular front end to UNIX! For a 
number of reasons. 

First of all, it makes UNIX easy to use. 
Because there are no complicated UNIX 
commands. It also looks better than any 
other interface. From its icons to its 3D 
elements. And makes users more effi- 
cient. For example, our drag and drop 
feature gives them a simple, intuitive 
way to move files around the desktop. 
Our push-pin icon makes it even easier 
to use. And OPEN LOOK gives users 
the same interface across multiple plat- 
forms, so they learn it once. And enjoy 
access to a huge range of network 

As a developer, you'll see it's also the 
easiest to work with. Because it's part of 
OpenWindows," a complete develop- 
ment environment. With the tools you 
need to create applications faster than 

ever. And ready-made features, like our 
DeskSet" graphical productivity tools, 
that you can give users right away. 

Of course, the business reasons to 
choose OPEN LOOK are just as strong. 
OPEN LOOK is the standard interface 
of AT&T's UNIX System V.4, so it's 
included at no charge. And it will run on 
over 20 platforms, including DEC® HP/ 
and IBM! Since it's portable across 
multiple platforms, you only write your 
application once. Which saves thou- 
sands of man-hours. Finally, with OPEN 
LOOK, you have the full support of 
a company that leads the workstation 
industry in worldwide shipments? 

We've put together a videotape that 
shows you exactly what OPEN LOOK is 
all about. Just call us at 1-800-624-8999 
(ext. 2068), and we'll send you a 
free copy. 

Then find a nice comfortable seat 
close to your screen. Because the closer 
you look, the better we get. 


^9r microsystems 

mentioned are identified by the trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations. *Source, International Data Corporation, 1990. 36.3% market share. 

Circle 280 on Reader Service Card 



N S 

The NEC ProSpeed SX/20: 
Take It and Leave It 

Expansion options that let laptops 
serve as both portable and desk- 
top computers aren't new, but 
NEC Technologies' new Pro- 
Speed SX/20 just might provide the best 
of both worlds in terms of totability and 
power. Running at 20 MHz and weighing 
just under 13 pounds with battery, the 
SX/20 not only outperforms its 16-MHz 
SX competitors, it's also lighter than al- 
most all of them. 

The optional Docking Station provides 
everything you need to transform the 
portable into a full-featured desktop 
unit. The machine's list price ($5999 for 
the SX/20, including keyboard and 
monitor; and $1199 more for the Dock- 
ing Station) might seem steep, but $7198 
is less than what you'd pay to buy top- 

Speed and light weight 

separate this 

desktop/laptop from 

its SX competitors 

Michael Nadeau 

brand desktop and portable PCs. 

Speed and flexibility are just two of 
the SX/20' s virtues. Standard features 
include a 2 1 /2-inch 40-megabyte Prairie- 
Tek hard disk drive; a 3 l/2-inch 1 .44-MB 
floppy disk drive; a detachable 83-key 
keyboard; a pull-out handle; serial, RJ- 
1 1 , printer, and external monitor ports; 
1 MB of RAM (expandable to 5 MB); 
and the best 640- by 480-pixel VGA LCD 
screen I've seen. MS-DOS 4.01, setup 
diagnostics, an EMS 4.0 driver, a disk- 
cache utility, and a RAM disk make up 
the standard software. 

I tested a preproduction unit. NEC was 
still working on the BIOS (doing mostly 
performance tuning), but otherwise the 
system was essentially the same one that 
should be available in September. 

Its crisp black-on-white VGA display is one of the NEC ProSpeed SX/20 's 
most appealing features. Both text and graphics appear sharp and well-defined. 



R S T 



The NEC ProSpeed SX/20's CPU performance is better than that of the 
Compaq 386/20 SX desktop system 's. The Goupil Golf is a 16-MHz 386SX 
system also designed to work as both a portable and a desktop. 




NEC ProSpeed SX/20 2 . 05 

Compaq Deskpro 386s/20 1 .76 

Goupil Golf 2.18 



Note: Benchmark results are indexed to show relative performance; higher numbers indicate better 
performance. For all indexes, an 8-MHz IBM PC AT running MS-DOS 3.30 « 1 . 

Traveling Light 

Make no mistake; it's not easy lugging 
around 13 pounds of computer, even if 
it's just from your office to your home. 
NEC compensates for that fact by pro- 
viding considerable processing power in 
a relatively small form factor. The BYTE 
low-level benchmarks indicate that the 
SX/20 is an able performer (see the 
table). And NEC promises speed gains 
once the BIOS is finalized. 

At 13% by 3% by 10% inches, the 
SX/20 fits snugly under your arm and is 
compact enough for you to carry by the 
handle without banging it on your legs as 
you walk. It will also fit into most brief- 
cases, and NEC sells an optional carry- 
ing case. If you don't need the battery, 
you can simply pop it out and snap in the 
AC converter, thus saving yourself a 
pound of weight and the hassle of carry- 
ing the converter separately. By compar- 
ison, the recently introduced Compaq 
SLT 386s/20 is larger and more than a 
pound heavier. 

The SX/20 will be among the first to 
use PrairieTek's 28-millisecond, 2*/2- 
inch 40-MB hard disk drives. This small 
form factor conserves space but limits 
disk storage options until higher-capacity 
2 1 /2-inch hard disk drives become avail- 
able. By contrast, Compaq offers up to 
120 MB of hard disk storage on the SLT 
386s/20. The optional Docking Station 
provides a 5V4-inch drive bay for addi- 
tional mass storage. 

Battery life is an adequate 2 l /2 hours. 
The nickel-cadmium unit recharges in 
2 hours using the AC converter with 
the machine off, or in 5 hours when the 
machine is in use. An optional battery 


NEC Technologies, Inc. 

1255 Michael Dr. 
Wood Dale, IL 60191 
(708) 860-9500 
Inquiry 858. 

charger can charge two batteries at a 
time. Other options include a 2400-bps 
modem ($399) and a 2400-bps modem 
with 9600-bps send/receive fax capabil- 
ity ($699). These modems install in a 
slot located under the keyboard tray. 

The keyboard is intelligently designed 
and has a good feel, although the keys are 
not quite full-travel. The cursor-control 
keys are in the familiar inverted "T" 
configuration, and all 12 function keys 
reside on the top row. Fold-out legs on 
the detachable keyboard provide a suffi- 
cient typing angle. 

For video, NEC uses a backlit LCD 
design that's a variation of film-twisted 
nematic technology. By removing one 
layer of glass on the screen and replacing 
it with a film layer, NEC claims to have 
reduced the weight of the screen by about 
35 percent and improved contrast by 
roughly the same amount. A high-qual- 
ity dif f user evenly distributes the fluo- 
rescent backlighting. The result is a crisp 
and easy-to-read black-on-white text dis- 
play. When running Windows 3.0, how- 
ever, I found myself frequently adjusting 
the brightness and contrast controls after 
switching from one graphical application 
to another. 

A standby switch puts the CPU into 
low-power mode and shuts down every- 
thing else except memory; if you push it 
again, the machine comes back on to 
where you left it. A reset button, an un- 
usual but welcome feature on a portable, 
is recessed into the side of the unit, out of 
harm's way. A password security feature 
is standard. 

Meanwhile, Back at the Office 

For power and features, the SX/20 lacks 
little, yet by itself it's not a suitable office 
system for most businesses. That's where 
the Docking Station comes in. This unit 
provides two AT-standard 16-bit expan- 
sion slots, two serial ports, one parallel 
port, two RJ- 1 1 ports, external keyboard 
and video ports, and a drive bay. When 
docked, the SX/20 redirects blocked par- 

allel, serial, and RJ-11 ports to the cor- 
responding ports on the Docking Station. 
It also maintains two sets of AUTOEX- 
EC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files-one 
for the portable configuration and one 
for the desktop. NEC says this makes for 
a "one-touch transition" between porta- 
ble and desktop configurations. 

The SX/20 locks into the Docking Sta- 
tion by means of a 16-bit bus interface at 
the rear of the unit. Once the unit is at- 
tached, you can use the system on the 
desktop or as a floor-standing unit. With 
the Docking Station, you can expand 
memory up to 16 MB. 

Who Is It For? 

The NEC SX/20 is not for everyone. It's 
among the most powerful of the battery- 
operated portables, but it's also one of 
the more expensive. In the desktop con- 
figuration, you're limited to just two ex- 
pansion slots and one drive bay. And 
$7198 will buy comparably equipped 
laptop and desktop systems from reputa- 
ble vendors with lower list prices. (To be 
fair, NEC estimates that the price for a 
fully decked-out laptop/desktop version 
of the SX/20 could be as low as $5000 
after discounts.) For those who depend 
on a laptop as much as their desktop and 
who require the horsepower to run com- 
pute-intensive applications, the SX/20 
looks like a slick solution. 

Combining desktop and portable sys- 
tems into one unit is an important trend. 
More and more businesses are finding 
ways to use portable PCs to maximize the 
productivity of their personnel while 
they're away from the office. It makes 
sense to have one system that can serve 
double-duty— not just because it might be 
cheaper to equip people that way, but be- 
cause it creates a better, seamless link 
between work done on the road and work 
done in the office. ■ 

Michael Nadeau is the managing editor 
of the BYTE Lab. You can reach him on 
BIX as "mi ken." 


Laser printing 

OKIDATA introduces OK3LASERS. A full line of 
business smart laser printers that's compatible with both 
HP® and your budget. Personal to PostScript® OKHASERS 
deliver the same tank tough™ performance and reliability 
that OKIDATA has built into more than 3,000,000 
printers. OKHASERS by OKIDATA ... a printer for 
every business. 

Call 1-800-OKIDATA for the tank tough dealer nearest you. 


^k an OKI AMERICA company 

We put business on paper. 

OKIDATA is a registered trademark of Oki America, Inc., Marque deposee de Oki 
America Inc. OKILASER™ is a trademark of Oki Electric Industry Co. Ltd. 
Tank tough™ is a trademark of Oki America, Inc. 

HP, Adobe IbstScript, Macintosh are tiademarks of their icspective corporations. 

Circle 213 on Reader Service Card 















four times better. 



June 12, 1990 
OklLaser 400 


Small. Personal. Affordable. 
4 pages per minute. 17 fonts. 
Holds 200 sheets. A genuine 
laser. A genuine bargain. 


For heavy duty use. 8 ppm. 
26 fonts. Expandable to 
PostScript® and dual bins. 
A real workhorse. 

Prints up the side, across 
the other, drop shadows, 
stretch letters, outline, fill, 
and sets fonts up to 2 " 
instantly, 8 ppm. 


True Adobe PostScript? 
Perfect for desktop 
publishing on DOS or 
Macintosh® systems. 8 ppm. 




Word Processors 
That Build Character 

The BYTE Lab compares 
15 WYSIWYG word 
processors for the 
Macintosh and the PC 

Howard Eglow stein, Stan 
Wszola, and Tom Thompson 

Word processing programs have 
been with us since the birth of 
microcomputers. Then, as 
now, they gave many people a 
tool to rapidly produce and modify large 
documents. The document's appearance 
was originally a secondary issue, par- 
tially because the printer technology at 
the time didn't give you much choice; 
you had to settle for the monospaced 
character font in the printer's ROM. 

The situation has certainly improved 
since then. Today, you can select a par- 
ticular typeface for your document and 
expect it to show up on the screen. It 
doesn't have to be a monospaced font, 
either. Even better, many laser printers 
will reproduce the document's typeface 
faithfully, at 300-dot-per-inch or better 

Now that you have better control over 
the look of the output, you need a good 
idea of how the document will appear be- 
fore you commit it to paper. Will adding 
that table of cost-justification figures to 
the business report bump the text ex- 
plaining the costs to another page? Can 
you add a logo to the company's letter- 
head? How will it look? 

Any word processing package gives 
you a tool to organize your thoughts and 
correct your grammar before you com- 
mit it to paper; WYSIWYG helps you 
make it look attractive. 


Typing, or Typesetting? 

Character-based word processing isn't 
dead— far from it. Modern word proces- 
sors offer a lengthy list of formatting fea- 
tures, and they usually provide a sub- 
stantial preview mode to let you check on 
the final output. When choosing a word 
processor, choose WYSIWYG when the 
look of what you write is almost as im- 
portant as the content. Drawing a line be- 
tween WYSIWYG and desktop publish- 
ing is somewhat harder; at some point, 
you'll finish composing your text and 
concentrate on the layout. Even the best 
of the WYSIWYG word processors fall 
far behind a DTP package for final for- 
matting. If you find yourself spending 
lots of time adjusting fonts and moving 
graphics, maybe you should be using a 
DTP package instead. 

Like DTP packages, WYSIWYG word 
processors allow you to integrate text and 
graphics onto the same page. Drawing 
tools, graphics file import functions, 
and graphical manipulation functions let 
you insert symbols, logos, and illustra- 
tions directly into your document. File 
import functions let you place high-reso- 
lution graphics, and usually the text will 
automatically flow around the image. 

The products that we've looked at for 
this Product Focus cover the entire spec- 
trum of word processors, from full-fea- 
tured packages such as Ami Professional 
and Microsoft Word to rather specialized 
packages such as InText and Mind Write. 

Seeing Is Believing 

To test these products, we ran them on a 
variety of machines. We ran the DOS 
products on a 20-MHz Compaq 386 with 
a VGA monitor and 6 megabytes of mem- 
ory. For the lower-end products, we 
wanted to see how they performed on a 
low-end machine. Another Compaq did 
the trick— a Compaq Plus portable, with 
the original 4.77-MHz 8088 and 640K 
bytes of memory. Although Windows 3.0 
will run on the Plus's internal CGA, the 
8088 is hardly the processor to use for se- 

rious Windows work. We didn't bother 
testing the Windows word processors on 
the Plus. 

We ran all the Macintosh products on 
two systems: a Mac SE with 4 MB of 
memory, and an SE/30 with 2 MB. We 
found the general performance of all the 
word processors to be adequate on the 
SE. Of course, the Mac SE/30's 16-MHz 
68030 had more than enough horsepower 
to keep up with even the fastest typist. 
All the test machines had hard disk 
drives with at least 8 MB of free space. 
Our PC compatibles used an HP LaserJet 
III with a PostScript cartridge for output, 
and the Macs used a networked Laser- 
Writer IINT. 

To get a feel for overall performance, 
we asked each of the word processors to 
perform general functions that typify the 
way you'd use a word processor. The 
ASCII text-import and save-to-disk tests 
provide information on general disk han- 
dling. Printing is another typical use for 
a word processor; we printed out a 45K- 
byte text document that consisted of 17 
pages of 10-point text, and a more com- 
plex document with many font changes, a 
graphic, and double columns. Using the 
search-and-replace function to locate 10 
occurrences of a phrase in the 45K bytes 
of text gave us a hint of how the products 
handle lengthy documents. 

Finally, holding down either the cur- 
sor keys or the mouse button and scroll- 
ing from one end of the document to the 
other gave us some measure of the screen 
performance. The results are shown in 
the figure. Don't let the numbers influ- 
ence you too much, though. The true test 
of a word processor is its ease of use, and 
on the Mac SE, most of the word proces- 
sors were acceptable. The only package 
in this review that we judged acceptable 
on the Compaq Plus was BetterWorking 
Word Publisher 5.0. For anything else, 
we recommend a 10-MHz or faster 286 

Functionality is harder to gauge, and 






The WYSIWYG packages are divided into two groups; the PC packages are on the left, and the Mac packages are on 
the right. Only a few of the packages, such as Ami Professional and Microsoft Word, have a complete list of features 

Product name Ami Professional BetterWorking InText The Universal WinText Word for 

1.2 Word Publisher 5.0 1.53 Word 1.5 1.54 Windows 1.0 
Price $495 $59.95 $295 $395 $195 $495 

Hardware needed 

PC 1 

PC 2 

PC 3 


PC 5 

PC 6 

Spelling checker 













Limited function 





Mail merge 







Math functions 






Tables only 





Equation editor 






Automatic timed save 






Context-sensitive help 
Draft mode 











Maximum no. of windows 


1 (2 files) 





WP import formats 
WP export formats 











Long document features 

Create index/table of contents 











Page marks 






Customization tools 
Macro learn mode 






Macro editor 






Macro programming language 






Customized main menu 






Dynamic Data Exchange links 






Groupwork editing 

Document notes 












Document summary 







Style sheets 






Conditional page breaks 






Widow/orphan control 






Automatic hyphenation 






Snaking columns 






Side-by-side columns 






Kerning and tracking control 






Document queues 






Prints in background 







File formats imported 






Sizes/crops/rotates graphics 




Sizes, crops 

Sizes, crops 

Moves graphics frames 






Print-preview mode 

Flows text around graphics 

Drawing program 


Print mode only 





Page preview 






Lines, boxes, borders 








Drawing program 






Table editor 







Minimum system requirements: 

1 286, 640K bytes of RAM, graphics card (Hercules, CGA, EGA, or VGA), DOS 3.0, mouse, and a hard disk drive. 

2 8088, 512K bytes of RAM. graphics card, DOS 2.1 , mouse fordraw mode, and one floppy disk drive. 

3 8088, 512K bytes of RAM. graphics card, DOS 2.1 , two floppy disk drives, and a hard disk drive. 

4 8088, 640K bytes of RAM, graphics card, DOS 3.0, and a hard disk drive. 

5 8088. 512K bytes of RAM, graphics card. DOS 3.0. and a hard disk drive. 

6 286, 640K bytes of system RAM, 1 MB of expanded RAM, graphics card (EGA or better recommended), DOS 3.0, and a hard disk drive. 

7 Mac Plus, 1 MB of RAM (2MB recommended), a hard disk drive, and an 800K-byte floppy disk drive. 

8 Mac Plus, two 800K-byte floppy disk drives, and System 6.0. 

for that we contrived a complex docu- 
ment typical of the applications for which 
you might use these word processors. 
Our test document had seven formatting 
changes. The text itself was set in two- 
column format, but the title on the first 
page was a single column of centered 
text. The first page also contained a 2- by 

2-inch graphic, scanned at 300 dpi as 
either a TIFF-, PICT-, or PCX-format 
graphics file. Word processors unable to 
read any of those formats could get the 
image from the Clipboard in Windows or 
the Mac environment. In that case, the 
image resolution dropped to the standard 
screen resolution of 72 or 75 dpi. 

More Than Just a Pretty Typeface 

All the packages that we looked at have 
the basic word processing features and 
more. You can enter text, edit it, cut and 
paste, and search and replace— every 
writing function, with varying levels of 
ease. Most of these packages are rich in 
features. They have so many capabilities 



Professional 1.1 


MacWrlte II 




Word 4.0 













forthe Mac 1.0.4 





Mac 7 

Mac 8 

Mac 9 

Mac 10 























Mac 1 2 














Mac 13 














Mac 14 











Sizes, crops 





Mac 15 





Format only 





































































































Letter pairs 













Sizes, crops 


















9 Mac 51 2KE, two 800K-byte floppy disk drives, System 3.2, and Finder 5.3. 

10 Mac 512KE and two 800K-byte floppy disk drives. 

" Mac Plus, 1 MB of RAM (2 MB recommended), and two 800K-byte floppy disk drives. 

12 Mac 512KE and one 800K-byte floppy disk drive. 

13 Mac 512KE, one 800K-byte floppy disk drive (a second 800K-byte floppy disk drive or hard disk drive is recommended), and System 4.1 . 

14 Mac 512KE, two 800K-byte floppy disk drives, and System 4.1 . 

15 Mac 51 2KE, one 800K-byte floppy disk drive, System 2.0, and Finder 4.1. 

that we found it hard to try every feature 
on every package. If you're an average 
user, you will probably use only 80 per- 
cent of the capabilities of any particular 
WYSIWYG word processor. You'll de- 
sign your own page style, pick a few 
fonts, and do most of your work using 
those few options. 

We've listed all the major features 
available for all the WYSIWYG packages 
in the table above. For ease of compari- 
son, we've separated the table into PC- 
compatible and Mac-based products. 
There is a difference in design philoso- 
phy between the PC and Mac products 
that in some cases prevents a direct com- 

parison. For example, all the Mac prod- 
ucts share the resources of the Mac OS, 
taking advantage of the general ease of 
moving data from one Mac product to 

The PC packages that run under Win- 
dows can also share data with other 




WYSIWYG Word Processors 



FullWrite Professional 1 .1 

Mac Write II 1.1 

Microsoft Word 4.0 

MindWrite 2.1 


QuickLetter 1 .03 

WordMaker 1 .01 

WordPerfect for the Mac 1 .0.4 

WriteNow 2.2 


Amf Professional 1 .2 

BetterWorking Word Publisher 5.0 


The Universal Word 1 .5 

WinText 1.54 

Word for Windows 1 .0 





10 20 40 

□ 45K-byte ASCII import 

□ 45K-byte file save 


1 00 200 

□ Print 45K-byte text 

□ Scroll 



Loading and saving files, printing, and text scrolling are the functions you '11 use most often. BetterWorking Word Publisher 

was particularly quick with file I/O. Print speed is largely printer dependent. We tested the Macintosh products with 

a LaserWriter 1INT; we measured the PC times on an HP LaserJet III with the PostScript cartridge. If your editing involves a lot 

of cutting and pasting, a fast scroll is essential— Word for Windows, Ami Professional, Nisus, and MacWrite II all 

did an exceptional job moving through text. QuickLetter could load only 3 IK bytes of the test file. The Universal Word printed 

in HP LaserJet mode, not PostScript. All times are in seconds. 

applications; the non-Windows-based 
packages don't have that luxury. Mac 
product designers rely on the Macin- 
tosh's ability to automatically give their 
software access to data from every other 
Mac application. For that reason, people 
who design products for the PC have to 
incorporate more features than would be 
necessary on a Mac. On a Mac word pro- 
cessor, you can paste in a graphic that 
you drew in MacDraw. On a PC, if your 
word processor doesn't have a drawing 
package, you may have to live without 
fancy graphics. MultiFinder on the Mac- 
intosh provides background printing on 
LaserWriters to any application. Under 
Windows, the Print Manager/Spooler 
does the same for Windows applications. 
Most of the packages use or provide 
a direct Mac or Mac-like environment. 
The work environment consists of a win- 
dow with mouse and keyboard interface, 
pull-down menus, and function selection 
by clicking the mouse buttons. If you feel 
at home with the Mac, then all the Mac- 
based packages should be easy to learn. 
For those who are more comfortable with 

the keyboard, most packages do a fair job 
of mapping keystrokes to commonly used 

We tested the PC-based packages 
under both Windows 2.11 and Windows 
3.0. Windows 3.0 is considered by most 
to be very Mac-like, and Ami Profession- 
al, Word for Windows, and WinText all 
use this to their advantage. The others? 
Well, the interfaces are a bit different. 

The relative importance of each fea- 
ture depends on the type of document you 
require. Most of these packages should 
prove more than adequate for memos, 
form letters, brochures, and contracts. 

Ami Professional 1.2 

With the release of version 1.2, Sam- 
na's Ami Professional fully sup- 
ports Microsoft Windows 3.0 (see photo 
1). There's simply no two ways about it- 
Ami Professional is a serious word pro- 
cessor. It has full word processing and 
editing capabilities; paragraph control 

with choice of fonts, alignment, and 
spacing; page-formatting control; and a 
spelling checker, a thesaurus, and an in- 
dex and table of contents generator. 
Products such as Ami Professional and 
Word for Windows make the line be- 
tween word processing and DTP a thin, 
gray one. 

Ami Professional has the standard 
look and feel of a Windows application. 
It takes full advantage of all the Win- 
dows features, including Dynamic Data 
Exchange. With DDE, you can set up 
links between Ami Professional and Ex- 
cel so that any changes made in the 
spreadsheet will update the Ami Profes- 
sional document automatically. 

File handling is another of Ami Pro- 
fessional's strengths. Besides handling 
the usual ASCII, it can import and ex- 
port to or from most of the competitors' 
products. Ami Professional's index fea- 
ture enables you to create multiple-level 
indexes. Go through your document and 
mark words that you want in the index. 
The program will then build an index or 



They Left out Features.... 

We Left out the COMMA!! 

The only thing missing... 

is the comma in the price. It you 
look at the chart on the right you 
petition. All but one contain a 
comma. DesignCAD 3D sells tor 
$399.00. Period. No Comma! 

In order to draw the complex pic- 
tures shown below it is desirable to 
have the following 3D features: 

• Interactive design with 3D 

• Blending of surfaces 

• Boolean operations such as 
add, subtract, and 

• Complex extrusions 

• Cross sectioning 

• Block scaling 

• On screen shading 

• Shaded output to printers and 

All ofthesecompetitorsleftoutone 
or more of these desirable features 
in their standard package. They 
didn't forget the most horrible fea- 
ture -the comma. 

DesignCAD 3D offers ALL the listed 
features plus many more! 

If DesignCAD 3D has the power to 
create the 3D objects shown below, 
imagine how it could help with your 
design project! 

DesignCAD 3D sells for $399. We left 
outthe comma. We didn't think you 
would mind! 


DesignCAD 3D, the latest feature- 
packed, low -cost C ADD package from 
American Small Business Computers, 
delivers more bang per buck than any 
of its low-cost competitors and threat- 
ens programs costing ten times as 
much. For a low-cost, self-contained 
3D package... DesignCAD 's range of 
features steals the show. " 


AutoCAD AEC $1 ,000.00 AutoShade $500.00 
Solids $995.00 IGES translator $1 ,995.00 
DataCAD Velocity $2,000.00 

"At $399, DesignCAD 3D was the least 
expensive package we saw, yet it was 
one of the more powerful. ..Don't be 
fooled by the remarkably low price, this 
program can really perform. " 

May 1989, page 178 

Complete 3-Dimensional design fea- 
tures make it easy for you to construct 
realistic 3-D models. With full solid- 
object modeling capabilities you can 
analyze your drawing to determine 
the volume, surface area or even 
centerof gravity! DesignCAD 3-D even 
permits you to check for interference 
between objects! Aeronautical Engi- 
neers can now find the centerof grav- 
ity for a new airplane design with a 
couple of keystrokes. The Architect 
can determine the surface area of a 
roof for decking in a matter of minutes. 
The Civil Engineer can calculate the 
volume of a lake or dam in seconds. 
The Mechanical Engineer will know for 
sure if certain parts fit together without 
interference. The uses for DesignCAD 
3-D are only limited by YOUR imagina- 


DesignCAD 3-D and DesignCAD 2D are 
available from most retail computer 
stores, or you may order directly from 
us. If you have questions about which 
program to purchase please give us a 
call. All you need to run DesignCAD 
3-D is an IBM PC or compatible com- 
puter with 640 K RAM memory and a 
hard disk. Both products support most 
graphics cards, printers, plotters and 
digitizers. Free Information and a demo 
disk are available by faxing (918) 825- 
6359 or telephoning: 

1 -(91 8) 825-4844 

American Small Business Computers • 327 South Mill Street • Pryor, OK 74361 U.S.A. 

Circle 2 3 on Reader Service Card 


WYSIWYG Word Processors 


Hit- Hi< View 

Style Page Frame Tools 



^ Lay in? 



: |mi in ; . 





■ rMi . 


R Mine Above 



Undetline " "U 

Word Underline AV 

:■ pr-i <.<l I Mr-i '<■ ... 

i lot * «*W» chert; 



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m jlrctvm* * :aaii a r.* ftnw ]*?«£ tesktop ntibKMrini wfll .^ivr i* .• *«* ftajfef psfetf to 

_:"-:; *M •"..-" '*;- j torr (toVii :0' £«k»Cj p\}J 

Photo 1: Ami Professional under Windows 3. uses a menu structure that should feel 
comfortable to any Windows user. To select a type style or pick from a style sheet, 
you simply click and drag with the mouse. 


tenory: R:k Drau Uwut : b<u Indent: Hone «2 niBtT^W 

1: Line Z ot Pane 1 Style: Noma I Cn limns: One * ■▼ < > Insert 

Typeface: 1: tlonWeu ?A Pt Spacing: L8B Hyphen: Off 

1 4 ^-J »- tit 

HED: Laying out the Future 


SUBHED: ricreased capabilities and color should give Desktop 

Publishing a rosy future. 

BVIJAT l>r Mm an J Mar* / V 

TOG IV A top ruHi.-hnv h-> j<>,vn up lime t** * iv.Ih* ,hi-< } 

Our perspective on thv futuiv of desktop publishing ii from ih.<t of a smAl 
business, .FjMMafioliy *n xdveiii.-in*: a^enrv C<pn«l «\|Mi><]itures for 
computer equipment h.<s lo be carefully researched The difference between 
a £ood *nd U«d buying d<-<a>K>n c*n ultimately me^n the difference betwe4« 
suyin^ in business *.; a i>rofit4l>le entity or struggling month to month 
Discussion of ~om«* current issues I'.«an^ desktop uubhshlBg will serve as a 
^'ood »unmg point to le*d into whnt the future holds for desktop publishing 

'StfiEED'First, Some li*cK fc it>und!l:IVIl6UHHKI>r 

In November of 19S7. we surt«wi L>g« Alter P,*^e. a small fullservio* 
Advertising Agency in RutUnd. Vermont Most of our business oomes from 
sdia!! to medjumsixed companies Desktop publishing own be lucrative: we've 
doubled our s.<les e<«ch ye*r And Adde<l two more people to our stAff XTe 
help our chenu pUn tbtar marketing *nd Advertising StTAtegiK AS \v*ll AS 
de^i^n. develop «nd product^ everytbing from |>tini 4il.v biochures, newsletters 
■«nd <z<m»>\*\i' idvnuu pi^i-^nv, to ndio'IA' .-^mi... ,<nd Ikh4..- He^'entlv. 

Photo 2: BetterWorking Word Publisher's screen fonts, while low-resolution, give 
you a good idea of how your text will print. A status area at the top of the screen 
shows you pertinent setting, font selections, and the amount of available memory. 

table of contents, or cross-reference with 
page references to the appropriate words 
in the text. 

Ami Professional gives you five dif- 
ferent document views: a full-page view, 
a working view showing full lines of 
text, a standard view for size compatibil- 
ity with other Windows applications, an 
enlarged view for examining fine details 
in small type or for visually impaired 
users, and a facing-page view for exam- 
ining two pages simultaneously. 

Like Word for Windows, Ami Profes- 
sional has a particularly powerful macro 
language. With it you can automatically 
record keystrokes for performing almost 
any function. The keystrokes are saved in 
a macro command, and you can "play" 
the macro with a click of the mouse. The 
Ami Professional Macro Language is 
similar to BASIC in look and syntax. 

Ami Professional is also well suited 
for groupwork editing. It offers docu- 
ment notes, a strike-through ability, and 
document summary. Style sheets allow 
you to save and reuse common document 
and font settings. The next time you for- 
mat a document to be faxed, save the set- 
tings as a style sheet, and you'll never 
have to reformat a fax again. Samples in- 
clude newsletters, memos, and press re- 
leases. Graphics support includes six 
graphics file formats: TIFF, Encapsulat- 
ed PostScript, Lotus PIC, PCX, Win- 
dows Metafile, and Windows Clipboard. 
An object-oriented drawing package 
makes it easy to annotate text with geo- 
metric shapes. 

Ami Professional carries a full-fea- 
tured price tag, too. The retail price is 

BetterWorking Word 
Publisher 5.0 

With a list price of $59.95, Spinna- 
ker's BetterWorking Word Publish- 
er 5.0 is the least expensive product in 
this review (see photo 2). Despite that, 
it's a true WYSIWYG editor, complete 
with various magnifications, full-page 
review, and support for different screen 
types (it does not run under Windows). 
It's not as fully featured as some of the 
other packages— but, again, it's not very 
expensive, either. It comes with an ade- 
quate outliner and support for an impres- 
sive array of printers. 

Mouse support comes from the mouse 
manufacturer's driver; you install that 
first, and Word Publisher uses the mouse 
BIOS calls to get the screen location. The 



See the Future. 

The FLEXSCAN® 9070U has been designed to offer maximum 
CAD/CAE performance in the PC environment. 

Our 16" flicker-free display is ideal for creating 3-D projections, 
and the 20kHz-50kHz horizontal scan range allows PC CAD 
capabilities at resolutions of up to 1024 dots X 768 lines. In the 
CAD/CAE field, non mutual image interference in dual monitor 
systems is an important issue. Our advanced deflection yoke 
eliminates mutual interference with 15cm distance between both 
units as opposed to the regular requirement 60cm and thus allows 
you to take full advantage of dual systems. 

The FLEXSCAN 's ergonomic design minimizes static, glare, and 
magnetic radiation to provide the most user-friendly environment 

t V ".>/.'■ f V . Circle 192 on Reader Service Card 

,16'' (15V), 0:28mm dot pitch CRT r 
Scan Frequency: Automatic Adjustment 
- H:20kHz-50kHz' [■ 
: V:50Bz^8Qhiz^ ' ^^^^ •;'■: 
Front^moun ted corftpls ' for eak~y,&cce$s\ t ' 
%& ^^QlibptS^f^r^fessionaf^g^ ] ^ 
- s mA^rf^r^¥^GA }'ap3b 1024 X?68)T ' 
EGA and Mac E compatible 




->.— .rtffiS^^r. 


^. — j.j_ — Images created by Jerry D. Fiynn. Design Engineer. McDor^-il Douglas Space Systems „ - 

—'•'-'.- — "- > Company. Kennedy Space Center. Florida, '><s 

*C — * *" ' Mac ntosh II is a registered, trademark uf Apple Computers Inc. js „ 

*" v " "' " NAfi *Q and FLEXSCAN are rngistered irademarks of NANAO USA ' IRPCSATION 55 



screen display isn't as crisp as we'd like, 
but Spinnaker gives you a draft mode as 
well as WYSIWYG. In draft mode, the 
editor is blazingly fast; we found our- 
selves working in draft mode most of the 

Importing a graphic and using a ruled 
line is simply a matter of switching to 
draft mode and typing in one of the spe- 
cial 6 commands— in this case, @pic- 
ture d:\image.pcx p=(4.25) s = (2.5) 
a=2 . 75 did the trick. After the PCX for- 
mat filename, the 4.25 specifies the dis- 
tance in inches from the left margin. The 
figure 2.5 is the picture's width, and we 
wanted to have the text skip 2.75 inches, 
to avoid running into the image. It looks 
scary, but it takes just a minute or two to 
get it right. Ruled lines work in a similar 
way with the horzline instruction. 

We found only one serious problem 
during testing. Word Publisher comes 
with both a LaserJet and a PostScript 
driver. We initially tested the LaserJet 
driver, and after it downloaded its own 
font set, Word Publisher did an incredi- 
ble job with the text and the graphic. 
Next, we tried printing with Hewlett- 
Packard's PostScript cartridge. As we 
expected, the font support was superb. 

Unfortunately, the graphic scrambled 
in a rather bizarre way. The image broke 
up into l A -inch- wide horizontal bands, 
and then each band was flipped vertical- 
ly. We then tried the graphic unsuccess- 
fully on several other printers, among 
them Texas Instruments' MicroLaser 
with Adobe PostScript and an HP Laser- 
Jet Series II with Pacific Data's Pacific- 
Page (Phoenix's PostScript clone). Spin- 
naker's technical-support people say 
they have tested the PostScript driver 
only with an Apple LaserWriter; perhaps 
the old LaserWriter works differently 
than these newer printers. If you have a 
PostScript printer, check with Spinnaker 
before you buy Word Publisher. This 
should be an easy problem for Spinnaker 
to track down; perhaps it will be solved 
by the time you read this. 

Professional 1.1 

FullWrite is a very rich package that 
suffers somewhat from a reputation 
for being too slow. True, it was notice- 
ably slower than the rest of the Mac pack, 
but not in every test. On the Mac SE/30 
there was never any occasion to worry 
about performance. Keystrokes will def- 
initely lag behind a fast typist on the SE. 
For $395, you expect a slew of fea- 

tures, and FullWrite won't disappoint 
you. As with all Macintosh products, 
there is the standard set— selection by 
click and drag, cut, paste, native/ASCII 
file save, and support for any system font 
in any style. To that, FullWrite adds an 
outliner, a hyphenator, a spelling check- 
er, a thesaurus, and an index generator. 
The only obvious omission is a macro fa- 
cility. If you're a macro junkie, a third- 
party macro facility, such as Affinity 
Microsystem's Tempo II, would be a 
good purchase. 

One of FullWrite 's most innovative 
features is Notes, which lets you pop up 
small windows of text or graphics and at- 
tach them to the main body. In these win- 
dows, you can store any additional infor- 
mation or comments about your main 
text. Sidebars give you the option of 
breaking the text into several pieces and 
laying the pieces side by side. In fact, 
that was how we managed to switch from 
one to two columns of text; putting the 
body of text in two-column format al- 
lowed us to treat the single-column title 
as a sidebar. 

You can import bit-mapped images 
through the Clipboard, which normally 
restricts them to screen resolution. You 
create object images through the built-in 
drawing package or import them from 
another package, such as MacDraw II. 


Claris has finally provided a signifi- 
cant update to the MacWrite that we 
have all grown to know and love. Mac- 
Write II has the standard complement of 
editing features that you would expect to 
find on the Mac. One of MacWrite 's 
unique strengths is the Claris Transla- 
tors, which come bundled. MacWrite can 
convert documents in Acta, Microsoft 
Word, WordPerfect, and other formats. 

MacWrite II was unable to completely 
format our test document. Part of the test 
requires placing a full-width column of 
text above a two-column layout. Mac- 
Write lets you specify the columns, but 
only for the entire document. If there was 
a trick that would allow us to get the full- 
width column that we needed, we were 
not able to find it. On the plus side, Mac- 
Write was the only Mac product that 
would take a graphics file directly. By 
selecting Insert File from the file menu, 
you pick a PICT or MacPaint file directly 
and insert it at the current cursor posi- 
tion. The other packages require that you 
first move the file to the Clipboard and 
then paste it. By using the file directly, 

it's possible to import full 300-dpi bit 
maps. In our case, the graphic printed 
poorly, with no contrast and several lines 
sprinkled across the image. Images from 
the Clipboard were fine; it's the image 
scaling that didn't work. 

Overall, we found MacWrite II a very 
satisfying product. It came in with the 
fastest time in the scroll test, a fact that 
was evident and appreciated as we used 
it. The performance in other areas was a 
bit disappointing, but MacWrite per- 
formed well where it counts. A mid-level 
product, MacWrite II sports a mid-level 
price tag: $249. 

Microsoft Word 4.0 

For $395, Word 4.0, for the Mac, eas- 
ily qualifies as a full-featured word 
processor (see photo 3). It, too, has all 
the usual features that you'd expect, and 
others as well. Word's table functions 
make lining up grids and formatted 
tables a breeze. Simply tell Word 4.0 
how many lines and columns you need, 
and it inserts a grid at the current cursor 
position. The mouse and tab key move 
you from cell to cell. 

The table feature also gives you an 
easy way to create separate columns of 
text (simulating what other products call 
frames or sidebars). The sectioning fea- 
ture breaks up a document into smaller 
sections, allowing you to set global attri- 
butes for each. The first section in our 
test document had one column, and the 
rest of the text was in a two-column for- 
mat, so our test document layout was 
child's play. 

Microsoft Word 4.0 also enjoys file 
compatibility with Microsoft Word 5.0 
for the PC and Word for Windows 1.0. 
Moving documents from the Mac to the 
PC and back again couldn't be easier. 

Word 4.0 for the Mac did wonderfully 
on our timed tests as well. Particularly 
impressive is the Fast Save option, which 
is very handy on floppy disks. Word 
ranks as the fastest Mac product in the 
review, save for screen scrolling. 

Mind Write 2.1 

MindWrite seems the odd one when it 
comes to WYSIWYG word proces- 
sors. Formatted output is adequate, al- 
though not fancy. MindWrite limits you 
to a ceiling of 24 points on your typeface; 
there's no support for multicolumn text, 



Monet, not money 

Who says fine art is out of reach? 
The HP PaintJet color printer pro- 
duces brilliant color for a price any 
business can afford. 

So now there's no limit to what 
you can create 

with your business communica- 
tions. Surprise your audience with 
thousands of colors. Beamed up 
on an overhead. Or tucked neatly 
into a report Persuading people 
up to 85% more effectively than 
black and white. 

The PaintJet works with all your 
favorite graphics, presentation, 
spreadsheet and word processing 
software. Just hook it up to your 
IBM-compatible or Macintosh 
computer and start painting. 

For only $1395 (add $125 for the 
Macintosh interface). 

Call 1-800-752-0900 Ext. 711K 

for your nearest authorized HP 
dealer and a free sample output. 
The HP PaintJet. It's what artists 
are starving for. 

There is a better way. 



* Suggested U.S. list price. Business graphics created using Microsoft* Excel, which is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. ©1989 Hewlett-Packard Company PE 12916 

Laugh, sob, growl, warble, wail (or just talk) 
across your LANtastic PC Network. 

The newest version of our LANtastic PC network has 
really got people talking. 

You see, LANtastic is the first PC network to support 
Voice. So you can actually send voice messages from one PC 
to another across the LAN. 

It's easy. Just pick up the telephone handset provided 
with the LANtastic Voice Adapter (sold separately at $149* 
per adapter), bring up a handy menu, and talk. Use Voice 
Chat to carry on a realtime conversation or save the voice 
message in a digital format for playback later in your own 
voice— just like regular E-mail. 

Only LANtastic has Voice. And Voice is just one of the 
reasons people are talking about LANtastic version 3.0. 

Another is our new easy installation program that'll 
have you up and running in minutes. 

And disk caching to boost network speed. 
Plus enhanced printing, E-mail, security D 
and more. ^^ 

All of which led PC Magazine to conclude: to 
rr% " LANtastic blows away the DOS- 

i based competition in terms of performance." 
W& -May 29, 1990 

All And don't worry. Even with all 

■.«,*"> 1990 

U>r " l< these new features, LANtastic still has 
the smallest RAM overhead of any network. 

LANtastic version 3.0. Call 602-293-6363. 

Developers. Artisoft offers a Voice Programmer's 
Interface so you can create your own "talking" software 
using the LANtastic Voice Adapter. Order it directly from 

i ! i 1 

Li N 


Revolutionizing Connectivity 

*Manufacturer's suggested retail price. Before voice messages can be sent from one PC to another, optional LANtastic Voice Adapters must be installed on both PCs. 
^Manufacturer's suggested retail price is 5249 for LANtastic 2Mbps adapters and S349 for LANtastic Ethernet Adapters. © 1990 ARTISOFT. LANtastic is a trademark of ARTISOFT. 

Circle 28 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 29) 


WYSIWYG Word Processors 

and handling of imported graphics is 
limited. Nevertheless, MindWrite has a 
good outliner and a Clipboard function 
that allows you to cut and paste more than 
one item at a time. The result is that 
MindWrite seems crafted more for the 
creation of words than for their ap- 

Of all the word processors we looked 
at on the Mac, MindWrite has the easiest 
and most versatile outliner. You create a 
topic by simply typing new text; you 
make subsequent topics by pressing Re- 
turn and typing more text. You make sub- 
levels within a topic either by dragging 
text to the right with the mouse or by typ- 
ing Command-r and typing text. If you 
want to exit a level and start a new topic, 
you either drag text to the left or type 

There's no limit to the number of sub- 
levels a topic can have, and you can also 
select and drag sublevels to other parts of 
the outline, or even make them topics. 
MindWrite assigns either diamonds or 
numbers to items in the outline, depend- 
ing on a user selection. If you're using 
numbers, they're automatically updated 


Word pro 

1 5 WYSIWYG ' 
Sow ard [E glowsteBi 

Word processing pn 

gave many folks a tc 

Plain Tent 

Document... xiild character 




5 Macintosh and IBM PCs 

jce the birth »f microcomputers. They 
dify lax e documents. The document's 

appearance -.-:-.? :< ^c'^r; L""r, r-.-.^-.-il" bec^e the prmter.tecfmologyatthe ome 
didn't give you much choice: you had t» settle for the monospaced character font in the 
printer's ROMs. The situation lias certainly improved since then. For the computer, you 
can select a particular typeface for your document and expect it to shov up on 'he screen. 
Nordoes it have to be a monospaced font. Even better, many laser pri ters -nil reproduce 
the document'3 typeface faithfully, and at 3i0 dpi or *e t r resolution. 

Nov that users have better control over the look of the output, they want a good idea of 
ha~ the document will appear before committing it to •p.svper. WB. the addition of that tafcle 
of c<St justification figures toife business report bump the text explaining, costs to another 
jage? Can I arid a -logo to the company' s letter head? Hmr "rill it look? Any ?.iord 
processing package gires youatiol to organize your thoughts and correct your document's 
grammar before comlrurang it to paper; WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) 
trard processors help you make it took nice. 

ISUBHED (Typing or Typesetting? IENDSUBHED ! 

ieiveen character-based and WYSIWYG vord processors, choose V/YSIWYG wheathe 
lo* k of whatytu vrite 13 almost as imponant a3 the content "The line ben/een WYSIWYG 
and desktop publishing (DTP) is somewhat more difficult to define; at some point, you'll 
finish composing jour text arid start concentrating on the layout Even die best of the 
WYSIWYG -rord processors fall far behind a DTP package for final fonnatting. If jVou 
ififil yourself spending lots of time adjusting fonts and moving .graBhifcs, maybe you should 
he using % DTP p-?cka;e instead 

Paqe 1 


IA r-l;. 

Photo 3: The pull-down menus in Microsoft Word are typical of the Macintosh 
products in this review. 

Here's the world's 













SEPTEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 143 


WYSIWYG word Processors 

as you change the outline. You can hide 
or expose sublevels by clicking to the left 
of a topic. For the serious writer who 
wants to have a road map of an article 
laid out before typing a single word, 
Mind Write' s flexible outliner has a lot to 
offer, especially at $195. 

You can also set how many cut or copy 
operations get saved to the Clipboard, 
within the limits of your Mac's memory. 
Mind Write will save Clipboard opera- 
tions in a kind of f irst-in, first-out stack. 
The Clipboard window shows you the 
items on this stack. You can select a par- 
ticular Clipboard item with the mouse, 
and it appears in the Mind Write docu- 
ment on the next paste operation. This 
makes for a handy way of juggling 
phrases until you get them placed where 
you want in an article. 

You can paste graphics into a docu- 
ment from the Clipboard or scrapbook, 
but you can't resize or center the graphic. 
This is MindWrite's weakest area, but 
overall we get the impression that a 
MindWrite user is worried only about the 
contents of the text itself; someone else 
with a page layout application will worry 
about the text's form and style. 


Nisus, for the Mac, sports some high- 
er-end WYSIWYG features, such as 
a sophisticated graphics palette that 
allows you to add objects to your page. It 
also has extensive header and footer sup- 
port and lets you add footnotes to a page. 
However, although you can have up to 
eight columns of text, you can see these 
columns only within a print preview win- 
dow—an odd omission, we think. 

Nisus gives the writer quite a few tools 
to help with the job of writing. There's a 
user-selectable level of Undo operations 
(the default is 300) and 10 Clipboards for 
stashing choice swatches of text or hold- 
ing figures. For the author who has to 
write to fit, an Info Bar at the top of the 
document window continuously displays 
the character count for the current para- 
graph and page (the default). This infor- 
mation can be modified to display the 
total number of characters or the total 
word count. A line-numbering function 
adds line numbers to the beginning of 
every text line. This function is handy 
for legal papers or for documents in 

which you have to reference something 
by line number— in, for example, an arti- 
cle proof faxed to an author. 

Nisus's strong point is its editable 
macros. You create, edit, and use macros 
to perform repetitive operations. For ex- 
ample, if you want to keep certain grem- 
lin characters in an imported text file 
(e.g., the formfeed characters), you can 
create your own macro that strips out all 
gremlin characters but those. An Easy- 
GREP and GREP facility allows you to 
do sophisticated pattern matching, in- 
cluding finding text that's in a particular 
typeface, style, or size. These latter fea- 
tures will be of use to advanced users, 
which makes Nisus more suited for tech- 
nical documents. Nisus also costs a bit 
more than the less capable word proces- 
sors: $395. 


Palantir's WinText program has been 
around since the early days of Win- 
dows, long before anything else was 
available. As this article went to press, 

longest line of high perform 





;_ _^ J3l 



-.,,.....; SJJSBWHfi. 


«,':.:,-." i: 







Workstation, file server, stand-alone 
PC or node— whatever you need, it's in 
the Everex™ line. 
And all these machines rank at or near the 
top of their class in performance benchmarks. 
There are two main reasons. Zero wait-state 
design. And Everex's proprietary Advanced 
Memory Management Architecture (AMMA"). 

Thanks to AMMA, for example, the STEP 
386/33 turns in a smoking 8.3 MIPS. 

But if you think that's fast, take a look at 
Everex's 88000 RISC-based systems. At up to 
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and MS-DOS! 

Even the STEVserver "systems run like 

STEP 486/5, STEP 386/5, STEPserver, STEP 386m, 286c, AMMA and Everex are trademarks of Everex Systems, Inc. 80386and386SXare trademarks of Intel Corporation. Other brands 



WYSIWYG Word Processors 

Palantir had not yet announced Windows 
3.0 support for WinText. We tested Win- 
Text under Windows' real mode, and it 
ran perfectly. Although its functions are 
limited, it's certainly adequate for sim- 
ple word processing. And at $195, it was 
the least expensive of the Windows prod- 
ucts we reviewed. 

WinText reminds us a little of the orig- 
inal MacWrite: It offers only a spelling 
checker and basic editing features— in- 
sert, delete, cut, paste, and font selec- 
tion. Before buying WinText, you might 
want to take a peek at Ami, Ami Profes- 
sional's little brother. Ami lacks the pro- 
fessional version's thesaurus and draw- 
ing packages but retains much of the 
usability. Ami lists for $199. 

Word for Windows 1 .0 

In April, we ran a comparative review 
of Word for Windows, Ami Profession- 
al, and NBI's Legend 2.0 ("Word Pro- 
cessing in Windows"). In that review, 
Lamont Wood found Ami Professional to 
be somewhat faster than Word for Win- 

dows under Windows 2.11. Using Win- 
dows 3.0, however, we found the oppo- 
site to be true. While both word 
processors are excellent performers, 
Word for Windows is a tad faster than 
Ami Professional under Windows 3.0 in 
real mode. In 386 extended mode, the 
difference is small enough that it's bare- 
ly measurable. 

Like Ami Professional, Word for Win- 
dows has full macro capability, style 
sheets, and various display modes. Draft 
mode gives you the entire text, unformat- 
ted, in a monospaced font for faster edit- 
ing. Normal mode is full WYSIWYG, 
with the columns extended straight down 
the page for easier editing. Page mode 
moves the columns and graphics to their 
correct page positions. Word also in- 
cludes a very easy-to-use outliner. Word 
for Windows' macro language is akin to 
BASIC, sharing the same constructs and 
many of the same keywords. 

Word for Windows 1.0 holds its own 
against Ami Professional in most re- 
spects, even in price ($495). Perhaps the 
biggest difference between the two is 
Word's binary file compatibility with the 

WordMaker 1 .01 

For basic editing needs, WordMaker is 
an inexpensive way to get into Mac 
word processing. For $124.95, you get 
standard Mac editing tools and a clean, 
professional interface. Simply running 
on a Mac gives a product a full-featured 
environment. Outside of that, Word- 
Maker doesn't add any remarkable edit- 
ing features, but it does include support 
for text in eight colors. 

We had only two problems executing 
our test document: WordMaker doesn't 
handle multiple columns, and it won't 
wrap text around a graphic. It was simple 
enough to add extra carriage returns to 
make room for the image, but the other 
packages didn't require the extra step. To 
get the multiple columns, it would be 
easy enough to print out two thin col- 
umns and combine them on a photocop- 
ier—not a bad compromise. 

WordMaker is ideally suited for peo- 
ple who don't need fancy columns and 
heavy formatting. Sometimes, it's best to 
get back to basics. 


ance desktop computers. 

rsa ' ^m 





wildfire. The STERs£/-ver386,for example, 
combines a 33MHz 80386™chip with AMMA, 
making it the fastest machine in its class. And 
they're both specifically designed for maximum 
performance and compatibility with Novell 

But the Everex systems offer more than 
sheer speed. Most are upgradable. All come 

with a one-year extendable warranty and a 
one-year renewable on-site service contract 
that also covers all Everex peripherals in 
the system. 

To find out more, call 1-800-334-4552. 

We'll hand you the longest line in the world. 
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and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. © 1990 Everex Systems, Inc. 
Circle 113 on Reader Service Card 




for the Mac 1.0.4 

The Mac version of WordPerfect is as 
full-featured and monolithic as the 
DOS version. As you'd expect, Word- 
Perfect also saves files in DOS format. It 
was more difficult to feel comfortable 
with WordPerfect than with the other 
word processors, because the menu 
structure has a look and feel entirely its 
own. Pull-down menus are often ar- 
ranged oddly, with the same feel as the 
DOS version's function keys. When you 
know that a function is "in there some- 
where," an easy way to find it is to press 
the mouse button and scroll through the 
menus, looking for an entry that you re- 
member. WordPerfect's extensive use of 
daughter menus makes that difficult, so 
you find yourself walking through, acti- 
vating menu after menu, until you find 
the function you need. 

Perhaps the unusual interface is a 
small price to pay for all that power. If 
you want both parallel and newspaper- 
style columns, no problem. If you like to 

nest macros within other macros, Word- 
Perfect has you covered. It should be no 
surprise that WordPerfect had no prob- 
lem with the test document formatting, 
once we found the necessary functions. 

The documentation for this product is 
complete but hard to use. If you're a poor 
speller, think about what it's like to find 
the correct spelling for a word in the dic- 
tionary. If you know where to look for it, 
you can find it. But that would require 
knowing how to spell, and if you could 
do that, you wouldn't need to look it up. 
Welcome to WordPerfect documenta- 
tion. The reference section is alphabet- 
ized by menu choice or concept, not by 
functionality. For example, the kerning 
capability lets you alter the spacing be- 
tween individual characters. It's handy 
for giving a special look to a phrase, and 
we wanted to use it in the document title. 
On some products it's called "tracking"; 
on others, "character spacing." Word- 
Perfect calls it "kerning" and puts the 
reference information by itself under K. 
We'd rather see it in a section of the man- 
ual in a discussion of the Format menu, 
listed in the order in which it appears on 
the menu. 

If you opt for WordPerfect for the 
Mac, it will cost you $395. You won't be 
disappointed, but don't expect to use the 
reference manual as a learning aid. 

WriteNow 2.2 

WriteNow, at $199, is another pack- 
age that prides itself on being a fast 
implementation of a minimalist Mac 
word processor. Like WordMaker, it 
provides the standard font support; se- 
lect, cut, paste, and print functions; and 
a spelling checker and thesaurus. 

A short function list makes WriteNow 
easy to learn and incredibly fast. Like 
WordMaker, WriteNow runs well on a 
single floppy disk drive and is a superb 
product for most editing needs. 

Scratching That Niche 

A few of the packages that we reviewed 
aren't really general-purpose word pro- 
cessors. Nevertheless, they are 
WYSIWYG, and they do the specific 
jobs for which they're intended. 


And here's four more. 



muw.1, * ■■* jMJt(3P©jn -*;« 

:■■■■•- r Ywyrn 





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The new STEP 486/25 and 486/33 are hot 

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Circle 223 on Reader Service Card 



WYSIWYG Word Processors 



Ashton Tate, Inc. 

Paragon Concepts 

(FullWrite Professional 1.1) 


641 1 Guadalupe Mines Rd. 

990 Highland Dr., Suite 312 

San Jose, CA 95120 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 



Inquiry 1071. 

Inquiry 1078. 

Claris Corp. 

Samna Corp. 


(Ami Professional 1 .2) 

5201 Patrick Henry Dr., Box 58168 

5600 Glenridge Dr. 

Santa Clara, CA 95052 

Atlanta, GA 30342 

(408) 987-7000 


Inquiry 1072. 

Inquiry 1079. 

Delta Point 

Spinnaker Software Corp. 


(BetterWorking Word Publisher 5.0) 

200 Heritage Harbor, Suite G 

201 Broadway 

Monterey, CA 93940 

Cambridge, MA 02139 

(408) 648-4000 


Inquiry 1073. 

Inquiry 1080. 

Huff Software 

T/Maker Co. 


(WriteNow 2.2) 


1390 Villa St. 

Myrtle Beach, SC 29577 

Mountain View, CA 94041 


(415) 962-0195 

Inquiry 1074. 

Inquiry 1081. 

Microsoft Corp. 

WordPerfect Corp. 

(Microsoft Word 4.0, 

(WordPerfect for the Mac 1.0.4) 

Word for Windows 1.0) 

1555 North Technology Way 

1 Microsoft Way 

Orem, UT 84057 

Redmond, WA 98052 


(800) 426-9400 

Inquiry 1082. 

(206) 882-8080 

Inquiry 1075. 

Working Software 

(QuickLetter 1.03) ' 

New Horizons 

P.O. Box 1844 


Santa Cruz, CA 95061 

P.O. Box 43167 

(408) 423-5696 

Austin, TX 78745 

Inquiry 1083. 


Inquiry 1076. 


(The Universal Word 1.5) 


300 Corporate Point, Suite 410 


Culver City, CA 90230 

4455 South Padre Island Dr., 


Suite 43 

Inquiry 1084. 

Corpus Christi, TX 78411 

(512) 854-8787 

Inquiry 1077. 

the standards that we've all come to ex- 
pect from a modern software package. 
Plan on spending a few minutes getting 
the hang of it. 

It's worth the effort. InText is a pack- 
age clearly aimed at scientific and tech- 
nical documentation. You enter mathe- 
matical expressions like any other piece 
of text; simply put them together with the 
equation editor, drawing any geometric 
shapes with the line-drawing tool. Spe- 
cial characters come from a special menu 
and can be resized to fit. 

Speed isn't InText's forte. Beautiful 
text is, and the output quality was very 
impressive. HP LaserJet and PostScript 
drivers are included, as is support for 
most 24- or 9-pin dot-matrix printers. 
We recommend InText for any technical 
presentation, particularly those with 
mathematics or chemical symbols. 

QuickLetter 1.03 

QuickLetter is a Macintosh desk ac- 
cessory that's ideal for occasional 
use or for hammering out a fast cover let- 
ter. In fact, QuickLetter comes with its 
own address book and special Print En- 
velope menu selection. 

It's actually kind of fun— if you're in 
another word processor or database, you 
can select a name and address, find 
QuickLetter in your desk accessory list, 
and paste the address into a new docu- 
ment. Select Print Envelope, and bang 
out envelopes with no muss or fuss. It's 
also extremely handy to have a full mul- 
tifont editor at your fingertips. There are 
many times in a telecommunication 
package that it would be convenient to 
grab a file from the disk, make text 
changes, and transmit the file without 
having to lose the connection and redial. 
Of course, there are shareware alterna- 
tives, but QuickLetter is a full word pro- 
cessor. Besides, the envelope and ad- 
dress book features are more useful than 
we would have imagined. 

The package isn't expensive, either 
($124.95), and that makes it all the more 

InText 1.53 

InText is a full WYSIWYG scientific 
word processor that can easily function 
as a full-featured text editor. It doesn't 
handle graphics or multiple columns. 
Otherwise, it does everything that you 
would expect from a full-featured word 

processor for $295 . 

The interface looks a bit dated, and it 
does not support a mouse. InText in- 
cludes screen drivers for CGA, EGA, 
VGA, and Hercules displays. One of the 
more unusual features is a menu that 
serves to bind together the editor and 
print module. It's hard to describe, but 
suffice it to say that it doesn't conform to 

The Universal Word 1 .5 

If there were a prize in this review for 
the prettiest screen display, The Uni- 
versal Word from WYSIWYG Corp. 
would win hands down. We tested the 
English-only version of a product that is 





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Circle 61 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 62) 




clearly meant for multiple languages. 
For $395, you get English; for $695, you 
get some combination of English, 
French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, 
Dutch, German, Hungarian, Arabic, 
Russian, Swedish, Polish, and Farsi. 
Standard configurations have a specific 
subset; WYSIWYG will also custom- 
configure a set for your needs. 

The version that we tested didn't sup- 
port PostScript, and WYSIWYG is work- 
ing on adding it. As a general word pro- 

cessor, we found The Universal Word to 
be rather slow. That doesn't mean it's 
not worth a look— far from it. If you need 
to handle multiple languages, The Uni- 
versal Word might do better than any- 
thing else we looked at. 

How to Buy a Word Processor 

A word processor may be the most per- 
sonal purchase that you '11 ever make for 
your computer. Choosing between word 
processors is a bit like picking among re- 

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Switch-It automatically lists up to 100 of 

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H = Select, <~ J = Run, Del = Abort 
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ligions, movies, or clothing styles; you 
will naturally gravitate toward one that 
"feels" right, which means that the word 
processor works the same way you do. 
You can ask your friends which ones they 
like, or you can read reviews in maga- 
zines. Just remember that you're not nec- 
essarily going to like the popular one or 
the one with the most features. 

Are you planning on using your word 
processor to create newsletters? In that 
case, you won't care about counting 
words, retrieving foreign text files, or 
creating outlines. What you need for 
newsletters is a powerful formatting ca- 
pability, preferably one with good graph- 
ics support. 

Novice users may find the whole idea 
of a monolithic word processor much too 
scary. Let's face it: If you're using a 
word processor for day-to-day business 
correspondence, you're simply not going 
to use most of the features in a full-fea- 
tured product. It's comforting to know 
that they're there, yet too many features 
can be confusing. So save some money 
and buy a simpler package with just the 
features that you'll use. In word process- 
ing, less is often more. 

Sometimes you simply don't have a 
choice. In an office environment, it's 
likely that your network is made up of 
both Macs and PCs. In that case, it's 
handy to choose a word processor that 
works on both platforms and can share 
binary word processor files back and 
forth across platforms. In other cases, 
you need to share files with other users 
on the same platform. 

You might try borrowing a word pro- 
cessor from a friend or officemate and 
spending some time with it. Don't let 
anyone pressure you into using a full-fea- 
tured package if you don't need it. Last- 
ly, read the documentation. Some of the 
manuals in this review were difficult to 
use. For the popular products, many 
third-party books are available. 

Kiss Your Typewriter Good-Bye 

For the sort of editing that you might do 
in preparation for placing text in a DTP 
package, we liked Ami Professional and 
Word for Windows under DOS. Both 
have very good editing features and a 
draft editing mode. Choosing between 
the two is tough, but Ami's poor word- 
counting macro makes us lean toward 
Word. Word provides word and character 
counts as a standard item in its Summary 
Info box. 

On the Macintosh, any of the word 
processors that we reviewed would suf- 
fice. If we were forced to pick one, we 



Circle 37 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 38) 






W:-tlfXlv0Si0M' : t" '? ■# 'wBiiiS\ i ■■ \ ■ *■-■ i 

Jfc-j-'* «r ■'•*' "*•' w~ 'it '•'■' '*> "*> '•»' 


THE DELL SYSTEM 325 25 MHz 386. 

An even better value at these low prices. 


• Intel® 80386 microprocessor running at 
25 MHz. 

• Standard 1 MB of RAM, optional 2 MB 
or4 MBof RAM* expandable to 16 MB 
(using a dedicated high-speed 32-bit 
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• Advanced Intel 82385 Cache Memory 
Controller with 32 KB of high-speed 
static RAM cache. 

• Rage mode interleaved memory 

• Socket f or WEITEK 3167 math 

• 5.25" 1.2 MBor 3.5" 1.44 MBdiskette 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• MS-DOS® compatible and Novell 

• 8 industry standard expansion slots 
(6 available). 

**Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loiu as $131/month. 

40 MB VGA Monochrome 

System $3,599 

80 MB VGA Color Plus System $4,099 
190 MB Super VGA Color System 

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Prices listed reflect 1 MBof RAM. lOOand 
650 MB hard drive configurations also 

Who are we to argue with the experts. 

The leading computer publications in nine countries, 
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the Dell System® 3 25 the number one, or une or uno 
25 MHz 386" based personal computer in their respective 

The Editors of PC Magazine chose to give it their 
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volume buyers who voted it top in all 12 attributes measured 
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aq f"Qnp HE IQ 1 'Performance Enhancements: Within the first megabyte of memory, 384 KB of memory is reserved for use by thesyslem to enhonceperfomionce.Systernphotographed with optional extras. Prices ondspecificalionssubjecttochangewilhout notice. 

— 1 Dell cannot be responsible for errors in typography or photography. In Canada, configurations ond price may vary. DELL SYSTEM is a registered trademark and Dell is a trademark of Dell Computer Corporation. Intel is a registered trademark 

and 386 is o trademark of Intel Corporation. MS-DOS is o registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T in the United States and othercountries. Other trademarks and trade names ore used to identifytheentitiescioiming the marks and 
names ortheir products. Dell ComputerCorporation disclaims any proprietaiy interest in trademarks and trade names otherthan its own.^On-site sen/ice may not be available in certain locations. Shipping, handling and applicable soles tax ore not included. For information on 
and a copy of Dell's 30-doy Total Satisfaction Guarantee, limited warranty, and Xerox's Service Contract, please write to Dell Computer Corporation, 9505 Arboretum Blvd., Austin,! X 78759-7299, ATTN: Warranty. ©1990 Dell Computer Corporation, All rights reserved. 

Circle 86 on Reader Service Card 


WYSIWYG Word Processors 

would take Mind Write for its outliner or 
Nisus for its clever word counter and ex- 
cellent macro language. MindWrite is a 
little thin on formatting features, but 
that's OK if the formatting is completed 
in a DTP package. It's responsive, and it 
has an outliner that nothing else could 

Some word processors do a superb job 
of formatting pages— particularly handy 
for doing newsletters. If not Ami Profes- 
sional, try Word for Windows. If you 

want to save some money, the baby in 
this review, Better Working Word Pub- 
lisher, is an amazingly capable package. 
Having fine control over your layout is 
somewhat moredif f icult with Word Pub- 
lisher, but for a product that runs fine on 
floppy disk-based 8088 machines, it's 
downright awesome. 

WYSIWYG is the Mac's realm, and, 
again, any product in this review would 
probably do the job. It was hard not to 
like Microsoft Word 4.0 and Full Write 

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Professional, although a more basic edi- 
tor might be enough for most desktop 
publishing text preparation. In that envi- 
ronment, WriteNow 's and WordMaker's 
lack of multiple-column support would 
be a nonissue. 

The full-featured packages do feel 
somewhat stuffed with menu choices. 
It's likely that a novice at word process- 
ing would take one look at these big pack- 
ages and head straight back for the secu- 
rity of the old typewriter. We would feel 
better about WinText if it was updated 
to run under Windows 3.0. InText was 
slanted toward scientific applications. 
Although it was not part of this review, 
Ami (Ami Professional's little brother), 
at $199, might be a good choice. It has 
most of Ami Professional's features, ex- 
cept for the thesaurus and drawing pack- 
age. Windows doesn't provide the range 
of word processors that the Mac has had 
for years. In the Windows environment, 
it might be better to pick a full-featured 
product and ignore the features that you 
don't need. 

Mac users have it much easier. Both 
WordMaker and WriteNow follow the 
Macintosh interface guidelines down to 
the last punctuation mark, and once you 
get them started, you instantly feel as 
though you have been using them for 
years. WriteNow comes with a thesau- 
rus; WordMaker does not. If you don't 
want to be that basic, Mac Write II gives 
you the same ease of use, but with a bit 
more power, better file import/export 
capability, and a slightly higher price 

For mixed computing environments, 
lWord (for Windows and the Mac) is an 
obvious choice. The two versions can 
easily transport documents back and 
forth across serial links or networks, 
preserving full formatting in the pro- 

If you're incorporating a Mac into a 
DOS WordPerfect shop, why not use the 
real thing? WordPerfect for the Mac is a 
superbly crafted product, and it does 
seamless translation to and from the 
DOS environment. If you're starting a 
mixed environment, Word might be bet- 
ter than WordPerfect, simply because the 
Windows and Mac versions are much 
closer in feel than the Mac and DOS 
WordPerfect versions. ■ 

Howard Eglowstein and Stan Wszola are 
testing editors/engineers for the BYTE 
Lab. You can reach them on BIX as "heg- 
low stein " and "stan, " respectively. Tom 
Thompson is a BYTE senior technical edi- 
tor at large. He can be reached on BIX as 
"tom-thompson. " 


Circle 200 on Reader Service Card 







'.f.':f'.'r..:i«iiiiiift«p' »"» t 'n&iatat 

THE DELL SYSTEM 310 20 MHz 386. 

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The Editor's of PC Magazine also described the Dell™ 
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floor." Now, that's some performance. 

Which we think, makes it the best 20 MHz 386™ PC 
on the market. 

That's why the Dell 310 easily outperforms the Compaq 
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And leaves them cold when it comes to price. Whether 
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A price that includes a full 
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And if you consider that the Dell 310 comes from the 
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IN CANADA, CALL 800-387-5752 







ah f"Qnf llFJO 1 "flerfofmanceEnhonceroenteWrthiii the first megabyte of memory 384 KB of memory is reserved for use by the system to enhanceperfomx>n<B.5ysiemphorogrophedwitrioptional extras Prices and speo1icationssub|ecttochangew>thout notice. 

I _ _ 1 Dell cannot be responsible for errors in typography or photogrophy. In Canada, configurations and price moy vary DELLSY5TEMisa registered trademorkand Dell is a trademark of Dell Computer Corporation. Intel iso registered trademark 

and 386 is a trademark of Intel Corporation. MS-DOS is o registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. UNIX is o registered trademark of AT&T in the United Statesand other countries. Other trademarks and trade names ore usedto identify theentities claiming the morks and 
names or their products. Dell Computer Corporation disclaims any proprietaiy interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own. ^On-site seivice may not be availoble in certain locations. Shipping, handling and applicable sales tax ore not included. For information on 
and o copy of Dell's30-day Total Satisfaction Guarantee, limited warranty, and Xerox's Service Contract, please write to Dell CamputerCorparation, 9505 Arboretum Blvd., Austin,1X 78759-7299, ATTN: Warranty. #1990 Dell Computer Corporotion. All rights reserved. 

Circle 87 on Reader Service Card 




Tom Yager 


DEC'S Latest RISC 

The DECstation 5000 packs some serious performance into a compact box. 
The expansion cabinet atop the main unit holds the hard disk drive. 

DECstation Model 5000/200CX 


Digital Equipment Corp. 
146 Main St. 
Maynard, MA 01 754 


Processor: 25-MHz MIPS R3000 with 
128K-byte cache; MIPS R3010 math 
coprocessor; LSI Logic LR3220 
memory buffer controller 
Memory: 16 MB of DRAM, expandable 
to 1 20 MB; 1 28 K by es of static RAM 

Mass storage: 665-MB SCSI hard disk 

Display: 16-inch Sony Trinitron monitor; 
32-bit DEC graphics adapter (displays 
1024 by 864 pixels with 256 
simultaneous colors) 
Keyboard: DEC VT220-compatible 
I/O interfaces: Three serial ports; thin- 
wire Ethernet port; SCSI port; video port; 
three Turbochannel expansion slots 


System as reviewed: $28,500 

Inquiry 854. 

Walk into the temperature-con- 
trolled computer room of any 
university or Fortune 500 com- 
pany, and you'll almost certainly see 
minicomputers from Digital Equipment 
Corp. As users like these have turned to 
smaller, less expensive machines, DEC 
has worked hard to diversify, introduc- 
ing workstations such as its DECstation 
3100 (see "DEC's RISC Powerhouse," 
November 1989 BYTE). DEC's newest 
entry, the DECstation 5000, offers the 
best desktop performance the company 
has to offer, and it illustrates DEC's in- 
creasing commitment to standards. 

Despite this new system's kinship to 
earlier DECstations, the 5000 is much 

more than a rehash. The juice flows from 
a 25-MHz MIPS R3000 RISC micropro- 
cessor, backed by a 128K-byte static 
RAM cache. My review system, a Model 
5000/200CX, came equipped with 16 
megabytes of memory, an external 665- 
MB SCSI hard disk drive, and a copy of 
Ultrix, DEC's flavor of Unix. A 256- 
color, 1024- by 864-pixel graphics 
adapter drives the 16-inch Sony Trinitron 
display. The review system's list price 
came to $28,500; an 8-MB diskless (and 
displayless) system sells for $14,995. 

The 5000 accommodates up to 120 
MB of RAM and 21 gigabytes of disk 
space. Its SCSI connector lets you attach 
up to seven devices. Enhanced graphics 

options range from simple two-dimen- 
sional vector acceleration to a complex 
3-D pipeline. The system unit is a sleek 
3 Vi inches high, but the pizza box-size 
external hard disk drive doubles the total 
system height. 

Driving the Turbocharged Bus 

The 5000 incorporates DEC's new Tur- 
bochannel 32-bit bus architecture. This 
internal I/O channel routes data to ex- 
pansion boards through three 44-pin 
slots. The Turbochannel specification 
lets the bus operate at any speed from 
12.5 to 25 MHz; the 5000's bus cranks at 
full throttle. How fast is that? Claims 
like this are hard to prove, but DEC says 



DECstation 5000/200CX 

Opus PM/8000/30 
DECstation 3100 
Everex Step 386/33 

1.3 5.2 | 2.8 | 1.8 2.3 7.3 20.8* 






C Compiler I I DC Arithmeti 

>tic I I Tower of Hanoi I I 


System Loading | | Dhrystone2 I I Floatingpoint 






C Compiler 



* Dhrystone2 

DC Arithmetic 



(without registers; Dh 

Tower of Hanoi 




(1 7-disk problem) 

(10,000 iterations) 
Arithmetic overhead 

System Loading 1 


1 concurrent background 






2 concurrent background 





* Floating Point 

4 concurrent background 





8 concurrent background 




Time Index 

31250 2.26 

Time Index 



' Cumulative index is formed by summing the indexed performance results for C Compiler, DC Arithmetic, Tower of 
Hanoi, System Loading (with 8 concurrent background processes), Dhrystone 2, and Floating Point tests. 

1 System loading was performed using Bourne shell scripts and Unix utilities. 

Note: All times are in seconds unless otherwise specified. Figures were generated using the BYTE Unix benchmarks 
version 2.6. Indexes show relative performance; for all indexes, an Everex Step 386/33 running Xenix 2.3.1 - 1 . 
N/A = Not applicable. 


System call overhead 
(5 x 4000 calls) 
Pipe throughput 
(read and write 2048- x 
5 12-byte blocks) 
Pipe-based context switching 
(2 x 500 switches) 
Process creation (1 00 forks) 
Excel throughput (100 execs) 

Fllesystem throughput 

(1 600 1024-byte blocks 
in Kbytes/sec.) 







393 N/A 

393 N/A 

169 N/A 

that the Turbo-channel's peak DMA per- 
formance is 93 megabytes per second. 

The Turbochannel communicates 
with connected devices by exchanging 
messages. Each board receives a 4-MB 
chunk of address space (thetop 32 MB of 
the system's 512-MB range is reserved), 
and commands and data pass through 
these memory-mapped regions. A pro- 
prietary protocol governs the format of 
these exchanges. DEC is making the pro- 
tocol available to third-party vendors, 
along with the rest of the Turbochannel 

Internally, the Turbochannel does it 
all. All the outside-world interfaces deal 
with the CPU through an internal chan- 

For a description of all the benchmarks, see "The BYTE 

nel. The 5000 's standard interfaces in- 
clude thin-wire Ethernet, SCSI, and a 
trio of serial ports, one of which accepts 
the keyboard and mouse. 

The Sony Trinitron display has be- 
come a standard among workstation ven- 
dors, and with good reason. The screen 
is cylindrical, giving it a flatter appear- 
ance, and the color rendition, sharpness, 
and image quality are impressive. 

Of course, there's more to using a 
workstation than staring at the screen, 
and here the 5000 could use a little work. 
Like the DECstation 3 100, the 5000 uses 
a VT220 terminal keyboard. That may 
make veteran users of DEC equipment 
happy, but I couldn't get used to the odd 

Unix Benchmarks," March BYTE. 

VT220 placements, which include rele- 
gating the Escape and Backspace keys to 
unlabeled function keys. The 5000 also 
comes with the same awkward mouse. 
It's round, heavy, and a tubby 3 ! /2 inches 
in diameter. 

Bring On the BSD 

Users who find the keyboard and mouse 
aggravating may take comfort in the 
Ultrix Worksystem Software bundle. 
The foundation for UWS (I tested version 
2.2) is Ultrix, DEC's version of BSD 
Unix. BSD has earned a reputation as 
an environment for hackers, but DEC 
has added enough value to make it a 


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DEC'S Latest RISC 

contender for serious users as well. 

Even System V users owe a lot to BSD: 
The C shell, the Berkeley socket network 
interface, the vi editor, and many other 
enhancements to Unix have their origins 
in BSD. These transplant well to System 
V, but it's good to work in an environ- 
ment where all these things come togeth- 
er and combine with other Berkeleyisms 
that haven't yet found their way to Sys- 
tem V. Little touches, like the intelligent 
TTY drivers (which can delete words and 
won't backspace past the beginning of a 
line) and the job control mechanism, are 
easy to get used to. 

The base Ultrix operating system on 
the review system (version 3.1) combines 
the features of BSD 4.3 and AT&T Sys- 
tem V Unix. The core environment is 
pure BSD, and the operating system han- 
dles all system administration in a BSD- 
standard manner. A set of libraries and 
header files provides System V compati- 
bility and lets you port System V applica- 
tions to Ultrix. Since the System V Inter- 
face Definition (SVID) forms the basis 
for the Posix and X/Open operating-sys- 
tem standards, DEC has smoothed the 
road to compliance with these standards. 

The 5000 supports TCP/IP, NFS, and 
the proprietary DECnet through its stan- 
dard thin-wire Ethernet interface. The 
TCP/IP and DECnet protocols can share 
the same cable, so the DECstation can be 
part of a network that includes not only 
other Unix workstations and systems, 
but VAXes, terminal servers, and other 
DECnet-specific devices. I quickly had 
the 5000 connected to BYTE's Unix lab 
network, and I had no difficulty sharing 
files and data with systems from other 

DEC is active in the development of 
the X Window System and has some of 
the industry's foremost X experts on its 
payroll. So it's not surprising that the 
5000's DECwindows graphical user in- 
terface is fast and clean. Beyond its X 
foundation, the environment created by 
DECwindows is quite comfortable. 

DECwindows runs only on DEC hard- 
ware, but there's a lot to like about it. 
The interface is much more Mac-like 
than OSF/Motif s. It's mainly a mono- 
chrome interface; the defaults set up 
black and white as standard, even on a 
color display. Unlike Motif, DECwin- 
dows looks as good in monochrome as in 
color. But next to Motif, DECwindows 
looks boring. On closer inspection, how- 
ever, the services that DEC has added to 
X put most other vendors to shame. 

The session manager provides log-in 
services and adds a primitive desktop 
manager from which you can launch ap- 

plications. One of those applications is 
dxterm, the DECwindows terminal em- 
ulator that's fast, stable, and robust. 
Without such programs, it's impossible 
to run text-based applications under X. 
The one that's shipped standard with X 
(xterm) is notoriously bad. 

Another exciting feature of DECwin- 
dows is Display PostScript. Licensed 
from Adobe and enhanced by DEC, this 
is more than just a utility for displaying 
PostScript-format files. DEC has modi- 
fied it to become an integral part of X, 
allowing programmers to mix traditional 
X functions with those from Display 
PostScript. Without it, X remains a se- 
verely limited application environment, 
lacking scalable fonts and a workable 
graphical description format. 

Developers must often work up their 
own solutions to these issues, adding sig- 
nificantly to the time it takes to bring a 
product to market. Display PostScript on 
the 5000 responded well and managed to 
display every raw PostScript file I threw 
at it. Images appeared with surprising 
speed, laying to rest any notion that Dis- 
play PostScript might not be fast enough 
for demanding applications use. 

For the programmer, DEC provides 
just about everything that you could want 
from X. In addition to libraries for build- 
ing DECwindows applications, DEC 
also ships GKS (Graphical Kernel Sys- 
tem), OSF/Motif, and PEX (the PHIGS 
extension to X). The PEX package builds 
3-D capability into X, extending the 
server to support the creation and draw- 
ing of 3-D objects. As mentioned, there 
is also support for building PostScript ca- 
pability into applications. This killer 
combination represents one of the most 
powerful X software bundles available. 

Putting It All Together 

As the benchmark table illustrates, the 
DECstation 5000 has earned the flagship 
spot in DEC's line. It outguns its prede- 
cessor, the 3100, by a wide margin. Also 
interesting is the contrast with machines 
using another RISC processor, the Mo- 
torola 88000. While the 33-MHz Opus 
Personal Mainframe handily bests the 
5000 in Dhrystones and other integer 
tests, in the domain of floating-point, the 
5000 shows amazingly well. 

The DECstation 5000 is a top-shelf 
workstation. The excellence evident in 
performance, software, and company 
reputation combine to place this system 
at the head of its class. ■ 

Tom Yager is a technical editor for the 
BYTE Lab. You can reach him on BIX as 
"tyager. " 


Introducing DADSSP 2.0 


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Build your own analysis worksheets — 
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Circle 103 on Reader Service Card 

Recently Byte magazine 
performance tested 26 VGA 
monitors. 26! Of the 26, one monitor 
stood out above all the rest In a 
burst of eloquence, Byte's Testing 
Editors called that monitor "a rose 
among the thorns." * 

We call it the CM-1 296 

You'll call it "remarkable. 

We'll send you a free reprint of the Byte article, 
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Engineering at its best. 

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Circle 287 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 288) 

Lamont Wood 


Windows 3.0 Software Tool for End Users 

Icon-based commands, buttons you 
"press" with the mouse, pop-up 
screens, data displayed in boxes— it's 
mouth-watering stuff. So mouth-water- 
ing that you had hoped someone might 
come up with a way to make such power 
accessible to the end-user programmer— 
in other words, to someone who wants to 
whip out a Windows 3.0 application this 
week, without having to spend two years 
learning C. 

The answer might be ToolBook, a 
$395 package from Asymetrix, a little- 
known firm in close proximity (geo- 

TooiBook 1 .0 


Asymetrix Corp. 
P.O. Box 40419 
Bellevue, WA 98004 

Hardware Needed 

IBM PC or compatible with a 286 or 
higher processor, 640K bytes of RAM, 
at least 256K bytes of extended memory, 
a hard disk drive, Windows-compatible 
graphics, and a mouse 

Software Needed 

DOS 3.1 or higher; Windows 3.0 or higher 



Inquiry 888. 

applications, such 
as DayBook, take 
full advantage of 
the Windows 3. 
graphical user 

graphical and otherwise) to Microsoft. 
ToolBook provides that graphical pro- 
grammability for Windows 3.0, and you 
don't need a degree in computer science 
to use it. 

Yet ToolBook is not a crippled devel- 
opment system. For instance, Tool- 
Book's programming language, Open- 
Script, has nearly 600 commands, 
constants, functions, and other key- 
words. You could make a career out of 
ToolBook, and I expect a lot of program- 
mers will. 

With ToolBook, an application is 
called a book. Each book is a stack of 
pages, and when you create an object 
(which ToolBook calls a container), it's 
akin to pasting a paper cutout on a clear 
sheet of gel. The bottom page is the back- 
ground, and the contents of the fore- 
ground page are superimposed over it. 
You can rapidly flip pages, replacing one 
with the next. And, yes, you can do ani- 
mation this way, placing slightly differ- 
ent pictures of the same thing in the same 
spot on successive pages and then flip- 
ping through them. The examples that 
come with ToolBook include a running 
horse, a sailboard in use, a turning 
globe, and balls bouncing around in the 
background of an application. 

Besides animation, you can also create 
hypertext links to form automated foot- 
notes. You can designate hotwords with- 
in text, and when you invoke the words, a 
linked body of text is displayed— pre- 
sumably a definition or an exposition on 
a related subject. 

Clearly, ToolBook parallels Apple's 
HyperCard toolkit for the Macintosh, 
with its HyperTalk programming lan- 
guage. HyperCard uses stacks of cards, 
while ToolBook uses books with pages. 
ToolBook, however, seems to have more 
features— for instance, it can handle 
color, and the size of its windows is not 

With ToolBook, the book as a whole, 
plus each page and each object, can have 
its own script file, and each can pass 
commands to the others. Clicking on an 
object is not necessary— the mere pres- 
ence of the mouse cursor atop an object 
can trigger an action, if that's what the 
script calls for. And you can assign 
books password protection. 

There are two operating modes in 
ToolBook— reader and author. Reader is 
for running or testing applications, and 
author is for writing applications. Scripts 
are written on a special screen that you 
can invoke after selecting an object in 
author mode. The screen includes a syn- 
tax checker, and unlike with HyperTalk, 
there is a debugging facility with which 
you can add breakpoints to your pro- 
gram. In addition, there is a command 
window that you can invoke in author 
mode; from it, you can type individual 
OpenScript commands to test their re- 

OpenScript, like HyperTalk, uses 
very English-like command words and 
syntax, and the meanings of many pro- 
gram lines are immediately apparent, 
such as get the first word of the text 
of the recordfield comment (using 
"the" is optional). You need to declare 
variables, but you don't have to worry 
about variable types— as long as a vari- 
able contains numeric data, OpenScript 
will perform numeric operations on it 
without fussing. 

In keeping with the attempt to make 
programming seem natural, you can use 
the pronoun "it" as a local variable to re- 
fer to the last-mentioned data item, what- 
ever it was. For instance, the program- 
ming example above could be followed 
by put it into the commandwindow, and 
OpenScript would understand. (Hyper- 
Talk also uses "it," but you don't see it 
used much elsewhere.) 

Writing Your Own Book 

To test ToolBook, I set out to write a file 
query application that would work with 
some dBASE data I had. The program 



Windows 3.0 Software Tool for End Users 

Listing 1: ToolBook's OpenScript isn *t difficult to understand. This program 
goes through a dBASE file by repeatedly sending the buttondown condition to 
an existing subroutine for a button labeled Next (i.e. , get next record). It also 
uses an existing system (global) variable from the main program called 
currentrecord (i.e. , the current file record number). The variables are 
declared and set in the opening lines. Then, the first if . . . end if checks the 
first file record. The following do . . . until loop walks through the rest of the 
file. The ongoing total is displayed in a box called iresult. 

to handle buttondown 

local tot, total 
system svcurrentrecord 
set tote to 
set total to 

if text of recordfield code = "1" 

put text of recordfield amount into tote 
set total to sum(total, tote) 
put total into text of field iresult 
end if 


send buttondown to button "Next" 
if text of recordfield code = "1" 

put text of recordfield amount into tote 
set total to sum( total, tote) 
put total into text of field iresult 
end if 
until svcurrentrecord=294 

end buttondown 

(see listing 1) filtered through a 294- 
record dBASE file with fields called 
Date, Amount, Code, and Comment, 
adding up the Amounts in the records 
where the Code field equaled 1 . 

I took advantage of the dBASE Brows- 
er Book that came with ToolBook and 
adapted it to my needs. To simply access 
the file and get the data on the screen, I 
had only to input the filename and then 
make about four mouse-clicks . 

Then things bogged down. The script 
file for the Browser Book was long, com- 
plicated, and replete with calls to system- 
level subroutines or dynamic link librar- 
ies. Certainly, it didn't lend itself to 
tinkering. Using its subroutines from a 
script for a particular button proved 
workable, but then the second problem 
arose— OpenScript looks like English, 
but it isn't. 

After all, it's easier to read a foreign 
language than to write it. When it comes 
time to write something, a novice is like- 
ly to foul up the grammar— but a reader 
may still figure out the meaning, thanks 
to common sense. Computers, however, 
lack common sense. The result is like 
constantly repeating a magic spell to a 
genie who will not respond until you get 
it precisely right. 

Of course, this is true with every pro- 
gramming language. However, in the 
case of OpenScript, the language seemed 

so natural that I was constantly am- 
bushed by sticky little points: Put the 
text of recordfield comment into it 
will work, while put the text of rec- 
ordfield comment in it or put record- 
field comment into it will not. Using 
the command window to test commands 
became essential— slowly, I learned the 

And once you learn it, there's little the 
Windows 3.0 world offers that is not at 
your disposal. You can add scroll bars to 
text displays. You can run other pro- 
grams, including other "instances" of 
ToolBook, from within ToolBook. You 
can change the shape of the cursor, make 
use of whatever fonts are installed in 
Windows, use colors at will, have bar 
graphs that draw themselves as the data 
is totaled, and so on. You can even do 
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) links, 
although there is no mention of Struc- 
tured Query Language. 

In author mode, ToolBook has a 
graphics facility so that you can draw 
screen objects. Thus, screen objects can 
be irregular— for instance, to get infor- 
mation on Idaho, you could click any- 
where in a map of that state. In Hyper- 
Card, you can stack a map of Idaho with 
a button, but you would still have to click 
the button within the map rather than just 
the map. 

The program also comes with a selec- 

tion of canned clip art for livening things 
up, including the 16 different drawings 
of the globe used for the turning-world 
animation. There are a tutorial, exten- 
sive help files, interesting programming 
examples, canned scripts for handling 
things like data validation and Windows 
tools, and two manuals. There's little to 
ask for— except, perhaps, the time to 
learn it all. 

Software for the 
Preponderance of Us 

ToolBook is a full-featured program- 
ming language. It's suitable for cooking 
up user-friendly business applications, 
but you can also use it to create elaborate 
games and educational courseware. Ac- 
tually, about the only kind of interactive 
application that it's unsuited for is com- 
munications—there are no modem-han- 
dling functions. However, you could 
probably get around that through DDE 
links to a separate Windows-based com- 
munications package. 

Perhaps ToolBook's fate is to become 
as ubiquitous in the PC world as Hyper- 
Card is in the Macintosh world. Consider 
that Asymetrix was founded by Paul Al- 
len, previously known for having co- 
founded Microsoft (maker of both MS- 
DOS and Windows) with Microsoft's 
present head, Bill Gates. Allen left 
Microsoft around 1983, but Asymetrix's 
funding was secured by Allen's equity 
position in Microsoft, and Allen was re- 
cently renamed to the Microsoft board of 
directors. Meanwhile, Microsoft has an- 
nounced that a run-time version of Tool- 
Book (with a ToolBook application 
called DayBook) will be included with 
each English language copy of Windows 
3.0. And Microsoft Press has come out 
with a guide called ToolBook Com- 

Basically, ToolBook has Microsoft's 
clout behind it, and you might as well 
think of ToolBook as part of the Win- 
dows 3.0 environment. Now that you 
have a Windows that lives up to its po- 
tential, you can think of Windows 3.0 as 
part of the PC environment. So you're 
likely to see a lot of ToolBook. 

One thing that you are sure to see a lot 
of is powerful, Windows-based ap- 
plications, whether for a single chore for 
an individual user, for departmental ap- 
plications, or for sale at the national 
level, because the tool is definitely avail- 
able. ■ 

Lamont Wood is a freelance computer 
journalist and consultant who lives in 
San Antonio, Texas. He can be reached 
on BIX as "Iwood." 


The new look of power* 

286 processing in a computer that's notebook size, 
L4" thin and 4.4 lbs. light. 

Introducing the TI 
TravelMate™ 2000 
notebook computer — 
from the company 
that pioneered portable 
computing solutions* 

Since inventing the first portable data 
terminal in 1 969, TI has led the way in 
packing more and more functionality into 
smaller and smaller products. Now TI 
bri ngs you the next generation in por- 
table computing — the TravelMate 2000. 

This sleek, 4.4-lb. notebook 
computer gives you the power of a 
PC-AT® in an ultrathin 8Vi" x IT' 
package. It's designed to fit your 
workstyle — wherever you work — in the 
office, at home or on the road. Just slip 
it in your briefcase with your file folders, 
journals and other business materials, 
and you're revK\\ to go. 

TravelMate is a rrademark of Texas Insrruments. AT is a 
LapLink is a rraJernark cit 'Traveling Software, Inc. 

Large VGA screen with 
leadership display technology* 

You'll appreciate the technology behind 
the 1 0" diagonal VGA display. It's a 
remarkable feature for a computer that's 
notebook size. The high-resolution 
640 x 480 supertwist screen easily 
handles demanding windowing and 
graphics applications. 

Circle 292 on Reader Service Card 

More features to meet 
your application needs* 

The TM 2000 has the power to run your 
favorite software - 12 MHz 80C286 
processor, 20MB hard disk drive and 
1MB of RAM. A built-in, rechargeable 
battery lets you work up to two hours. 
With an optional add-on battery, you 
can work up to five hours — enough for 
coast-to-coast flights. 

You also get a full-function AT 
enhanced keyboard, so you can work 
with the same feel of your desktop PC. 

In addition, we've loaded 
MS-DOS® and LapLink™ in ROM, 
and preformatted the hard disk. 

For more information call 

Texas ^^ 

ejzistercJ trademark or International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a re.uisti'reiJ trademarkof Microsoft Corporation. 

Tom Thompson 


The Mac at 40 MHz 

Feared with Apple *s 8*24 display board, the high-performance Mac Ilfx soars 
as a personal workstation. 

If you measure power by clock speed, 
Apple's Macintosh computers always 
seem to come up short. Even the Mac 
Ilci putters along at 25 MHz, versus 
many 386-based PCs' 33 MHz. The 
newest member of the Macintosh modu- 
lar family, the Mac Ilfx, changes that. 

The Mac Ilf x's 68030 CPU and 68882 
FPU race along at 40 MHz; I/O proces- 
sors off-load serial, mouse, and floppy 
disk drive activities; and a much-needed 
32K-byte cache of fast RAM boosts per- 
formance. (For more information, see 
the First Impression "Apple's Special 
fx," April BYTE.) No doubt PCs soon 
will run at this speed, but that doesn't di- 
minish the fact that the Ilfx got there 
first, doing what the Mac does best: pro- 
viding a consistent user interface, seam- 
less data exchange, and gorgeous 24-bit 
color graphics. 

I tested a Mac Ilfx equipped with 4 
megabytes of RAM, an 80-MB hard disk 
drive, and a Macintosh Display Card 
8*24. I also evaluated a beta copy of 
A/UX 2.0, Apple's version of Unix. Af- 
ter extensive testing, I've determined 
that the Ilfx is indeed a fast machine, es- 
pecially in its floating-point perfor- 
mance. Combined with A/UX 2.0, the 
Ilfx becomes a powerful Unix machine. 

Taking It Out for a Spin 

During its design, the Ilfx carried the 
code name F-19. BYTE Lab tests show 
that the Ilfx performs like its jet fighter 
namesake: The machine flew through 
most jobs with its afterburners on. The 
CPU and memory subsystems run about 
60 percent faster than those of the Mac 
Ilci, reflecting the increase in the Ilfx's 
clock speed. The FPU subsystem's num- 

Mac Ilfx 


Apple Computer, Inc. 
20525 Mariani Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 9501 4 


Processor: 40-MHz Motorola 68030; 
40-MHz Motorola 68882 math coprocessor 
Memory: 4 MB of 80-ns SIMM DRAM 
Mass storage: 3 1 /2-inch 1 .44-MB SuperDrive; 
80-MB internal SCSI hard disk drive 
Display: 1 3-inch 640- by 480-pixel 
AppleColor RGB monitor; Macintosh Display 
Card 8«24 24-bit color NuBus board 
Keyboard: 63-key standard keyboard 
I/O interfaces: 2 mini-DIN-4 ADB ports; 
two mini-DIN-8 RS-232C/RS-422 serial 
ports; DB-25 SCSI connector; internal 
SCSI connector; internal floppy disk 
drive port; stereo sound port 



Inquiry 851. 

ber-crunching power has doubled. 

I was disappointed, however, with the 
disk I/O subsystem tests. Where the test 
made heavy use of the CPU, perfor- 
mance jumped, while purely disk-inten- 
sive jobs showed little improvement over 
the Ilci. True, the Ilfx can use SCSI 
DMA to improve disk I/O throughput, 
but the current version of the Mac OS 
(6.0.5) doesn't make use of this feature. 
Nor, it turns out, will the long-awaited 
System 7.0. 

SCSI DMA requires a preemptive 
multitasking operating system to func- 
tion properly (i.e., to release the CPU so 
that it can carry out other tasks). System 
7.0, unfortunately, still uses Multi- 
Finder for cooperative multitasking. 
Since Unix is a preemptive multitasking 
operating system, it's ironic that for now 
only A/UX users stand to benefit from 
this feature. Fortunately, A/UX 2.0 
promises to look more like a Mac than 
you might expect (see "A/UX 2.0: Unix 
with a Friendly Face," August Short 

Hex, Lies, and Backup Tape 

Not long after the Ilfx's introduction, ru- 
mors of major software incompatibilities 



Mac llfx 

Mac I lei 
Mac llx 
Mac II 

Mac llfx 

Mac I lei 
Mac llx 
Mac II 



6.5 6.9 5.3 









Word I I Scientific/ 

Processing I I Spreadsheet I I Database I I Engineering I I Compilers 







I I CPU I— I FPU LJ Disk I I Vii 


cropped up. This was inevitable, as the 
new llfx design consolidated more func- 
tions into custom application-specific 
ICs. During this process, registers disap- 
pear and I/O addresses change, causing 
software that's hard-coded for a particu- 
lar hardware setup to break. Applications 
that stick to using Mac Toolbox and OS 
calls don't have problems, since these 
calls are hardware-independent. 

To investigate these rumors, I tested a 
large number of applications. Most of the 
debuggers worked— an amazing feat, 
considering how close they operate to the 
hardware. Jasik Designs' MacNosy and 
Debugger V2, the premier industrial- 
strength disassembler and debugging 
package for the Mac, functioned just 
fine, as did Icom Simulations' TMON 
2.8.4 debugger. Some graphics soft- 
ware, such as Adobe Illustrator 1 .9. 3 and 
PhotoMac 1.1, crashed; they couldn't 
deal with 32-Bit QuickDraw, which 
Applehas embedded inthellfx's ROMs. 
This isn't a new problem: Users first en- 

Except for the conventional 
benchmarks, all results are 
indexed; for each test, a Mac 
SE = 1 . and higher numbers 
indicate faster performance, In 
the Dhrystone test, higher 
numbers indicate faster 
performance; in the LINPACK 
tests, lower numbers are 
better. The floating-point 
benchmarks use the SANE 
library. Comprehensive test 
results for all tested machines 
are available on request. 





Mac llfx 




Mac I lei 




Mac llx 




Mac II 








countered it with the Mac Ilci. The solu- 
tion is to get an upgrade from the applica- 
tion vendor (Illustrator 1.9.5 and Photo- 
Mac 1.52). 

More serious problems surfaced with 
software that hammered directly on the 
Mac Ilf x's serial and Apple Desktop Bus 
ports, or the Super Wozniak Integrated 
Machine (SWIM) controller for the flop- 
py disk drive. The I/O processors (IOPs) 
that manage these devices get in the way 
of these programs and cause trouble. 

For a full description of the Mac benchmarks, see "Introducing the New BYTE Benchmarks, " June 1988 BYTE. 

Farallon's SoundEdit had mouse-han- 
dling problems (from IOP interaction 
with the ADB signals), and a beta version 
of Adobe Photoshop using key-disk copy 
protection crashed when the application 
asked for the disk (from IOP interaction 
with the floppy disk drive controller, and 
a case against copy protection if I ever 
saw one). 

I normally use Traveling Software's 
LapLink Mac III to rapidly transfer the 8 




The Mac at 40 MHz 

MB of benchmark files from one Mac to 
another via a serial cable. Not this time, 
though: Launching LapLink caused the 
Ilfx to seize up. Apple now supplies a 
Compatibility cdev that reroutes the 
serial data so that the offending software 
still works. Traveling Software supplied 
a disk with this cdev, and it corrected the 

I suspected that telecommunications 
software might be a casualty of this IOP/ 
serial port interaction, but I'm pleased to 
report that I was wrong. White Knight 
1 1 .07 let me connect to BIX and down- 
load files without a hitch, as did Mac- 
Acknowledge 1.02 and America On- 
line's software. 

I tried some SCSI peripherals to check 
for SCSI hardware interaction. An Apple 
scanner worked, as did Apple's CD- 
ROM drive. (Apple experienced a minor 
gaffe when the then-current CD-ROM 
driver failed to work with the Mac Ilci.) I 
was also able to back up and restore files 
to an Irwin cartridge tape unit. 

High Flyer 

The Ilfx's processing power makes it 
useful as a CAD workstation. AutoCAD 

release 10 c5 whipped through display- 
ing the sample files, making real-time 
CAD work possible. This is also the 
image-processing engine I've always 
wanted in a Mac. Adobe Photoshop 1.0 
and Data Translation's PhotoMac 1.52 
both inhaled megabytes of 24-bit TIFF 
image data and performed filtering and 
color corrections on the images with 
amazing speed. 

For those who want to push the Ilfx to 
the limit, there is Connectix's Maxima. 
It's an INIT that maps memory in such a 
way that you can have up to 14 MB of 
RAM for your applications (the normal 
limit is 8 MB, because of where the Mac 
ROMs reside in memory space). Addi- 
tional memory gets allocated to a RAM 

I used 4-MB single in-line memory 
modules from Connectix to upgrade my 
Ilfx to 32 MB. I made 14 MB of memory 
available to MultiFinder, and I desig- 
nated the remaining 18 MB as a RAM 
disk. So, even without A/UX, you can 
still get lots of memory for your work. 
And all that additional RAM will come 
in handy when System 7.0 arrives, since 
it will eliminate the 16-MB memory ceil- 

ing that the existing 24-bit Mac OS has 

My only complaint about the Mac Ilfx 
is its price. A basic system with 4 MB of 
RAM, an 80-MB hard disk drive, and a 
13-inch color monitor and 256-color 
board costs $11,896. Admittedly, you 
aren't going to buy a Ilfx for word pro- 
cessing. It will be for demanding CAD, 
business, and engineering jobs that re- 
quire every clock cycle that you can af- 
ford. In short, many people will buy the 
Ilfx as a workstation. But even from this 
perspective, the price is steep, and many 
potential buyers might shop around for 
alternative workstations. 

For Mac IIx owners, the cost of a 
motherboard upgrade ($2999) and 4 MB 
of Ilfx memory ($999) will buy into Mac 
Ilfx power at a reasonable price. But for 
the rest of us, if you need the most power- 
ful computer that Apple has to offer, 
you had better have your checkbook 
handy. ■ 

Tom Thompson is a senior editor at large 
with a B. S. E. E. degree from Memphis 
State University. He can be reached on 
BIX as "tomjthompson. " 


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Products mentioned are trademarks of their respective manufacturers. 

Circle 100 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 101) 

We've got the guts, 
you get the glory. 

DTK is a 
Intel 386 

registered trademark and Bare Bone is a trademark of Datatech Enterprises Co., Ltd. 

is a trademark of Intel Corporation. XT and AT are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. 

If' I 

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We offer clearly superior 80386, 
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More Guts. Choose from a 
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Circle 104 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 105) 


Aren't you glad Windows 
and OS/2™ aren't the only 
way to multitask and 
window on the PC. 

It's all very well to look 
at screen after screen of 
colorful graphics and new 
programs. But the brutal 
truth is that these envi- 
ronments require exten- 
sive, expensive hardware 
upgrades for 80% of PC 

users. Not to mention new 

i , r , DESQview lets you run all these programs in multiple windows and multitask 

r 6 * them— all without major modifications to the computer you own now. And without 

It all adds up to $1,200 to replacing or even upgrading your favorite programs. 

$2,500 per PC— and that's for u . . 

running in multiple windows, running 

the hardware and software alone. To say 
nothing about a major investment in the 
time it will take to learn new ways of 

If all you want is enhanced 
productivity from your PC, that's too high 
a price to pay. 

DESQview does it all. 
For less. 

DESQview runs the programs you 
know and love in multiple windows, 
multitasks them and even lets you choose 
whether or not to use a 
mouse. And it does it all 
today. In fact, DESQ- 
view' s been doing it for 
over four years now. 
People all over the 
world are using DESQview 
to manage customized work environments 
like those shown here. They are using it to 
cut and paste data between programs 

sorts and recalculations in the background, 
and they're operating in text and graphics 
modes in windows side-by-side. 

With no drama, no fireworks and no 
huge memory or disk space requirements. 

In fact, DESQview runs on 80386, 
80286 and even 8086 and 8088 PCs. Its 
low memory overhead means you don't 
have to buy a faster computer to com- 
pensate for the demands of a complex, 
memory-hungry 'graphical' operating 

And DESQview builds on and extends 
DOS— the most robust, stable operating 
system available for your computer. 

Plus, you don't give up any flexibility 
in choosing programs. Not only does 
DESQview run virtually all DOS programs, 
it runs most Windows programs as well. 

No wonder major corporations all over 
the world have chosen to standardize on 


DESQview 226. 

More productive 

because it multitasks 

more programs. 

The latest generation of DOS 
programs is getting better. Lotus 
1-2-3 v2.2 and Release 3, Metro, 
Freelance, Microsoft Word, Auto- 
CAD 386, Ventura Publisher 
Prof essional— all are smarter 
about using memory. And 
DESQview 2.26 makes them 
work even better. 

Mice are steadily becoming 
more popular, and v2.26 provides 
improved support for mouse menus within 
windows. At the same time, for those who 
just aren't comfortable with mice, it also 
provides much greater flexibility for 


I 9 a a 


A *V * ft D OF 

! Mi UR'S 

f |)!l< >H\ 


.Solutions Award 


Best Operating 

N:-.-,i:r |h- li. !5S7 Fefruary 2B ISO 

Some of : DESQview' r s recent awards. 

assigning and reassigning special keys 
within windows. 

Our users asked for more support for 
3270 and other terminal emulation. 
DESQview v2.26 has it. 

You asked for support for a wider 
range of hardware: CD-ROM, scanners, 
comm ports, etc., v2.26 has it. 

And you asked for help in handling 
troublesome TSRs. DESQview helps 
straighten them out. 

without tears 

r3— Soreadsbect-Solut ions- 


— Enero ld-Bai 



Quarterdeck's family 

of products is 

designed to enhance 

the way you work. 

At Quarterdeck, our 
philosophy has always been to 
increase your productivity in 
logical, economical steps— not to 
reinvent a system that works for 

Our best known product, 
DESQview, has over a million 

rging into da Close Uindou C 

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Announcing the Fc 


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to let you move utilities, 
drivers and TSRs out of 
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idle memory locations 'up 
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Manifest does for memory what PC 
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for example, use windowing, multitasking and interprogram communications. 

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and compatibles • Modem for Auto-Dialer (Optional): Hayes or 
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Software: Most PC-DOS and MS-DOS application programs; programs 
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Circle 248 on Reader Service Card 

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Circle 35 on Reader Service Card 

Laurence H. Loeb 


Two Different Approaches 
to Mac Portability 

The Outbound performs comparably to the Mac Portable, but it needs the 
ROMs from your Mac Plus or SE to operate. Note the IsoPoint pointing device 
below the space bar. 

The Dynamac SE/30 offers uncompromising performance in a hefty 
1 8-pound box. 

In introducing the Mac Portable last 
year, Apple succeeded in freeing the 
Mac from its power outlet, but many 
users found the machine underpowered 
and overweight. Fortunately for those 
who don't want to leave their Mac appli- 
cations behind when they travel, the Mac 
Portable isn't the only game in town: 
Outbound Systems' Outbound Laptop 
System offers comparable performance 
in a lighter box, and Dynamac's SE/30 
will appeal to users for whom portable 
power is critical. 

Mac Light: The Outbound 

Outbound Systems markets the Out- 
bound Laptop System (formerly the Wal- 
laby) as a hardware add-on to a Mac Plus 
or SE. This conceptual paradigm bypass- 
es the issue of ROM usage that is vital to 
the Outbound' s operation: Your dealer 
must transfer the needed Apple ROMs 
from your Mac Plus or SE to the Out- 
bound. The now-ROMless Mac will not 
operate unless you "dock" the Outbound 
to it using a special cable. 

The Outbound uses the same 15.67- 
MHz CMOS 68000 CPU as the Mac Por- 
table, but it costs substantially less. The 
9% -pound plastic lunchbox case is also 
much lighter than the 16-plus-pound Por- 
table. My review unit included an inter- 
nal 3 1 /2-inch floppy disk drive that can 
use IBM- or Mac-formatted floppy 
disks. The machine has only one drive 
bay, however, so users who opt for the in- 
ternal 40-megabyte hard disk drive must 
forgo an internal floppy disk drive. 

My review machine included 2 MB of 
RAM (expandable to 4 MB) and 4 MB of 
battery-backed RAM in single in-line 
memory modules for the nonvolatile 
RAM disk. You can expand the silicon 
disk to 16 MB using 4-MB SIMMs. The 
base system, with 1 MB of RAM and no 
RAM disk, has a list price of $2999; the 
hard disk drive model is $3999. Out- 
bound doesn't sell extra RAM. 

Fluorescent backlighting in the Out- 
bound's 640- by 400-pixel black-and- 
white LCD ensures visibility in low-light 
situations where the Mac Portable is un- 
usable; in other respects, the Portable's 
active-matrix LCD is superior. LCD la- 
tency times on the Outbound produce 
smearing on fast-moving text or graphics 
screens, and finding the cursor can be 
problematic. When I jiggled the mouse, 
the cursor disappeared; at rest, the thin 
I-bar cursor is hard to see. Adjusting the 
screen contrast helps somewhat. 

The Outbound's lead-acid battery pro- 
vides about 3 Vi hours of power. Power 
conservation functions include Control 




Two Different Approaches to Mac Portability 

Outbound Laptop System 


Outbound Systems, Inc. 
4840 Pearl East Cir. 
Boulder, CO 80301 
(303) 786-9200 


Processor: 15.67-MHz Motorola MC68C000 
Memory: 2 MB of RAM 
Mass storage: 3 1 /2-inch 1 .44-MB 
internal floppy disk drive; 4-MB battery- 
backed silicon disk, expandable to 1 6 MB 
Display: 9 3 /4-inch, 640- by 400-pixel, 
backlit, black-and-white LCD 
Keyboard: 62-key Mac SE-type layout 
with IsoPoint pointing device 
I/O Interfaces: Printer port; serial port; 
external monitor port; host connector/ 
expansion port for optional SCSI adapter 


12 1 / 3 x 7 4 / 5 x 3% inches; 9 3 / 4 pounds 
with battery and hard disk drive 


System as reviewed: $3499 

Inquiry 856. 

Panel settings that invoke CPU sleep 
mode, dim backlighting, and spinning 
down the hard disk drive when the ma- 
chine is idle. 

The keyboard uses the standard Mac 
SE layout, without the numeric keypad. It 
can attach to the case or stand alone when 
in use. Remote keyboard connections in- 
clude an infrared link and a telephone- 
style cord. You attach the keyboard to the 
Outbound with a metal rod that fits into a 
hole under the screen. I found that the 
mechanical linkage in this arrangement 
made the keyboard wobble unacceptably. 

Outbound Systems uses the IsoPoint 
pointing device, located under the space 
bar, in lieu of a mouse. This is a rolling 
cylinder that sits inside a plastic slider 
that, in turn, sits inside a frame. You roll 
the cylinder for up-and-down pointer 
movement; the slider handles left-to- 
right motion. You press on the spring- 
loaded frame to perform a mouse-click. 
To achieve accuracy, you have to make 
horizontal and vertical movements sepa- 
rately. As a device for point-and-shoot 
selections on files or menu items, it 
works fine. For other tasks, you will be 
a lot happier buying the nonstandard 
mouse for $129. 

The Outbound comes with serial and 


Dynamac SE/30 


Dynamac Computer Products, Inc. 
555 17th St., Suite 1850 
Denver, CO 80202 
(800) 234-2349 
(303) 296-0606 


Processor: 15.67-MHz Motorola 68030 
CPU; 68882 math coprocessor 
Memory: 8 MB of SIMM-mounted RAM 
Mass storage: 3 1 /2-inch 1 .44-MB 
SuperDrive floppy disk drive; 200-MB 16-ms 
Conner Peripherals hard disk drive 
Display: 9-inch, 640- by 400-pixel, gas- 
plasma display 

Keyboard: 62-key Mac SE-style 
I/O interfaces: SE/30 Direct Slot; two serial 
ports; SCSI connector; external floppy disk 
drive port; two ADB ports; audio port; two 
external monitor ports; two RJ-1 1 jacks (on 


13 1 /2 x 15 1 /2 x 3 1 /2 inches; 18 pounds with 
hard disk drive 


As reviewed: $12,995 

Inquiry 857. 

printer mini-DIN-8 ports. There's no 
SCSI port on the Outbound itself, but you 
can plug an optional SCSI adapter into 
the host/adapter slot. When it's docked 
to the Mac, the host Mac takes control. 
Your Mac Plus or SE can then access the 
Outbound 's faster CPU, display, mem- 
ory, and disk storage, while the Out- 
bound's serial ports and keyboard are 
disabled. A special cdev lets you use 
either the Mac's display or the Out- 
bound's as the main screen, or both can 
operate as a single screen. 

When I docked the Outbound to a Mac 
Plus to use the Plus's external SCSI hard 
disk drive, the combination still booted 
off the Outbound's RAM disk. Since the 
Mac Plus has no start-up device setting, 
there's no way to get around this. This 
means that Mac Plus owners must store 
INITs that they use only in docked mode 
in the Outbound's limited silicon-disk 
memory. Fortunately, you can use Fifth 
Generation Systems' Suitcase II to bring 
in fonts and desk accessories that you 
need from the SCSI disk when the Out- 
bound is docked. 

The Outbound ran neck and neck with 
the Mac Portable on the CPU, FPU, and 
video tests, but its fast silicon disk result- 



by W. Gary Robertson 

Automating a small 
business such as a 
doctor's office, 
accounting or legal 
firm can be challenging. Budgets often are 
limited and technical personnel non-existent. 
Having a reserve of computer hardware ready 
to support new employees is uncommon. 

As these businesses grow, existing systems 
become strained. While larger organizations 
may be well served by a minicomputer, main- 
frame, or server-based network, these often are 
beyond the scope of a smaller business. 

System cost, ease of use, training, and 
maintenance are important considerations. 
Multiuser systems, particularly DOS-based 
ones, typically perform best in each of these 

Multiuser systems save money by allowing 
one computer to support multiple users through 
terminals attached to the CPU. They also avoid 
the hardware expense and maintenance inher- 
ent in server-based LANs. DOS-based multi- 
user systems require minimum retraining, and 
allow employees to use familiar applications. 

The automation of Dr. Susan LeGrand's 
medical practice illustrates how a multiuser 
system can affordably and easily computerize 
a small business. 

When Dr. LeGrand established her practice 
she didn't own a computer. Paperwork quickly 
became impossible to manage, so she pur- 
chased an 80386 computer for insurance filing, 
accounting, patient records, and maintaining a 
large hospital census. 

As her practice grew, Dr. LeGrand hired an 
assistant for her office manager. Dr. LeGrand 
considered purchasing a second computer and 
a LAN, or purchasing a multiuser operating 
system that would allow an inexpensive termi- 
nal to be a second workstation. The multiuser 
system cost $2,054 for the software, extra 
RAM and terminal, compared to $3,326 for 
the computer, interface cards and software for 
the LAN. 

Dr. LeGrand chose The Software Link's 
DOS-compatible multiuser operating system, 

"Conceptually, the multiuser approach 
seemed ideal," Dr. LeGrand commented, "and 
when it was the least expensive, the decision 
was easy." 

The system was installed over a weekend, 
avoiding office hour downtime. "Everything 
looked and worked the same," Dr. LeGrand 
said, "And we could continue to use our exist- 
ing software and communication program." 

System administration and maintenance is 
handled remotely by the PC-MOS distributor, 
J.S. Walker & Co. of Charlotte, NC. 

"Having two workstations has really 
improved productivity," Dr LeGrand said. 
"And I can add up to three more workstations 
by simply installing RAM and terminals." 

W. Gary Robertson is co-founder of The Software 
Link, Inc. 

Circle 297 on Reader Service Card 

All the power of The Software 
Link's PC-MOS operating sys- 
tem. All the benefits of both 
individual and networked PCs. 

All in one high-performance, 
low-cost, multi-tasking system. 
With no terminals and no addi- 
tional PCs — unless you want 
to optionally use your old XTs 
or ATs. 

The UnTerminar UnNetwork.™ 

It's the ideal multiuser system 
for personal computer users. 

UnTerminal monitor-keyboard 
workstations cost less than 
terminals. Less than text-only 
"intelligent I/O" solutions. Less 
than fiber-optic graphics 

An independently operating 
UnTerminal workstation out- 
performs them all. With faster 


replace costly ter- 
minals and PCs on 
the UnTerminal™ 
UnNetwork™ Run 
multiuser and 
popular PC programs 
at the same time - 
with no terminals or 
PCs— or use any XTs 
and ATs you happen 
to have. 

The UnTerminal Video 
Network Adapter 
supports up to 4 

The UnTerminal Video 
Network Graphics 

Adapter"* supports up 
to two color graphics 
workstations— resolu- 
tion up to 800x600. 

The UnTerminal 
Connect Card makes 
an XT or AT into a 
multitasking, multiuser 

screen refresh — text and 
graphics. Instant switching 
between single and multiuser 
screens. Running popular DOS 
applications. And making every 
user feel like the only user. 

Just add PC-MOS, 
monitors & keyboards. 

The Software Link's PC-MOS 
multiplies the power of your 
PC. Why pay extra just to get 
the boxes? You can run up to 
eight color or 16 monochrome 
UnTerminal workstations per 
system — and save thousands. 

Distributed by 
The Software Link, Inc. 

For more information, call: 
The Software Link, Inc. at (800) 
451-LINK or (404) 448-5465. 




Bjj ,1 

Hercules compatible graphics 
using the UnTerminal (VNA). 

hti /.../ J I !Uuy W/ J_/. / jlmlmlri r i i "7 

Color graphics embedded in data- 
base using the UnTerminal (VGNA). 

800 x 600 VGA graphics using the 
UnTerminal (VGNA). 

Now XTs and ATs can be 

UnTerminals, too. Hotkey between 

local and host applications using 

the UnTerminal (VCCA). 

The PC-MOS UnTerminal 


The Software Link, Inc., 3577 Parkway Lane, Norcross, GA 30092. 
Phone: (800) 451-LINK or (404) 448-5465, FAX: (404) 263-6474, Telex: 4996147 SWL1NK. 

PC-MOS is a trademark of The Software Link, Inc. UnTerminal, UnNetwork, Video Network Adapter, Video Connect Card Adapter and Video Graphics Network Adapter are trademarks of Advance Micro Research, Inc. 


Circle 299 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 300) 


Two Different Approaches to Mac Portability 


Dynamac SE/30 

Mac Ilex 
Mac SE/30 
Mac Portable 


















Word I II || | Scientific/ 
I I Spreadsheet I I Database I I 

Processing I I Spreadsheet I I Database 


Engineering I I Compilers 

Dynamac SE/30 

Mac Ilex 
Mac SE/30 
Mac Portable 









I I CPU l_J FPU l_l Disk LJ 





Dynamac SE/30 235 



Outbound 1096 



Mac Ilex 237 



Mac SE/30 232 



Mac Portable 1154 



MacSE 2319 



The Outbound was unable to run the Scientific/Engineering tests. Also, the Outbound's 
RAM disk invalidates the low-level disk test results. The Mac Portable did not include an FPU. 
so it could not complete the FPU tests. 

Except for the conventional benchmarks, all results are indexed; for each test, a Mac SE = 
1, and higher numbers indicate faster performance. In the Dhrystonetest, higher numbers 
indicate faster performance; in the LINPACK tests, lower numbers are better. The floating- 
point benchmarks use the SANE library. Comprehensive test results for all tested machines 
are available on request. For a full description of the Mac benchmarks, see "Introducing 
the New BYTE Benchmarks," June 1 988 BYTE. 

ed in 50 percent faster performance over- 
all on the application tests. When docked 
to a Mac, however, the Outbound be- 
comes an extension of the host Mac and 
takes a substantial performance hit. On 
the Mac Plus, CPU and video perfor- 
mance dropped by about 50 percent. But 
the Outbound/Mac Plus combination still 
was faster than the stand-alone Mac Plus. 

The Dynamac 

Dynamac is no newcomer to Mac users; 
its original Dynamac SE appeared well 

before Apple's Mac Portable. The Dyna- 
mac SE/30 consists of a Mac SE/30 
motherboard that Dynamac has put into a 
black plastic case. The orange 640- by 
400-pixel gas-plasma display opens to re- 
veal the keyboard in a typical clamshell 
laptop arrangement. But this is no laptop. 
The 18-pound system is nearly twice as 
heavy as the Outbound, runs only on AC 
power, and is far more powerful than the 
Mac Portable or the Outbound. 

Like the Mac Portable, this is a no- 
compromise approach to lugging a Mac 

around. You don't buy this machine as an 
adjunct to your desktop system; it be- 
comes your desktop system. 

The basic machine includes the Mac 
SE/30 motherboard with a Motorola 
68030 CPU and a 68882 math copro- 
cessor, 2 MB of RAM, a 40-MB hard 
disk drive, and a 3 ! /2-inch 1 .44-MB flop- 
py disk drive for $9995. My test machine 
included a 200-MB 16-millisecond Con- 
ner Peripherals hard disk drive and 8 MB 
of RAM, and it carries a hefty list price 



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Circle 215 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 216) 


Two Different Approaches to Mac Portability 

of $12,995— much more than a compara- 
bly equipped Mac SE/30. Other standard 
items include an Apple Desktop Bus 
(ADB) mouse, an internal 2400-bps fax/ 
data modem, a Sharp Wizard electronic 
organizer, Mindshare software, a cable 
for downloading information to the Wiz- 
ard, and a carrying case. 

At the rear of the case are the power 
switch, interrupt and reset buttons, a 
small fan, and two RJ-11 connectors for 
the internal modem/fax board. Also lo- 

cated at the rear are a SCSI port, two 
ADB ports, an external floppy disk drive 
port, two DIN-8 serial ports, and two 
DB-15 connectors for black-and-white 
and 8-bit Apple color monitors. Dyna- 
mac mounted the Apple SuperDrive 
floppy disk drive up front. 

The gas-plasma screen has no controls 
for contrast or brightness, but both were 
fine. I found the display easy on the eyes 
after many hours of use. The integrated 
full-size keyboard doesn't detach and 

When allyou have is a hammer, 
everything looks like anail. 

It's always important to use the right tool for the job. 

Quintus products, whether it's Quintus Prolog 3.0 for workstations— the 
embeddable Prolog— or Quintus DOS Prolog and MacProlog for PC's— give 
you the productivity you need with the flexibility to apply them exactly 
where they are needed. All this plus the tremendous functionality of Prolog 
itself. Prolog's declarative nature means that you can focus on the "what" 
rather than the "how." 

Intergraph's family of RISC workstations and servers offers you a unique 
development platform that includes a comprehensive package of development 
tools— languages , support utilities, editors, graphics libraries, and much 
more. Each Intergraph tool is carefully designed for the development of 
powerful interactive graphics applications. 

Quintus and Intergraph Productivity Tools— a combination you should 
definitely have in your toolbox. 

Quintus <l 

An Intergraph Company. 

Quintus Computer Systems, Inc. 
1310 Villa Street 
Mountain View, CA 94041 
800/542-1283 • 415/965-7700 
FAX: 415/965-0551 

Quintus is a trademark of Quintus Computer Systems, Inc. Other brand names and product names are 
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. ».♦ 1990 Quintus Computer Systems, Inc. 
All rights reserved. 

Intergraph Huntsville, AL 35894-0001 800/826-3515 

lacks a numeric keypad. Dynamac ex- 
pects that many users will add an exter- 
nal keyboard and monitor. 

Not surprisingly, the BYTE bench- 
mark tests show that the Dynamac per- 
forms similarly to the Mac SE/30 on the 
low-level CPU, FPU, and video tests. As 
with the Outbound, however, faster disk 
test results gave the Dynamac a decisive 
edge over its Mac rival. 

The Dynamac's inability to operate 
away from AC power is its main draw- 
back. But that's not a problem for me, 
and the ability to have a fully functioning 
Mac with me at all times causes me to 
think kindly about the weight. But at four 
times the cost of the Outbound, the Dy- 
namac's power does not come cheap. 
Another potential drawback is that fu- 
ture hardware changes (like an add-on 
board that uses either the Processor Di- 
rect Slot or the NuBus slot) require re- 
turning the Dynamac to the manufac- 
turer. Dynamac promises a 24-hour 
turnaround on repairs, however, and its 
three-year warranty includes overnight 
shipping both ways. 

One for the Road 

How much of a compromise you make on 
the road will be the key to what hardware 
you should choose. If you can do without 
the Mac environment on the road, rela- 
tively inexpensive PC-compatible lap- 
tops offer equivalent or better computing 
power in a smaller, lighter package. 

I demand processing power beyond 
issues of weight, so although the Dyna- 
mac SE/30 weighs nearly as much as a 
Mac SE/30, it has the processing power I 
need. The Mac Portable, by contrast, is 
nearly as heavy, costs nearly as much, 
and uses the wimpy 68000 CPU. What 
you don't get are the Mac Portable's 
sharp active-matrix LCD and battery- 
powered operation (for a review of the 
Mac Portable, see "Hit the Road, Mac," 
February BYTE). 

If you already have a Mac Plus or SE, 
the Outbound Laptop System greatly ex- 
tends the usability of your existing hard- 
ware at a much lower cost than the Dyna- 
mac or the Mac Portable. Battery life is 
less than half that of a Mac Portable, and 
the display isn't as sharp, but the Out- 
bound weighs substantially less, fits into 
a smaller space (crucial in airline cabin 
luggage compartments), and costs far 
less than Apple's $4799 starting price for 
the Mac Portable. ■ 

Laurence H. Loeb is a BYTE consulting 
editor and is editor of the BIX Macintosh 
Exchange. You can reach him on BIX as 
"lloeb. " 

174 BYTE- SEPTEMBER 1 990 Circle 249 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 250) 

Five lessons other companies have yet 
to learn about PostScript 8 printing. 


Genuine Adobe 9 PostScript." 

You need a true Adobe PostScript 
printer. The Silentwriter2 290 
printer from NEC. Some com- 
panies emulate Post- 
Script with clone 
interpreters or add- 
on cartridges. Others 
have limited font 
capabilities. But 
that's not the way to 
produce eye-popping I 
newsletters, or 3D 
charts. We've known 
this since we introduced 
our first Silentwriter LC 890 
printer back in 1987. 


MS-DOS°and Macintosh 9 Connec- 

tivity. That's right, the 290 works with 
both Macintosh and PC -compatibles. 
And with its standard Centronics paral- 
lel, RS-232C, RS-h22 and AppleTalk™ 
interfaces, the 290 is ideal for stand- 
alone or network environments. 


WYSIWYG Screen Fonts. 

As in What-You-See-Is-What- 
You-Get. Our printer support 
kit included with every 290 
we sell includes software that 
lets you see all of the printer's 
35 scalable typefaces before 
you print them out. Also in- 
cluded are diskettes that allow 
you to install the 
fonts on any 
or under 
Microsoft 9 
Windows™ in the MS-DOS 


' i ,1 - -"* 

Memory. With a full 2 M B of standard memory , 


Software. The Silentwriter2 290 is the printer of 

there's simply no more worry. Since now you have 
more than enough memory to print a full page of text 
and graphics (letter or legal size) without losing 
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store downloadable fonts and overlays. 

choice for MS-DOS or Macintosh users working with 
hundreds of the most popular software packages. 
With an installed base of over 100,000 Silentwr iters, 
our experience with printer software is hard to beat. 
Meaning you get more than just a printer, you 
get answers. 

Since NEC began making PostScriprprinters, we've learned how to stay ahead of 
the competition. Sure, other PostScript printers can do some of these things, but 
only NEC puts them all together in the Silentwriter® 2 290, the printer that goes to 
the head of the class. To find out more about the Silentwriter2 290, call us at 1-800- 
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Computers and Communicatio 


D 1991 NEC Technologies, Inc. Silentwriter isa registered trademark of NEC Corp. Adobeand PostScript are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc., 
and arc registered in the U.S.P.T.O. All other brand namesare trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. 

Circle 201 on Reader Service Card 


Tom Yager 


Open Desktop: 

Relief for the Unix-Wary 

Open Desktop, as its name implies, uses a desktop metaphor to make Unix friendlier. 

Unix may be the best-suited operat- 
ing system for today's computers, 
but ironically, many believe it's 
still unsuitable for business use. Why? 
The leading complaint is that it's "un- 
friendly." If only someone could sim- 
plify Unix, make it as easy to use as 
DOS, or, better still, a Macintosh. Well, 
perhaps someone has. 

Enter The Santa Cruz Operation, bet- 
ter known as SCO, with Open Desktop. 
Open Desktop seeks to do for Unix what 
DOS did for a PC— make it accessible to 
everyone. For just under $1000, Open 
Desktop is truly everything you need to 
get Unix on your 386- or i486-based PC. 
It includes the SCO Unix System V oper- 
ating system, Locus 's XSight X Window 
System graphical user interface, IXI's 
X. Desktop graphical environment, Lo- 
cus's Merge/386, Lachman Associates' 
TCP/IP and NFS, and the Ingres rela- 
tional database manager. All this is 
crammed into a deceptively tiny box, and 
the documentation amounts to two tight- 
ly packed paperbound books. However, 

SCO spreads the software across a whop- 
ping 43 5 ^-inch floppy disks. 

Breaking the Seal 

I tested Open Desktop on a pair of sys- 
tems. The first was a Dell System 325 
(25-MHz 386) with 8 megabytes of mem- 
ory and a 150-MB ESDI hard disk 
drive— my low-end machine, and prob- 
ably typical of an individual Open Desk- 
top user machine. The other system was 
an Altos System 5000 Power Server with 
a 25-MHz i486, 32 MB of memory, and 
an 840-MB SCSI hard disk drive; it was 
loaded with Altos 's OEM server version 
of Open Desktop, and it is representative 
of the most capable platform for the 

SCO's installation procedure is among 
the most manageable I've used, with one 
exception. After all the software is in- 
stalled, an initialization script is exe- 
cuted for each selected subset. If some- 
thing goes wrong during this process, 
you can't just rerun the scripts by hand; 
you've got to reload the disks. 

When you're asked whether you want 
"C2 trusted security" or "relaxed de- 
faults," consider your answer carefully. 
If you select the trusted option, your sys- 
tem will be transformed into a fortress, 
impervious to snoopers, hackers, and 
system administrators alike. Don't 
choose C2 security just to play with it. 
Even though SCO reduced the adminis- 
tration of security to a bunch of menus 
and forms, it's a big bunch. Unless 
you're working for the government or 
like to pretend you are, don't bother 
with C2. 

The Fruits of Your Labor 

Neatly separated into user's and system 
administrator's guides, the Open Desk- 
top manuals are a study in minimalism. 
How did they get so small? Simple. SCO 
left out the reference manuals. You'll 
find no alphabetized list of commands in 
either volume. Instead, you are directed 
to browse the on-line manual pages and 
help facilities. Unix old-timers are used 
to asking computers for documentation, 
and newcomers will adapt quickly as 
well. It's a mighty convenient way to 
look things up. 

I'll admit that SCO's new manuals 
took a bit of getting used to. They are 
both split into sections, covering the 
major components of Open Desktop. 
Each section covers only what SCO con- 
siders the important points, and the read- 
er is sometimes directed to purchase op- 
tional documentation to fill in the rest. 
Except for the missing pieces, however, I 
thought SCO's documentation was well 
done. As it stands, I can pick up one of 
the books and zip immediately to the sec- 
tion that covers my topic of choice. It 
might instruct me to go out and buy addi- 
tional manuals, but at least I know where 
to look. 

Two parts of the manuals left me dis- 
appointed: The administrator's section 
on the SCO Unix mail program (MMDF) 
and the section on the database manager. 
There is no such thing as an easy Unix 
mailer, but MMDF still gets my prize for 
the most convoluted, most poorly con- 
ceived of the lot. At least for now, SCO 
has added a more common mailer, send- 
mail, but the documentation warns that 
it is unsupported and admonishes the 
user that it should be used only if un- 
avoidable. The manual's description of 
the maze of configuration files needed to 
set up MMDF is so poor that even an 
MMDF expert would be left wondering 
which end is up. The only respite is a set 
of step-by-step instructions for configur- 
ing a typical system. If your system is 












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Open Desktop: Relief for the Unix-Wary 

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Inquiry 883. 

close enough to this example, you may 
survive. I didn't. The forbidden send- 
mail's standard configuration handles 
my setup perfectly, but I never did get 
MMDF to sit still for it. 

As for the Ingres database, that offer- 
ing is long on software and far too short 
on documentation. Running it for a few 
minutes left me feeling that it could do 
anything, but the documentation drops 
off just where things start getting inter- 
esting. Without reference pages, the 
powerful Structured Query Language 
and command interfaces are useless. I 
can understand SCO's motivation to keep 
the documentation set petite, but I won- 
der how many Open Desktop users will 
never bother to unlock the real power of 
Ingres. A thorough reading of the man- 
uals would leave you thinking that Ingres 
is a $99 toy filing program, instead of 
one of the most powerful DBMSes ex- 
tant. Ingres, in large part, gives Open 
Desktop its style and its serious, profes- 
sional flavor. I can't think of anyone who 
couldn't profit from its use. 

The Grand Tour 

You might figure that, with 43 disks, 
there must be some substance to Open 
Desktop. There's plenty. A good place to 
start is with the fabled desktop itself. The 
graphics are served up by Locus, which 
provided SCO with a capable port of 
MIT's X Window System. The OSF/Mo- 
tif window manager (mwm) runs the win- 
dow show, but atop it all sits X. Desktop. 
X. Desktop is one of a few products 
that gives Unix a shot at being called 
friendly. The shallow view is that it pro- 
vides a point-and-click interface to Unix, 
comparable to that of the Macintosh. 
Files become icons, and these icons in- 
teract predictably. Drag a file into the 

Trashcan, and it is deleted. Drag a file 
into a folder icon (which represents a di- 
rectory), and the file is moved there. You 
can rename files, check and change per- 
missions, and launch applications with- 
out ever going near a Unix shell prompt. 

This desktop manager is completely 
driven by a set of text files, each script- 
ing the actions taken when you manipu- 
late icons. IXI built a complex program- 
ming language into X. Desktop that 
makes it completely configurable. If you 
don't like the way the Trashcan icon acts, 
you can substitute your own behavior 
script. Entire kingdoms of icons can be 
added, and administrators can calm even 
the most timid user by adding new com- 
mands to the system in this way. 

As mentioned, Ingres is an impressive 
database manager. Run from the Open 
Desktop command line and a full text- 
only screen (no XSight), Ingres 's inter- 
face serves its purpose. Menus behave 
intuitively, and the program is easy to 
navigate once you get the hang of it. 

The dark side of Ingres 's interface is 
called WindowView. I have only one 
word for it— horrid. The premise is this: 
You can take a good text-based applica- 
tion, paste some simple mouse sensitivity 
into it, and have a good X application. If 
the premise sounds flaky, its implemen- 
tation is worse. So, you see a menu, and 
you click the mouse button on an item to 
make it happen, right? Wrong. You click 
on the item and then click on the keyword 
Go in the bottom line of the window. 
Worse, you lose the ability to use the key- 
board with the menus. A single click 
works on the horizontal menus across the 
bottom of the window (where the magic 
Go appears), and this menu includes 
everything in the fancy (useless) boxed 
menu. Two or three pixels below lies the 
window-resize bar, and you'd better get 
used to pressing that by accident. But 
don't judge Ingres by its half-baked, 
pseudographical interface. It's a beefy 
database manager that just needs the 
screen to itself. 

The overall quality of Ingres comes 
with a price: It is memory- and disk- 
hungry. Even when you're only running 
your own private databases on your iso- 
lated system, Ingres behaves as a client/ 
server application. It takes several dae- 
mons (background processes) just to sup- 
port one Ingres session, and some of 
these background programs span nearly 
2MB. Running Ingres on the Dell Sys- 
tem with 8 MB of memory caused the 
system to go swap-happy. Nothing 
failed, and the slowed performance was 
still acceptable, but the disk went wild 
while the operating system scrambled to 

stoke Ingres' s furnace with more mem- 
ory. (The Altos, with 32 MB, ran 
without swapping.) According to SCO, a 
special package, the Open Desktop Ser- 
ver Upgrade, will let you set up a cen- 
tralized Ingres database server, bringing 
down the memory and disk requirements 
at each desk. However, the upgrade was 
not shipping at the time of this review. 

Getting Down to DOS 

If you double-click on the DOS icon, a 
Merge/386 window appears, containing 
a C > prompt that makes a DOS user feel 
right at home. To simulate a color DOS 
display, Merge takes over all the colors 
(16 in the case of VGA), resulting in a 
strange color shift when the DOS win- 
dow is selected. This is normal and even 
desirable. I was able to install many ap- 
plications that use color text and have 
them behave predictably in the DOS win- 
dow. The window is also capable of dis- 
playing CGA graphics, an interesting 
feat considering that memory-mapped 
graphics have to be converted to X in- 
structions. CGA graphics works well, 
and an application can talk to the window 
as though it were a CGA display. It also 
supports 40-column text, 640- by 200- 
pixel graphics, and all the other CGA 
modes. When you change modes, the 
window changes size automatically to 
match the screen size of the mode. 

Merge runs under the virtual 8086 
built into the 386 and i486, so you can't 
run protected-mode programs or any- 
thing written specifically for the newer 
Intel processors. This is something of a 
handicap, since there is a lot of software 
now that just assumes you've got at least 
a 286. Still, Merge had to work with what 
Intel gave it, and it does work. For the 
mainstream DOS productivity applica- 
tions, it performs admirably. A single 
session on the Dell System runs at rough- 
ly the same speed as that of an IBM AT. 
The Altos performed much better, of 

For those times when your native dis- 
play is the only way to go, you can ask 
Merge to turn over the entire screen to 
DOS. A hot-key sequence brings up a 
menu, and clicking on Zoom makes the 
switch— in my case, to VGA. I was able 
to run everything that talks to real VGA 
with reasonable performance. 

Could you run Merge all the time? Ab- 
solutely. I found it provided faithful em- 
ulation and excellent stability. A fringe 
benefit is that, since Merge runs as a cli- 
ent of Unix, you can run DOS programs 
that crash. In most cases, Merge just re- 
sets itself, and you're back in business. 






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Open Desktop: relief for the Unix-Wary 

In no case have I seen it crash Unix or 
otherwise affect other processes. 

Ordinarily, Merge uses the Unix file 
system to store application data. To a 
DOS program, Unix files are made to 
look like DOS files. Filenames that don't 
fit the eight-plus-three DOS naming con- 
ventions are squashed in a nonintuitive 
way. There was no right way to handle 
this problem, so any solution that simply 
makes the files available is passable. You 
can also use the real DOS partition on 

your hard disk drive. Another plus is that 
you can map Unix networked disk drives 
into Merge's DOS as well. 

Stringing the Nets 

Open Desktop includes a boatload of net- 
working solutions: TCP/IP (the Unix 
standard), Sun's NFS, and Microsoft's 
LAN Manager. The LAN Manager mod- 
ule operates as a client only, and while 
SCO will sell the server portion, I rec- 
ommend sticking with NFS. 

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Getting your new workstation attached 
to an existing Unix network isn't auto- 
matic, but it's pretty easy. I dropped a 
Western Digital Ethernet adapter into the 
Dell System and told Open Desktop 
about it during the installation. You'll be 
asked for the network address of your 
system, but you won't be able to see other 
systems until you add them to your / etc/ 
hosts file. 

As part of a Unix network, an Open 
Desktop system is mostly a good citizen. 
In the BYTE Lab, the Dell System was 
asked to swap files with our Unix server 
(a Swan 386/33 running Interactive's 
386/ix 2.0.2) and an Opus Personal 
Mainframe (a 25-MHz 88000-based sys- 
tem). My first attempt to copy files 
through NFS to the 386/ix system 
crashed it and jumbled its hard disk— 
everything was lost. The problem was In- 
teractive's, and installing its latest re- 
lease (version 2.2) fixed everything. The 
Opus got along famously from the start 
with Open Desktop, except that it com- 
plained periodically about a protocol 
screwup when I used rep (remote copy). 
In my home lab, where the Altos resides, 
I've encountered absolutely no problems 
shipping data, X images, and shared 
files across the network. Altos did a bit of 
work on Open Desktop's networking fa- 
cilities, and it seems to show. 

An Open Closing Statement 

Open Desktop wants to be the shrink- 
wrapped Unix for the 1990s. It is pack- 
aged to run on just about any 386 or i486- 
based system and truly can be pulled off 
a shelf and run out of the box. SCO's 
price, $995, is very attractive consider- 
ing all that's thrown in. 

Open Desktop is the only Unix system 
I can truly recommend to new Unix 
users. You might need some experienced 
help during the first couple of days, but 
once you've gotten that push, you'll be 
hooked. Also, SCO's technical-support 
department is responsive— every call I 
placed got me a prompt and accurate 

SCO's coup is that it has built a Unix 
system you can use without taking the 
time to understand it in depth. Thirty 
minutes after installing it, you can run 
your favorite DOS applications in an X 
window under Unix. You can progress 
from there to learning about Unix, In- 
gres, X. Desktop, and the rest. But the 
real work can come first; there will be 
plenty of time to explore. ■ 

Tom Yager is a technical editor for the 
BYTE Lab. He can be reached on BIX as 
"tyager. " 


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G Is for Graphics 

Why in the world would we need 
another Lotus 1-2-3 for OS/2? 
Lotus already offers 1-2-3 re- 
lease 3.0 for OS/2, but now there's 1-2- 
3/G as well. As with release 3 .0, much of 
1-2-3/G's impressive power stems from 
the underlying features of OS/2, but its 
real draw is its graphical interface. If you 
buy into the GUI revolution, Lotus fi- 
nally has something for you. 

Of course, a graphical interface deliv- 
ers more than just a pretty face. Some of 
the spreadsheet's features are more 
readily tapped and are more powerful 
using a mouse. Although release 3.0 
works like a champ under OS/2, it still 
uses the old character-based interface, 
which fits awkwardly in the Presentation 
Manager environment. Lotus 1-2-3/G 

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Inquiry 887. 

With the PM 
interface, you can 
keep a number of 
worksheets on the 
desktop. Note the 
th ree-dimensional 
structure and the 
third scroll bar for 
scrolling across 
pages. The graph 
in the window 

gives you the same windowed environ- 
ment of PM while retaining keystroke 
compatibility with the original 1-2-3. 

The Graphical Advantage 

The 1-2-3/G graphical interface is invit- 
ing and responsive. I'm not completely 
sold on the advantages of using a mouse 
for spreadsheet work, but mouse or no 
mouse, you can't help but appreciate hav- 
ing multiple windows on the desktop. 
Moving data or linking data from one 
sheet to another is much easier when you 
can view and access both sheets at the 
same time. You simply open a file in its 
own window. You can then resize it, 
minimize it, cut and paste to other win- 
dows, and interact naturally with other 
PM applications on the desktop. 

The page-preview features of 1-2-3/G, 
while nice to have, are awkward and in- 
flexible. So, I fired up PageMaker OS/2 
in its own window and pasted 1-2-3/G's 
spreadsheets and graphs into Page- 
Maker. I could then place the spread- 
sheet elements anywhere on the page by 
simply clicking and dragging, printing 
the document, minimizing PageMaker, 
and returning to my spreadsheet work. 
When I needed PageMaker again, it 
waited a click away. Once you've got 
your windows effectively placed, you 
can save the whole bundle in a single 
desktop file. 

The PM interface also provides Dy- 
namic Data Exchange, which lets you 
link your spreadsheet data to other PM 
applications. For example, you could 
paste a spreadsheet to a word processor 
and link it so that whenever you change 
the spreadsheet numbers, the word pro- 

cessor document is automatically up- 
dated. Unfortunately, the potential of 
DDE— like that of OS/2, in general— suf- 
fers from a lack of OS/2 applications. 

Of course, 1-2-3/G also boasts true 
three-dimensional operation, but, ironi- 
cally, that very capability makes its 
graphical perks less useful. True 3-D 
places all your related worksheets in a 
single structure. You could, for example, 
put each of your monthly sheets on sepa- 
rate pages of your 3-D spreadsheet. Your 
annual totals could also reside within the 
single structure. The monthly totals 
could be summed by referencing them as 
a range cutting through the 12 pages. 
Under this scheme, autonomous win- 
dows are not such a big win. 

Then again, the program makes mov- 
ing around in a 3-D spreadsheet easier by 
adding a third scroll bar. In addition to 
the scroll bars that let you move down 
rows or over columns, the third scroll bar 
moves you through multiple pages. I 
found this useful only when I had to flip 
through a lot of pages. Otherwise, I 
turned a page by pressing Alt-PageUp or 

Predictably, the graphing tool im- 
proves under a graphical interface. The 
graph comes up in its own window and 
menu bar. You can move objects, such as 
the title or a legend, by clicking and drag- 
ging them. You can also add markers or 
annotations and move them about just as 
easily. By strategically overlapping your 
graph window and spreadsheet window, 
you can see how changes to your data af- 
fect your graph. There's a full range of 
graph types available, and 1-2-3/G can 
map your color bars or pie slices to black- 
and-white patterns. So you can keep your 
on-screen graphs as solid colors and print 
them as monochrome patterns without 
reconfiguring graph options. 

The Performance Trade-Of f 

Release 3.0 wins hands down when it 
comes to questions of performance (see 
the figure). Using our standard spread- 
sheet benchmarks (for details, see "Not 
Just for Numbers Anymore," February 
BYTE), release 3.0 again showed its ex- 
ceptional speed. This performance ad- 
vantage becomes significant when 
spreadsheets become big and complex. 

I also ran into some disturbing prob- 
lems with 1-2-3/G, mostly related to the 
Undo feature. When I was working with 
large files and would load a spreadsheet 
into a window and then try to retrieve a 
different spreadsheet into the active win- 
dow (an operation that should throw the 
first spreadsheet away), I hit the dreaded 




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G Is for Graphics 










i i 

«.. i 

i i i i i 



i i i 



i i 

, , 









25 50 75 100 125 150 175 

Time (seconds) 

1 I Excel for OS/2 ED Lotus 1-2-3 release 3.0 □ Lotus 1-2-3/G 

Figure 1: Lotus 1 -2-3/G pays a performance penalty for its graphical interface, 
as it is significantly slower than its sibling, 1-2-3 release 3. 0. Shorter bars indicate 
better performance. (For a complete explanation of the spreadsheet benchmarks, see 
"Not Just for Numbers Anymore, " February BYTE.) 

memory barrier. It was disconcerting, 
given that I was working on a Compaq 
386/20 with 6 megabytes of real memory 
and another 4 MB of swap space on disk. 

The memory problems did not occur 
under release 3.0, nor did they occur 
with the Undo feature disabled. The trou- 
ble, then, was obvious: 1-2-3/G was re- 
taining the discarded spreadsheet file in 
memory so the Undo option could get it 
back. That's understandable, even desir- 
able, and easily disabled. 

You can blame it, though, for not han- 
dling memory limitations gracefully. I 
got a message that Undo was being dis- 
abled, closely followed by a memory 
warning. I clicked the OK button, at 
which point the program sometimes 

froze. I could still access the Task Man- 
ager and shut down 1-2-3/G, but by kill- 
ing the task, I would lose other files on 
the desktop. At other times, 1-2-3/G 
would load an empty worksheet with the 
same filename as the worksheet it failed 
to retrieve. 

There is one big advantage for 1-2-3/G 
that goes beyond the graphical interface. 
Lotus calls it the Solver, and that's just 
what it is. You can easily set up complex 
models and what-if scenarios. You spec- 
ify adjustable cells (such as the price you 
charge for an item), constraint cells 
(such as the number of items in your in- 
ventory), and a cell to maximize (such as 
profits). The Solver then returns many 
solutions for the defined problem. 

For testing purposes, I set up BYTE 
Bakeries as a model. The worksheet 
listed a variety of pastries and, for each 
pastry, reported the cost to make them, 
the selling price, and the number made. I 
selected the number-made entry for each 
pastry (the adjustable cells) and entered a 
series of simple logical formulas that set 
maximum and minimum values for each 
of the number-made entries (the con- 
straint cells). I was also constrained by 
the total cost of all pastries, representing 
the limit of my current resources. I then 
asked Solver to optimize the profits en- 
try. Solver returned several possible 
solutions so I could decide which mix of 
pastries would maximize my profits. 

In the same way, you could pick the 
optimal mix of stock investments for a 
portfolio. The Solver surpasses the sim- 
ple what-if capabilities of most spread- 
sheets. If you do a lot of spreadsheet 
modeling and what-if calculations, the 
Solver alone could justify the switch to 

Finding the Right Fit 

It sounds strange to call a Lotus spread- 
sheet a niche product, but 1-2-3/G may 
fill the bill. I would recommend it for 
specific situations. If you have dedicated 
Lotus users along with users just learn- 
ing spreadsheets, 1-2-3/G offers a mid- 
dle ground. The old users can still em- 
ploy the slash key, while new users 
should feel less intimated by the point- 
and-click interface. In fact, if you're sold 
on the PM interface, 1-2-3/G could be 
the perfect vehicle for weaning your 1-2- 
3 junkies off the keyboard and onto the 

Users who include their spreadsheets 
in other applications will also benefit 
with 1-2-3/G. Pasting to PageMaker or 
linking to a database is smoother under 
the graphical interface. Finally, users 
who have modeling chores that require 
the sophistication of the Solver can jus- 
tify the 1-2-3/G investment. 

However, if you're a single user who is 
already productive with the old Lotus in- 
terface, there's not much incentive for 
going to a graphical interface just for the 
sake of having one. You'll find release 
3.0 less frustrating and more stable. 
Those who spend the bulk of their day 
within the Lotus environment will be 
more productive under release 3.0. In 
fact, that is 1 -2-3/G 's biggest drawback: 
It's hard to upstage a program as good as 
Lotus 1-2-3 release 3.0. ■ 

Stanford Die hi is a testing editor/engineer 
for the BYTE Lab. He can be reached on 
BIX as "sdiehl." 



Christopher R. Gibson 


9600-bps Modem Brings 
Apple Networks Closer Together 

Shiva's NetModem V.32 offers 9600-bps communications as a shared network device 
or as an internetwork router, thanks to its built-in AppleTalk connector (top). 

Advances in LAN technology have 
made shared computer resources a 
fact of life in many companies. 
Shiva promises similar rewards for far- 
flung Apple networks with its NetMo- 
dem V.32, which places wide-area-net- 
work (WAN) technology into the hands 
of small businesses. Thanks to a built-in 

NetModem V.32 


Shiva Corp. 
155 Second St. 
Cambridge, MA 02141 

Hardware Needed 

Macintosh-family computers or related 
peripherals attached to a LocalTalk 
network; LocalTalk connectors and 
cabling; a dedicated phone line (when 
used as an internetwork router) 


$1999 each (two are required for 
internetwork routing} 

Inquiry 855. 

AppleTalk connector, the NetModem 
V.32 can connect AppleTalk networks 
or allow traveling employees full dial-in 
access to company Macs and peripher- 
als. It also offers a major performance 
improvement over its predecessor, the 
NetModem 2400. 

The NetModem V.32's foundation is a 
9600-bps V.32 modem. The V.32 proto- 
col allows the modem to communicate 
dependably with other V.32 modems at 
full speed over ordinary phone lines. But 
once you pull the new NetModem out of 
its box, you'll see that it is not an ordi- 
nary modem. In back, it offers three con- 
nectors: phone, power, and AppleTalk. 

The significance of the AppleTalk 
connector may not be immediately ap- 
parent, but it is the key to the NetModem 
V.32's power. It enables the NetModem 
to take advantage of the AppleTalk net- 
working protocols included in every 
Mac. Thus, the device can become a 
shared modem available to every Mac on 
a network, and it can serve as a remote 
router (or half-bridge). As a router, it can 
connect two remote AppleTalk networks 
to form one internetwork, allowing each 
node to transparently share all the re- 
sources of both remote networks, wheth- 
er they are 1 mile or 1000 miles away. 

Just Add AppleTalk 

Installing the NetModem is as easy as 
adding any other device to an AppleTalk 
network. Each Mac that will use the Net- 
Modem to dial out needs the NetModem 
software installed on its start-up disk. 

Shiva's Internet Manager application 
examines, sets up, manages, and per- 
forms troubleshooting on AppleTalk in- 
ternetworks. I found it to be handy when 
configuring the NetModem. You can 
also use it for Shiva's innovative method 
of updating NetModem V.32 firmware: 
Instead of requiring you to replace ROM 
chips, the NetModem V.32 can simply 
download an image file from disk into its 
battery-backed-up RAM. 

In general, using the NetModem V.32 
as a dial-out modem is identical to using 
its slower cousin, the NetModem 2400. 
Through the standard Chooser desk ac- 
cessory (DA), you can select any NetMo- 
dem connected to the network. If the 
NetModem is busy, the software records 
your request; it then notifies you when 
the device becomes available. If you have 
several NetModems on your network, 
you can even select a pool of NetMo- 
dems, so that if one is busy, another in 
your pool can be used. 

Once a NetModem has been selected 
and the connection to your Mac is estab- 
lished, using the NetModem V.32 is 
much like using any high-speed modem. 
It uses the standard Hayes AT command 
set and responds in much the same way as 
a dedicated modem. A small display ap- 
pears in the menu bar and mimics the 
display lights normally found on the 
front of a modem. Even the sounds from 
the modem are transmitted over the net- 
work to your internal speaker. 

Remote-Routing Power 

But the NetModem V.32's real power 
lies in its remote-routing capabilities in 
an internetwork. For this, you need two 
remote AppleTalk networks, each with a 
NetModem V.32 (or one with a NetMo- 
dem V.32 and one with a Shiva Tele- 
Bridge or EtherGate). To create the 
internetwork, a user in one network initi- 
ates the call; the NetModem in the other 
remote network answers and automati- 
cally forms the connection. 

The software that controls the initia- 
tion of the connection is accessed 
through a standard Control Panel DA. A 
Dial Out window lets you set up minia- 
ture scripts for the various remote net- 
works you will be calling. These scripts 
include phone numbers, connect speeds, 
and access limitations. 

The Internet Manager application con- 



9600-bps Modem Brings Apple Networks Closer Together 


The NetModem V '.32 outshined the baseline 2400-bps modem in direct 
transfers. More significantly, the NetModem 's times as a 9600-bps router for 
LocalTalk transfers were close to those for direct transfers. At 9600 bps, the 
NetModem averaged one transmission error per 7 OK bytes transferred. Dial-in 
access gave comparable times. Creating moderate to heavy intranetwork 
traffic during testing, in the form of large file transfers between various nodes 
on one network, did not significantly affect internetwork performance. 

Direct modem-to-modem transfers 

File size 


NetModem V.32, 
9600 bps 

LocalTalk transfer 

NetModem V.32 
as a router* 










' Routing benchmarks measure transfers between a simple four-Macintosh network and a complex 20-Mac- 
intosh network connected through remote routing. Transfers in both directions yielded comparable times. 
All transfers were made using ZMODEM and MacBinary II. 
Times are in minutes:seconds. N/A = Not applicable. 

NetModem V.32s to connect my Apple- 
Talk network in California to a friend's 
AppleTalk network i n Tennessee. We ac- 
cessed each other's file servers and 
printers and sent E-mail transparently. 

Dial-in access is the single-user equiv- 
alent of remote routing, with two differ- 
ences. First, the Mac initiating the call 
can use any modem to make the connec- 
tion. Second, only single users can be 
connected, not networks. The dial-in ac- 
cess software that Shiva ships works via 
the Control Panel as seamlessly as the re- 
mote-routing software. For $99, the 
company also sells software that allows 
PCs the same dial-in capabilities. 

The slower NetModem 2400 also of- 
fered this ability, but it used a DA called 
Async AppleTalk and suffered from irri- 
tating slowness and occasional crashes. 
Shiva has done a good job reengineering 
dial-in access in the NetModem V.32. 
Also, I think a speedier 9600-bps mo- 
dem is much more suitable for this use. 

figures the NetModem V.32 to limit ac- 
cess to particular AppleTalk zones (if 
your network has them) and specifies 
separate passwords for dialing in, dialing 

out, or making configuration changes. 

Once connected, people on both net- 
works can use resources on the entire in- 
ternetwork. To test remote access, I used 

A Sense of WANder 

In tests using two remote networks, the 
NetModem V.32's performance was 



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Circle 71 on Reader Service Card 


Stan Miastkowski 

excellent. Direct modem-to-modem trans- 
fers as a shared network modem ran as 
efficiently as those of a dedicated modem 
(see the table). Occasional transmission 
errors at 9600 bps indicate these speeds 
push the limits of ordinary phone lines, 
but the V.32 protocol did a good job at 
maintaining the connection's integrity. 

In remote-routing applications, the 
NetModem V.32 proved itself a reliable 
performer in networking environments 
ranging from my relatively simple Mac- 
intosh development network of TOPS file 
servers and E-mail, to a complex net- 
work at a local graphic arts company, 
consisting of two AppleShare file serv- 
ers, 20 Macintoshes, Apple LaserWrit- 
ers, and a Linotronic L300 ImageSetter. 

The NetModem V.32 had an overall 
"feel" that was excellent across the 
board. There were short delays while 
choosing printers or file servers from the 
Chooser, for instance, but nothing trou- 
blesome. And although file transfers 
were slower than with a direct connection 
to an AppleTalk network, printing oper- 
ations were surprisingly quick, adding 
only about 20 seconds to the 1 Vi minutes 
it took to print a sample five-page text 
document or a MacDraw graphic. 

However, there were some problems 
when communicating with on-line ser- 
vices such as BIX. The NetModem V.32 
tended to lose control at random times. 
The resulting garbage could only be ter- 
minated by cycling the power on the Net- 
Modem. Shiva is aware of this problem 
(cycling the power is the company's 
workaround), and it expects to release a 
fix in the form of a new image file soon. 

The Shiva technical-support people 
took a thorough report of the garbage bug 
and promised to pass it on to the engi- 
neers, but I did not hear back from them 
until I contacted Shiva and identified 
myself as a reviewer. This is a shame, be- 
cause my previous experience with Shi- 
va's support has been generally positive. 

Even at $1999 each, the Shiva NetMo- 
dem V. 32 gives you a sense of awe at how 
well it works. Internetworking between 
remote users or AppleTalk networks is 
easy to establish and easy to get used to. 
Combining those features with the abil- 
ity to share a high-speed modem among 
many users makes this an attractive in- 
vestment for businesses in search of the 
advantages of WAN technology. ■ 

Christopher R. Gibson is president of 
Cloud Ten, a Macintosh development 
firm located in San Luis Obispo, Califor- 
nia, and is a moderator of the BIX Macin- 
tosh Exchange. He can be reached on BIX 
as "cgibson. " 


New Floppy Drive Puts 20-MB 
Disk in Your Pocket 

The StorlMor Subsystem uses a SCSI 
controller to bring 20-MB floppy disk 
storage capacity to PCs and PS/2s. 

While some computer technologies 
forge ahead at breakneck speeds, 
floppy disk drive storage usually 
progresses at a leisurely pace. Capaci- 
ties grew from 180K bytes to 1 .44 mega- 
bytes only in incremental jumps. Now 
they are beginning to leapfrog, thanks to 
the 20-MB floppy disk drives hitting the 

I tested one of the first: Q/Cor's Stor/ 
Mor drive, which uses 3 1 /2-inch floppy 
disks that only look like the standard 
disks. Based on the Flextra system devel- 
oped by Brier Technology (San Jose, 
CA), the Stor/Mor drive uses Twin Tier 
Tracking (T 3 ) technology (seethe figure). 

As the name implies, two layers of 
magnetic material reside on special flop- 
py disks that cost a hefty $25 each. The 
entire upper layer is free for data storage. 
The lower layer, which is permanently 
formatted at the factory, contains posi- 
tioning (servo) information for the read/ 
write heads. This low-frequency mag- 
netic homing signal sends a continuous 
message to the read/write head. The em- 
bedded positioning information enables 
the head to track more tightly and accu- 
rately than in traditional floppy disk 
drives. This allows for a density of 777 
tracks per inch, versus about 135 tracks 
in traditional floppy disk drives. In addi- 
tion, most drives store data uniformly 
throughout the disk surface. But the Stor/ 
Mor takes advantage of the longer sectors 
near the disk's outer edge by packing 
more data there than is possible in the 
shorter, inner sectors. 

The Stor/Mor comes in both an in- 

Stor/Mor Subsystem 



One Meca Way 

Norcross, GA 30093 


Hardware Needed 

IBM XT, AT, PS/2, or compatible 


External version as tested: $895 

Internal version: $795 

Micro Channel architecture subsystem: $995 

Inquiry 882. 

ternal version that fits in a standard Sc- 
inch floppy disk drive space and an ex- 
ternal version. It uses a SCSI controller 
and is available with both AT and Micro 
Channel SCSI controller boards. 

Installation Woes 

Getting the external version of the Stor/ 
Mor to work in my AT clone wasn't a 
"plug and play" proposition. The SCSI 
host-adapter board requires you to set ad- 
dress and interrupt-level jumpers. Be- 
cause my system already has other 
boards in place, I had to do some fiddling 
to get everything right. 

I then had to install a device driver in 
my CONFIG.SYS file and reboot. Prob- 
lem solved? Not quite. My system, which 
has a 64-MB hard disk drive partitioned 
into logical drives C and D, wouldn't 
recognize the Stor/Mor. Eventually, I 
realized that the second physical hard 
disk drive (the Stor/Mor) became drive 
D. But I still kept getting an "I/O error" 
message on my screen. 

I ended up spending several hours 
fooling with my CONFIG.SYS and AU- 
TOEXEC.BAT files, painstakingly re- 
moving individual TSR programs and 
device drivers. The culprit turned out to 
be a disk-caching utility, which some- 
how clashed with the Stor/Mor driver. 
Once I removed the utility, I was able to 
boot from the Stor/Mor drive. 

After an extensive talk with the Q/Cor 
people, they admitted that they have to 
revise the driver for the Stor/Mor to 
avoid these conflicts. 





Introducing the first printer that is both a desktop and a portable and prints 
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On a desk,with its optional 30-sheet paper feeder, it's an ideal personal printer. 
As a single-sheet portable with its optional rechargeable battery pack, it weighs a 
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you could possibly need it, fitting neatly into a briefcase. 

TheBJ-lOe Bubble Jet. What other printers print on a desk, it prints anywhere. 

The document displayed In the BJ-lOe is actual output using the UltraScript™ pc software BJ-130e™ printer driver. 

Canon' Is a registered trademark and BJ-130e and Bubble Jet are trademarks of Canon Inc. 

IBM* Is a registered trademark and Proprinter Is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 

UltraScriptis a trademark of QMS. 

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New Floppy Drive Puts 20-MB Disk in Your Pocket 


Data layer (777 
tracks per inch) 

Servo layer 

Disk cross section 

The oxide coating on the Stor/Mor' s floppy media is divided into two layers. The 
bottom, or servo, layer contains an embedded homing signal that guides read /write 
heads. Accurate head positioning in part allows the drive to densely pack data in the 
upper layer into 777 tracks per inch. 

Special Formatting 

Not surprisingly, the Stor/Mor drive 
comes with its own formatting utility. 
Because the positioning information is 
permanently encoded on the disks, the 
actual formatting is very fast— under a 
minute for the 20-MB storage space. In 
addition, the format utility allows you to 
partition the floppy disk into two logical 
drives in any combination that adds up to 
20 MB. 

If you use the Stor/Mor as your boot 
drive, the formatting utility also gives 
you the option of putting DOS files on the 
disk. But I ran into an annoying anomaly 
when using this option: Stor/Mor won't 
take system files off an existing hard 
disk. It insists that you have a bootable 
disk in your floppy disk drive A. Of 
course, if Stor/Mor is your only "hard" 
drive, that's where the files would have 
to be. But I would have liked to have had 
a choice. 

The Stor/Mor drive is only usable with 
Brier's special disks. It currently won't 
read or write to 720K-byte or 1.44-MB 
disks. However, Q/Cor promises to have 
a version of the drive that will handle 
those formats later this year. 

Speed Is Relative 

The Stor/Mor is faster than a standard 
floppy disk drive, but slower than a hard 
disk drive. I would have expected that, 

except that Q/Cor's marketing literature 
claims an average access time of 35 mil- 
liseconds, which is comparable to a stan- 
dard hard disk drive. I found that to be a 
bit optimistic; most of the time, actual 
access time is three to four times that 

Packing more and more data onto 3 Vi- 
inch floppy disks isn't a trivial undertak- 
ing. After what seems like years of fits 
and starts, many manufacturers are com- 
ing out with competing— and incompati- 
ble—subsystems. Stor/Mor is intriguing 
technology, but considering my installa- 
tion problems, I get an uneasy feeling 
that it isn't quite there yet. It's a useful 
alternative to a standard hard disk drive 
for hard disk backups or for carrying 
large amounts of data in a portable pack- 
age. For security, you can lock the disk 
away at night. 

But for these capabilities, $895 is a 
considerable price to pay. In fact, for 
that, I could buy both a 40-MB hard disk 
drive and a 40-MB tape backup system 
and have money left over. Of course, the 
Stor/Mor is new technology, and new 
technology is usually expensive. But 
until its price falls considerably, I'll stay 
with my current storage technology. ■ 

Stan Miastkowski is a consulting editor 
for BYTE. He can be reached on BIX as 
"stanm. " 


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Toshiba Memory Module 

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Professional developers require 



by South Mountain Soft. 
GUIDO is a powerful library of C 
functions which enables you to 
easily add graphical user interface 
objects to your application. 
Available objects include menus, 
windows, data entry, radio 
buttons, user definable objects 
and more. An event driven, object 
oriented windowing environment 
is also provided. GTJIDO does not 
require any other graphics library 
and includes support for Borland 
Turbo C, Microsoft C and Quick C. 
LIST: $249 PS Price: $229 

LIST: $499 (w/so.) PS Price: $459 
FastFaxls 42-050 


iiiii^»-i* —,.,; -~ 


ProtoFinish by Genesis 



Show Partner F/X 


386 Max Professional 


Visible Analyst 


386:ASM/LINK by Pharlap 
DESQview 386 







Instant C 


Realia COBOL 


Metaware High C - 386/486 



NDP Fortran - 386 



NDP C - 386, 


C Asynch Manager 3.0 


QEMM - 386 


Essential COMM by S. Mtn. 
Greenleaf Comm Library 


WATCOM C8.0 386 Prof. 




WATCOM C8.0 386 Stand. 




Clipper 5.0 


ARITY Combination Package 

I 989 







PC Scheme LISP 




TransLISP PLUS w/source 




PDC Prolog Compiler 









FoxBASE + - V2.1 


Turbo Assembler/Debugger 




Visible Computer:80286 




Cause Professional 


BAS-C Commercial 


CLARION Prof. Dev. V2.1 


dB/LIB Database Library 




MS QuickBASIC V4.5 


D the data language 


ProBas Prog, by Hammerly 


Magic PC 


ProRef by Hammerly 


Paradox V3.0 






QuickPak Prof./PDS 





Lattice C - 6.0 Compiler 


AdComm for Clipper 


Microsoft C 6.0 




Microsoft QuickC 


Buzzwords dAnalyst 


Turbo C 


CLEAR + for dBASE 


WATCOM C8.0/286 Prof. 


dBase BlackBox 


WATCOM C8.0/286 Stand. 


dBASE Online 







Case: W 


dGE 4.0 


Case: PM (for C or C+++) 




Dan Bricklin Demo II 




EasyCase Plus 








Instant Replay III 


Genifer - Code Generator 


Instant Windows 


Net Lib 


Matrix Layout 


Pro Clip 


MetaDesign by Meta Software 295 
Pro-C w/Workbench Combo 349 


by Rainbow Technologies 

The SentinelScout is a hardware 
key that attaches externally to the 
parallel port of an IBM PC or 
compatible to enable execution of 
authorized program copies. It 
does not interfere with printer 
operation, hard disk installs or 
backup copies. Featuring a fixed- 
response security system unique 
to each device, the economical 
SentinelScout offers a level of 
execution control perfect for 
lower-cost programs. 
LIST: $295 (kit of 1 keys) 
PS Price: $265 
FastFaxls 1313-001 

R&R Relational Reportwriter 139 
R&R Code Generator 129 



by Brightbill-Roberts 

HyperPAD is an object-oriented 
application generator. HyperPAD 
gives DOS users the same cap- 
abilities as Tool Book, HyperCard 
and others, without the overhead. 
Use HyperPAD to create custom- 
ized menuing systems for hard 
disks or Local Area Networks, 
computer based training systems, 
help systems tutorials, flat-file 
databases, hypertext information 
systems, front-ends and much 

LIST: $150 PS Price: $129 

FastFaxls 1104-006 

Sage Prof. Editor 

by Sage 

The Sage Professional Editor is 
designed to create the 
applications of the 90's. Ifs highly 
configurable and has an 
advanced windowed user 
interface with integrated mouse 
support, on-line help and menu- 
driven commands. Has 
emulations for Brief, Vi, E ACS/ 
Epsilon and WordStar, and a 
virtual memory system for large 
files. Includes MS-DOS, OS/2 
and Dual ode versions on 3.5" 
and 5.25" diskettes. 
LIST: $295 PS Price: $249 

FastFaxls 111-060 


by Genesis Data Systems 
ProtoFinish creates program 
prototypes, demos and tutorials. 
Contains screen design module for 
creating ASCII-based screens, 
memory-resident utility for captur- 
ing ASCII and CGA-VGA graphics 
screens, 4th-generation language 
with interactive/self-running capa- 
bilities for accurately simulating 
your program's look and feel, 
royalty-free run-time utility, and 
assembly language routines for in- 
corporating screens in C, PASCAL, 
BASIC, and Clipper code. 
LIST: $300 PS Price: $279 

FastFaxls 1496-001 
— — — ■ ■ 


more than just products. . . 






by Gazelle 
Got a case of "hard-disk 
slowdown?" Get OPTune, 
the fastest, most complete 
set of performance- 
enhancing utilities available. It 
features unmatched file defrag- 
mentation, low-level non- 
destructive interleave adjustment, 
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OPTune will, quite simply, keep 
your disk spinning faster and 
longer than any other "so-called" 
optimizer . . . guaranteed. 
LIST: $100 PS Price: $89 

FaslFaxts 726-003 


by mdbs, Inc. 

Object/1 is more than just another 
application development tool. If s 
designed specifically for graphical 
environments like Presentation 
Manager and Windows 3.0 to 
provide a comprehensive develop- 
ment environment. It features a 
Forms Painter which allows you to 
build and edit graphical forms 
which link to a variety of back-end 
database servers. Object/1 is a 
rich object-oriented programming 
tool which has more than 250 
classes and 3000 methods. 
LIST: $995 PS Price: $895 

FaslFaxts 1506403 


by Communications Research 

BLAST puts powerful data 
transfer, remote control, scripting, 
terminal emulation, datacompres- 
sion, and other communications 
magic into one product for PC, 
Unix, Xenix, VAX, Macintosh, and 
even mainframe communica- 
tions... all with the same look, feel, 
menu interface, protocol, and 
script languagel Easy for 
developers to link into existing 
applications for automated, 1 00% 
error-free data transfer and fast, 
reliable remote control. 
LIST: $295 PS Price: $235 

FastFaxis 1674-001 

WATCOM C8.0/386Prof. 


WATCOM C 8.0/386 is 100% ANSI 
C optimizing compiler/runtime 
library for Intel's 80386 architect- 
ure, generating applications for 32- 
bit protect mode. Features include: 
protected mode version of the 
compiler; VIDEO full-screen source 
-level debugger; MS library-* 
source-compatibility; execution 
profiler; high performance linker; 
graphics library; supports Meta- 
Ware High C 386 runtime calling 
conventions; SAA compatible. 
LIST: $1295 PS Price: $1155 
FastFaxis 1044-004 



SilverComm Library 




Steve Straley's Toolkit 


Tom Rettig's Library 


Ul Developer's Release 






Dis Doc 


Periscope IV 


RE:Source by Genesoft 


SoftProbe 86/TX 


Sourcer 486 w/BIOS pre-proc. 129 

Trapper 1 89 

Zortech C Debugger Call 



CLEAR+forC 169 

Codan 349 

Buzzwords dAnalyst 269 

The Documenter 245 

INSIDE! 119 

MKSLex&Yacc 199 


Poly Doc-SU 1 79 

PC-Lint 1 1 5 


FOR_C w/source 789 

Lahey FORTRAN F77L 549 

Lahey Personal FORTRAN Call 

MS Fortran Opt. Compiler 309 



C Tools Plus - V6.01 98 

C Utility Library 199 

Greenleaf Functions 209 

Greenleaf SuperFunctions 239 

Opt-Tech Sort 1 1 9 

Turbo C Tools by Blais 109 


Code Master II 269 

Essential Graphics v3.0 349 

Graphic 319 

GSS Graphics Devt Toolkit 525 

Halo 279 

HSC Sunscan 289 

LaserControl 1 39 

Matrix Synergy Toolkit 3.0 349 

MetaWINDOWS 209 


PCX Programmer's Toolkit 229 

Sunshow Adv. Image Toolkit 239 






ALL Chargecard 


PVCS Professional 


Capital Equipment Corp. 

.RTLINK -by Pocket Soft 


OS/RAM32 0M 






Source Print 




TLB 5.0 Version Control 




Zortech C++ Tools 





SmartCache ST506 




SmartCache RLL 




SmartCache ESDI 




Disk Mirroring Module 




Emerson UPS 

QEdit TSR 


Model 10 UPS 


RimStar PM:Editor 


Model 20 UPS 


Sage Professional Editor 


Model 40 UPS 


SPF/PC - V2.1 




Vedit + 





EtherCard Plus 


EtherCard Plus/A 


Exsys Professional 
KnowledgePro Windows 
Logic Gem by Sterling Castle 




Erasable Optical Drive 
NT Adv. Math Coprocessors 


Personal Consultant Plus 











Accsys for Paradox w/source 


Intel Math Coprocessors 

Btrieve V5.0 








C-Data Manager w/source 




c-tree by Faircom - source 


J T Fax 9600 


CodeBASE 4 


KickStart I 




KickStart II 


CQL - w/ source 


KickStart III 




LANStor LAN150S 




LaserStor WORM Drive 


Faircom Toolbox Prof. 


Personal Modem 2400 


Faircom Toolbox Special 


QX/12K Modem 


WKS Library 


QX/V.32C Modem 




Seagate 5T- 125-1 20M 


THE PROGRAMMERS SHOP 1-800-421-8006 

The Programmer's Shop is 


The UnMouse 

by MicroTouch 

Why use a mouse to point when 
you have your fingerl The 
UnMouse is a compact, touch- 
sensitive, state-of-the-art pointing 
device providing cursor control, 
graphic input, and function key 
selection. Just touch the glass 
tablet with your finger or the 
stylus. Use it in absolute mode 
with touch points mapping 
directly to the screen, or in 
relative mode, similar to a mouse. 
LIST: $235 PS Price: $219 

FastFaxts 2918-002 

Seagate 5T-4096-1 80M 639 

Seagate 5T-251-1 40M 339 
SentinelScout (kit of 10 keys) 265 
SpeedStor AT 300S 2695 

Smartmodem 2400 459 

The Shadow S VG A1 024K 31 9 

VGA WONDER 256 279 

VGA WONDER 512K 359 




Btrieve Network Version 


Netware SQL 


Netware C Interface 





C talk/Views 


Intek C++ 80386 






Smalltalk/V PM 


Turbo C ++ 


Turbo C ++ Prof. 


Zinc Interface Library 


Zortech C ++ 


Zortech C++ Debugger 


Zortech C ++ Dev. Edition 








Graphics Server SDK 


MKS Toolkit 


MS Windows 3.0 


MS Windows SDK 


OS/286 or 386 


OS/2 PM Toolkit 



Modula-2 Dev. System 229 
RPG II Dev. Systems 1469 

TopSpeed Modula-2 189 

StonyBrookProf. Modula-2 249 


BALER 399 

Carbon Copy Plus 159 

COTERM/220 219 

Dan Bricklin's PageGarden 89 
The Duplicator Toolkit-Pro 3.0 119 

File Shuttle 109 

Flow Charting II Plus 179 


HiJaak 139 

LapLink III 129 

Link & Locate ++ - ROM MSC 349 

Math Advantage 475 

Norton Utilities Advanced 1 09 

PAGINATE by AccuMatics 89 


PC Tools Deluxe 6.0 109 

PC-KWIK Power Pak 119 

Remote2 139 

SpinRite II Call 

Systat & Sysgraph Combo 749 

Time$heet Prof. 135 


graphics-Menu 139 

MetaWare Pascal 386/486 839 

Turbo AS YNCH PLUS 139 

Turbo Pascal 5.5 by Borland 1 09 


Turbo Professional 98 

Turbo Programmer 269 



C Communications Toolkit 1 1 9 

C Worthy w/forms Call 

Greenleaf DataWindows 339 

HI-SCREEN XL Professional 289 


ME WEL Window System 1 49 

POWER SCREEN by Blaise 1 03 

Vitamin C - source, menus 169 

VC Screen - painter 1 1 9 

Vermont Views Obj. + source 899 


ESIX Systems 

ESIX/V 386 Dev. (2 user) 569 

ESIX/V 386 Dev. unltd 769 

Interactive Systems 

Architect Wrkstn Platform 1 1 99 

Architect Wrkstn Developer 1 850 

Santa Cruz Operations 

Unix Operating Sys. 799 

Unix Developer Sys. 895 

VP/ix 286 449 

VP/ix 386 429 

XENIX 286 Dev. Sys. 599 

XENIX 386 Dev. Sys. 689 

Recital Standard SU 699 

WordTech Quicksilver Diamnd.839 


by Micro Planning International 
Your business has projects going 
on all the time. Some need 
coordination, have important 
deadlines and limited budgets. To 
make these projects succeed you 
need realistic pfans. InstaPlan 
highlights resource conflicts and 
problem areas ahead of time. 
InstaPlan utilizes the outline 
approach to planning, has clear 
screen views, on screen help and 
highly presentable charts to 
ensure you manage your projects 
not your software. 
LIST: $99 PS Price: $99 

FastFaxts 1657-001 


by Mortice Kem Systems 
MKS RCS maintains a complete 
history of changes to a file and 
recalls any revision instantly. 
MKS RCS has all the features 
you'll ever need in a revision 
control system - binary file 
support, compression of log files, 
SCCS to RCS conversions, full 
locking capabilities, unlimited 
branching and merging - at a 
price you can afford. 
LIST: $189 PS Price: $175 

FastFaxts 4694)02 

See our ad on page 83. 

C Worthy w/Form & ARCH 

by Solution Systems 

Create a clear, high quality user 
interface with minimal overhead to 
your code. Benefit from 400 tight, 
ready-to-use functions for 
Windows, Menus, Text Editing, 
Message System, Mouse Support, 
Help and much more. 
cwARCHITECT is included to let 
you interactively design and test 
forms without coding. Best of all 
it's flexible to your needs, 
providing high level functions for 
immediate results, yet power and 
functionality for the long-term. 
LIST: $399 PS Price: $359 

FastFaxts 732-095 


by American Cybernetics 

Multi-Edit has always been your 
best text editing value. Now 
version 5.0 adds: Windows/SAA- 
style interface, seamless Mouse 
Support, expanded online help & 
manuals (LOTS of useful 
examples), full EMS support, plus 
hundreds of new features I 
Inexpensive - NOT CHEAP I 
You've gotta see this I 

LIST: $99 PS Price: $95 

FastFaxts 1067-001 



your source for solutions ! 


by Software Research, Inc. 

Let's start with TCAT, our Test Coverage 

Analysis Tool. TCAT uses your source 

code to make your test suites more 

complete than ever before. TCAT 

measures test thoroughness in terms of 

logical branches, Instead of statement 

coverage that common profilers 

use. With TCAT, you work on 

reports that are 8 to 1 times 

more concise and 3 times 

more accurate. 

FastFaxts 11264)11 

LIST: $4,100 

PS Price: $3,995 SoftlVC 


When you finish unit testing with 
TCAT, move on to system level 
testing with S-TCAT, and verify that 
your executive or "driver" programs 
combine the lower level modules 
correctly. With S-TCAT, you can 
double the detection of 
module interface 
errors, which often 
make up over 50% of 
total system errors. 
FastFaxts 1126-012 
, r LIST: $2,850 (Unix) 
Jl f Inc. PS Price: $2,775 



by Wendin 

Replicating functionality built 
deep within MS-DOS was key to 
the birth of WENDIN-DOS PLUS. 
Commented Microsoft C and 
Assembler source code builds 
into an OS/2 like, stand-alone 
host operating system which 
retains MS-DOS compatibility! 
Multiuser! Multitasking! 
Windows Developer's Kit! 
Full Source Code! 
LIST: $249 PS Price: $199 

FastFaxts 305-012 


by Recital Corporation, Inc. 
Yes, it runs your dBASE, 
FoxB ASE and Clipper applica- 
tions on UNIX, XENIX and AIX 
(also VAX/VMS and ULTRIX). But I 
that* s only the beginning of 
Recital. It's a complete relational 
database and 4GL for developer 
and end-user alike. If s also got a 
powerful data dictionary. SQL 
interface and over 350 additional 

LIST: $995 PS Price: $699 
FastFaxts 2039-001 

Dr. Switch- ASE 

by Black & White Int'l, Inc. 
Dr. Switch-ASE turns any size 
Dbase application into a RAM 
resident (TSR) program that 
occupies only 16-20K of RAM; 
Supports Clipper, dBASE III 
and FoxPro. Dr. Switch-ASE 
includes Cut, Paste, Timer, Alarm 
and Macro functions. It supports 
Expanded and Extended memory 
and is fully network compatible. 
LIST: $100 PS Price: $95 

FastFaxts 1178-006 

IMUHilt \>l>ll US SHOP 
CATALOG is the definitive 
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Over 1,700 development products listed, including: 

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Call today for this 
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Credit card orders processed only when product is shipped. All prices subject to change. Int'l. prices will vary. 


George Bond 


Strictly for Personal Information 

Personal Information Managers 
(PIMs) have had a tough time in the 
world. There's a passel of them on 
the market, but they don't sell very well. 
And like Rodney Dangerf ield, they don't 
get no respect. It's a shame, because a 
PIM can be a very useful tool. 

If you're normally a neatnik, an orga- 
nized person who loves lists and time- 
line wall charts and loose-leaf notebooks 
with lots of schedulers, list pages, and 
dividers, a PIM can automate much of 
the drudge work that you now do man- 
ually. It can let you put more effort into 
the content and less into the structuring 
of your work. 

If you're one of us organizational 
slobs, wallowing at a desk stacked with 
notes scribbled on old Moon Pie wrap- 
pers and coffee-stained file cards, with 
Post-it notes almost obscuring your ter- 
minal screen, a PIM can be even more 
valuable. It lets you move the mess— as a 
mess— into your computer in ways that 
allow you to actually find things later. 

Naturally, no single information-man- 
agement program could very well serve 
masters as diverse as neatniks and slobs. 
And that may be the heart of the PIMs' 
problem: People look at one or two PIMs 
and assume they all are about the same. 
It's not so. 

Talking about a PIM is a lot like talk- 
ing about California. Describing San 
Francisco really doesn't say much about 
San Diego, let alone Merced or Mad- 
eline. The discussion needs focus to 
make any sense, and the focus needs to 
deal with the listener's interests. 

The specific functions that are com- 
bined variously to make a PIM are calen- 
dars, auto-dialers, telephone books and 
logs (records of conversations), to-do 
lists, prioritized to-do lists, tickler files, 
smart date-handling, and reports (see 
the table). There's also the ability to sort, 
filter, and interrelate your information 
and look at it in different ways. Some of 
the PIMs add to their utility by letting 
you run them as TSR programs. 

To bring some focus to a discussion of 
PIMs, I've divided them into two general 
classes: free-form and structured. There 
are wide variations within these classes, 
but they describe the essence of how 
PIMs work. 

Lotus Agenda, for example, is a free- 
form PIM. Agenda seems to have been 
designed to send would-be users back to 
tossing scraps of paper into a shoe box as 
an information-management technique. 
And it has to be one of the most dif f icult- 
to-learn programs that have ever been 
written. It is work, hard work, and a lot 

of it, to learn. But once you've figured it 
out, Agenda is indeed a powerful, flexi- 
ble tool for managing many sorts of tex- 
tual information. (For a review of Agen- 
da, see "The Database Redefined," 
December 1988 BYTE.) 

IBM Current, on the other hand, is a 
structured PIM. Current is a Microsoft 
Windows-based program. It would be a 
standout if it weren't for its limited 
record capacity (a category can have no 
more than 4000 items in it) and its field- 
size limit. The only required— and non- 
removable—field in Current's records is 
limited to 25 characters for people and 
project names, and 16 characters for cal- 
endar, expense, task, and to-do entries. 
In all other respects, Current is a do- 
everything program that works well and 
is a pleasure to use. (For a review of Cur- 
rent, see "Jack of All Trades," March 

The free-form programs reviewed 
here are askSam, Info Select, and Mem- 
oryMate. The structured ones are Active 
Life, Instant Recall, PackRat, and Who- 
What-When. (Incidentally, what is sold 
now as Instant Recall is not the same In- 
stant Recall that was distributed as 
shareware several years ago. That pro- 
gram has been transformed into Mem- 

tied 7/11/90 <-1> 7 itens 0:00 (7 undun> Tim 7/12/90 ■ h itens 0:35 (0:00 openjk 

Pile Edil Select Juggle Schedules Nul 

Calendar Option;; 

Scheilriles v:M> V Ihu //I2/9U 

'+l-'-M-0'lirt rwwia:r5Hnff «5 

11:80a FREE (?:0ll) 

sanple - Lunch -r ( 1: OH) 
2:08p FREE (8:1,?;) 

sanple - Send birthday card to . 
ft:45p sanple - Cal Laura -r (:15) 
>»:'■, [i sanple - Call Kin t* arrange lu 
9:U5p sanple - Workout at gyn -r (1:1 
B:5Bp sanple - Back-up IID Files -r (: 

2:3Sp>SGnple - Prepare an~d send info 

1:B8p sanple - Lunch -r (1:00) 

2:i*5p sample - L'a]l Laurq -r \vt ) 

3:0lip sanple - Back-up HD files -r ( 


Active Life 

Active Life 's 
smart calendar 
shows you at a 
glance, in bold 
type, your 
appointments and 
the time you have 
free. In light type, 
it suggests times to 
accomplish your 

Active Life is the only shareware prod- 
uct of the group. It's available for 
Microsoft's OS/2 Presentation Manager 
(PM), Windows 3.0, Windows/286, or 
Windows/386, and in a run-time Win- 

dows version for DOS. 

The heart of Active Life is its smart 
calendar. Unlike many of the PIMs, Ac- 
tive Life does not differentiate between 
tasks and appointments; it displays both 

on the same calendar. The rationale for 
this is that tasks take time and affect any 

Most PIMs make you go back and 
forth from tasks and calendar views to 
see where you've committed your time. 
By displaying both tasks and appoint- 
ments together, Active Life gives you a 
much clearer idea of what your time com- 
mitments are. This, I think, is an emi- 
nently sensible approach . 

Active Life allows automatic repetitive 
scheduling (e.g., a meeting held at the 
same time daily, weekly, or monthly), 
alarms, and easy juggling of appoint- 
ment schedules with a mouse or a key- 
board. The program also automatically 
archives each day's records after all 
tasks are marked as done. 

Active Life enhances the regular Win- 
dows card file for its notebook (the 
notebook is not available in the PM 
version). When combined with the tele- 
phone dialer, it becomes the communi- 
cation module. Multiple notebooks are 


supported, which helps in organizing 
textual information. You can create tele- 
phone books in the notebook as they are 
in Windows, and existing Windows card 
files and ASCII text files and databases 
can be imported directly to a notebook. 

Data searches are done with simple text 
strings. Its reporting capability is limited 
to printing your daily schedule and a 
two-month calendar. 

While Active Life doesn't have all the 
features of some of the other PIMs I 

looked at, it allows thorough control of 
your activities. And because it closely 
follows the Windows standard, it is a 
breeze to learn. In addition, because it is 
shareware, you can try it out before you 
buy it. 



active file: 'ffltii j il fffi i 
records: wZ 

file size: 321,719 

■ Indexed ■ 

Active file ope 

update Tagged reco- 

nutate last record 

ite psfraM 

askSam can easily 
deal with big 
chunks of data, 
and its main 
menu, as shown 
here, gives you 
plenty of options 
for managing and 
updating the 
information files. 

Handling large volumes of text is ask- 
Sam 's real strength. If your infor- 
mation comes primarily in big chunks, 
then you should give serious consider- 
ation to this program. 

As with Agenda, askSam' s learning 
curve is fairly steep. Although many 
basic operations are menu-driven, the 
more complex operations require pro- 
gramming in a language that is not sim- 
ple. For example, here's a fragment of 
sort-request code: 





You can enter information manually 
or by importing ASCII files. Records 
can link to external graphical files, and 
some hypertext capability is built in. You 
can also store data in a totally free for- 
mat or a traditional fielded format. Its 
powerful reporting capability (using lan- 
guage like the sort fragment above) can 
generate printed ASCII files that other 

programs can also use. 

Within a file, you can find informa- 
tion using sophisticated full-text search 
procedures, including variable word 
proximity (e.g., "locate only records in 
which search string 1 is in x relation to 
search string 2"). This feature allows 
you to easily find the notes on, say, the 
times you talked with Harry about the 
Acme Building project. It handles dates 
with a moderate degree of intelligence: 
Dates entered without a year are treated 
as being in the current year; months can 
be names with the minimum nonam- 
biguous string (e.g., N for November, J A 
for January, and J UN for June); days 
within the current Sunday to Saturday 
cycle can be entered as SU, MO, TU, and 
so on. Multiple Boolean operators in a 
single-search command are supported. A 
hot key calls up an auto-dialer that can 
seek out telephone numbers on the 

askSam has no calendar/scheduler or 
telephone book as such, but it is possible 
to program them. The telephone book re- 
quires nothing more than a text file of the 
appropriate information and simple 
string searches. A very smart calen- 
dar/scheduler could be made using ask- 
Sam 's calendar command and saved 
macros to build ad hoc daily, weekly, 
monthly, or whatever views of text files 
containing the necessary information. 

et speaker for Rotary nesting next I flcwe fl 


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Mayor Siith on 

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Sue said to expect a two ueck delay. 

m% 6c "fit to '"'ilii 1 \< #rit/p -d;lii. i 'ftit 

Info Select 

Info Select 
emulates a desktop 
littered with 
several notes. As 
you browse from 
one note to 
another, the 
brightly framed 
"active window" 
moves to the 
screen location of 
the note you 

If you are an inveterate scribbler of 
memos to yourself or a slave to Post-it 
notes, check out Info Select. This is Tor- 
nado Notes grown up. The concept is the 
same— manipulating electronic stacks of 
paper on your virtual desktop— and you 
can use it as a TSR program. 

Data entry is totally free-form, with 
only kludges available to impose some 
structure. For example, you prefix dates 
in tickler-file entries with a ** string. A 
tickler command will search an entire 
stack for any entries with ** followed by 
the current or earlier date and will put 
what it finds in a new window. It's not 
elegant, but it works. 

The program will also create a "linear 
calendar"— a year's worth of dates, 




Strictly for Personal information 



Each PIM uses a 

combination of functions to help you manage your information (•= 

yes; O 

= no). 




DOS version 





Hard disk 

Calendar Auto- 









Active Life 1.1 





• • 







askSam 4.2 





O • 







Info Select 












Instant Recall 1.2 





• • 







MemoryMate 3.04R 





o o 







PackRat 2.0 





• • 












• • 







* Free-form PIM; you can add structure to create the function. 

1 Distributed as shareware and available on BIX. 

2 DOS 3.0 or higher for memory-resident operation. 

3 720K-byte or 1 .2K-byte floppy disk drive required. 

listed one under the other— that can form 
the basis of a scheduling calendar. 
Again, it's pretty primitive, but it works. 

You 're on your own as far as telephone 
books go. This is no problem, since all 
you need to do is create lists of names and 
telephone numbers in any way you want. 
You can search on any part of the list, and 
an auto-dialer will place the call. The 
auto-dialer can seek out a telephone in 
any text on the screen, not just in some- 
thing formatted as a telephone book. 

To enter information into Info Select, 

you just open a window and start typing. 
You can also import ASCII text and sim- 
ple database files. When you're done, 
press Escape twice to get out of the edi- 
tor. Your note will be at the top of the 
current stack. To find information from 
the stack, you issue the get command 
and type the string you want to locate. 
When you press Return, Info Select 
creates a temporary substack of all the 
windows containing that string. You can 
then browse the stack with the up- and 
down-arrow keys. Report writing is 

limited, but it is adequate for memos and 
other nondemanding uses. 

The only thing I don't like about Info 
Select is its default screen display, which 
emulates a desktop littered with many 
notes. As you browse from window to 
window, the brightly framed "active 
window" jumps around the screen as you 
change windows, rather than being an- 
chored in one position. This makes scan- 
ning text a bit like following PacMan 
through its maze. Fortunately, you can 
change the default. 


Instant Recall 's 
biggest strengths 
are its date 
handling and 
its pop-up 
calendar, which 
make it easy to 
refer to past or 
future dates 
without leaving 
the program. 

Instant Recall is a very business-like 
program. Its command set is consis- 
tent. Its screens are clean and unambigu- 
ous. You can issue commands using an 
Alt-character key combination or with a 
mouse and pull-down menus. Instant Re- 
call's structure is rigid but useful. You 

can enter information as a note (up to 
about 30 pages long), a task, a schedule 
item, or a people (name and address) en- 
try. An auto-dialer can call the telephone 
numbers in the people entries. It can run 
as a TSR program. 
The built-in editor allows block moves 

and search and replace. You can use the 
clipboard for traditional cut-and-paste 
work. Conversion utilities are included to 
import ASCII, SideKick, Tornado, and 
MemoryMate files. You can search text 
using simple Boolean operators. 

Dates are handled well. For example, 
the program knows how to convert "next 
Wednesday" to the proper month and 
date. Time handling is equally smart, in- 
cluding recognition of noon and mid- 
night. Entries are checked for time con- 
flicts. You can enter recurring events 
automatically. A pop-up calendar makes 
it easy to determine past and future dates 
without leaving the program or referring 
to paper. And you can use a timer to 
track and record time spent on individual 

Instant Recall supports schedules and 
task lists for as many as 64 individuals 
organized in up to 14 groups. You can 
organize and view the information by 
text, category, priority , person assigned, 
date, or combinations of these cate- 




Staring at your computer screen wait- 
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"- !-:-!-- 







|[ ||j"| - 

i ro 



". i : 


--RTF '■ 

. — , . 


You 're going to appreciate the enhance- 
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2.5 from the new pop-up calculator 
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the rewritten user's manual. Of course, 
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It's all there; from descriptive statistics 
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Microstat-II runs up to eight times faster 
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mising accuracy. 

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Computer Language 

To find out how Microstat-Il, Release 
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CoaflM I cations: 
• Call 

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Action Item: 

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ty awl lenity ^ foaorufete a*l flBlat Ttrto. 


MemoryMate can 
help organize your 
scraps of diverse 
information in 
ways that make 
sense to you, as 
shown here. For 
people who keep 
lots of bits and 
pieces of 
MemoryMate is 
hard to beat. 

Press tte fre^ pits key «t the 

Created: 5/5/88 Hod! fled: b/ 

MemoryMate is probably the best in- 
formation manager available for 
people who hate to organize themselves. 
It's not fancy. It doesn't have spiff y 
graphics. It doesn't beep at you to remind 
you of that 3:30 meeting. But you can 
take that mess you call a desk, stuff it 
into MemoryMate, and voila! You're 

MemoryMate, which can run as a TSR 
program, indexes every word you put in 
it. You just type in the information or im- 
port it as an ASCII file from some other 
source. When you want to locate some- 
thing, you issue the Find command and 
the string you are looking for. The string 

can be a word, text with wild cards, a 
date in the text, the date the material was 
entered or last revised, or a range of 
dates. You can use Boolean operators in 
the search string, too. You can also tell 
the program to display a memo on a spe- 
cific date, and the memo will pop up 
automatically on that date. 

However, what's important is that 
once you enter data, you can retrieve it 
with simple keyword searches, not spe- 
cial coding. If you're one of those people 
who have to deal with scraps of diverse 
information that comes in at random 
times in random ways, MemoryMate is 
hard to beat. 

(ilc \ m Calendar llsi geaicli &dd Attach piiont Ticjjlcfg 

$ II I « 

12 3*567 

8 9 IB 11 1? 13 1* 
15 16 17 18 19 28 21 
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July 1998 

Today is... 

July 12th 

02:31:20 PM 





Cinik, Charles L 
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Garrie. Mr- David B, 

[ 'limit: Book (4 Found) 


Packard Arms uace 
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PackRat takes full 
advantage of the 
environment to 
give you menus 
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can select that 
help make 
learning this big, 
complex program 

PackRat is a full-featured Microsoft 
Windows-based PIM. It was also the 
first major PIM written for Windows- 
long before IBM Current was released. 
It's a highly structured program. If you 
use PackRat, you must do things Pack- 

Rat's way. Whether you like that way or 
not is a question of style, not of capabil- 
ity. PackRat is a very good program that 
does what it says it does, easily and 



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Strictly for Personal information 

PackRat can maintain a detailed tele- 
phone book and log information about 
conversations. In addition, it supports a 
keyword-indexed card file, with each 
card capable of containing 32K bytes of 
information. PackRat also maintains a 
prioritized task list, a calendar, lists of 
disk files, and expense records; it sorts, 
filters, and displays information from 
multiple areas (called facilities) in a 

single report; and it can construct rela- 
tionships among information in various 

It's easy to begin using PackRat. The 
program's close adherence to Windows 
conventions is a decided plus in learning 
the program. However, learning to tap 
the full potential of PackRat requires a 
fair amount of application on your part. 
It's a big, complex program. 




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is primarily a task 
manager, but it 
also helps you 
keep track of a 
large number of 
people. And any of 
those people can 
be easily assigned 
to one or more 
particular tasks. 

Who-What-When is clearly meant to 
be used by managers of projects in- 
volving many people. In addition to the 
usual personal calendar, it automatically 
creates and maintains calendars for 
every person and project entered into the 
program. These other calendars are up- 
dated automatically when you delegate 
tasks or set milestones for projects in 
your personal calendar. 

Although Who-What-When operates 
in the foreground only, it includes a TSR 
alarm that can pop up over other pro- 
grams. It has a built-in printing format 
for 5%- by 8J4-inch pages; these pages fit 

in standard binders for paper-based per- 
sonal organizers. You must supply the 
needed compressed-character codes for 
your printer. 

Three programmable hot keys allow 
you to substitute, on the fly, your own 
word processor, spreadsheet, and tele- 
communications package for the built-in 
memo writer, calculator, and auto-dial- 
er. Who-What-When also allows an un- 
limited number of milestones to be asso- 
ciated with a project, making tight 
controls much easier. In fact, you could 
say that Who-What-When is a project 
manager for very small projects. 

Free-Form or Structured? 

In deciding on whether a free-form or 
structured PIM best fits your needs, you 
should consider this: Free-form PIMs 
are probably better suited to people who 
take a more relaxed view of organizing 
their lives. Because such PIMs are free- 
form, there is no structure to figure out 
before you enter something— you just 
load the program and start typing. You 
can add varying amounts of structure 
to any of them if you want to, and you 
probably will. Totally free-form data 

has its limitations. 

Ease of use is a strong point of free- 
form PIMs. There are exceptions, how- 
ever. For example, askSam is relatively 
easy to get started with if you have any 
experience at all with computerized data- 
bases. But becoming skilled with askSam 
takes time and effort, because its power- 
ful query language is also complex. 

There is no consistent design metaphor 
for free-form PIMs. The askSam pro- 
gram can support records with formal 



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Your Left Brain Needs Clipper. 

Organization is everything in business. The left 
side of your brain knows this. It wants order. Economy. 
Precision. All reasons your left brain appreciates 
Clipper 5.0, the premier application development 
system for PCs. 

An open architecture programming system, Clipper 
provides a flexible environment for developing pre- 
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requirements. Its compiler generates .EXE files for 
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So, if you're charged with coaxing order out of chaos 
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askSam Systems 

(askSam 4.2) 
P.O. Box 1428 
Perry, FL 32347 
(800) 327-5726 
Inquiry 889. 

Broderbund Software, Inc. 

(MemoryMate 3.04R) 

17 Paul Dr. 

San Rafael, CA 94903 


Inquiry 890. 

Chronologic Corp. 

(Instant Recall 1.2) 

5151 North Oracle, Suite 2 10 

Tucson, AZ 85704 

(602) 293-3100 

Inquiry 891. 

Chronos Software, Inc. 

(Who- What- When 2.0) 
555 De Haro St., Suite 240 
San Francisco, CA 94107 
(415) 626-4244 
Inquiry 892. 

Micro Logic Corp. 

(Info Select) 
P.O. Box 174 
Hackensack, NJ 07602 
(800) 342-5930 
Inquiry 893. 

1 Soft Corp. 

(Active Life 1.1) 
P.O. Box 1320 
Middletown, CA 95461 
(800) 326-4391 
Inquiry 894. 

Polaris Software 


613 West Valley Pkwy. 



Inquiry 895. 

Suite 323 

dinner 5 

The Application Development Standard 


m Nantucket 

Circle 194 on Reader Service Card 

Nantucket Corporation, 12555 West Jefferson Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90066. 213/390-7923 FAX: 213/397-5469 TELEX: 650-2574125. Nantucket, the Nantucket 
logo and Clipper are registered trademarks of Nantucket Corporation. Other brand and product names are used lor identification purposes only and may be trademarks or 

fields as well as unstructured text. You 
can use complex Boolean searches and 
simple string searches to locate informa- 
tion. (Agenda uses data structures that 
are vaguely like fields, to which you can 
attach extended notes. In addition, Agen- 
da can sort material automatically by 
keywords and dates and do simple string 

Info Select is a hard-core scraps-of- 
paper system— its default screens even 
look like a littered desktop. It finds spe- 
cific information using string searches. 


MemoryMate mimics scraps of paper, 
too, but keeps them neatly out of sight 
until you call for them with simple Bool- 
ean searches. It supports forms with 
pseudof ields (fields not as strongly typed 
as in a traditional database manager like 
dBASE IV or Paradox). 

The structured PIMs offer diversity in 
their individual look and feel, too. The 
Microsoft Windows- and OS/2-based 
programs Active Life and PackRat, not 
surprisingly, are more graphical. But 
even character-based, structured PIMs, 
such as Instant Recall and Who-What- 
When, have their own personality. 

An area in which the structured PIMs 
stand out is calendars and related tickler 
files. Much of what you do in your daily 
life is done repeatedly in predictable pat- 
terns: staff meetings on alternate Tues- 
days at 10:30 a.m., semi-annual staff 
performance evaluations, and a mort- 
gage payment that is due on the 23rd of 
each month. Each of the structured PIMs 
here lets you enter such information once 
and specify how it should be repeated. 
Then you can forget about any future 
data entry for those events. It's won- 

With such variety and richness of 
functions available, choosing a PIM for 
day-in and day-out use is tough. I have 
weaseled in my own life and use three 
different ones: MemoryMate, Current, 
and Agenda. I wish a single program 
would combine the features I want. 

For me, MemoryMate is a sort of 
super notebook in which I quickly scrib- 
ble down random thoughts and bits of in- 
formation. Current is my daily-use PIM, 
functioning as an electronic Day-Timer, 
tickler file, people finder, and telephone 
book. Agenda is my tool for dealing with 
the large volumes of information I get 
electronically from on-line services and 
databases and for managing large-scale, 
long-term projects. If I were forced to de- 
pend on only one, it would be Memory- 
Mate, because of its ease of use, flexibil- 
ity, and TSR capability. 

What you need in the way of a PIM 
truly depends on what you do. A PIM is a 
personal program. Don't look at just one 
or two and decide they aren't for you. 
Try a whole bunch of them. One is al- 
most certainly what you have been look- 
ing for for a long time. ■ 

George Bond is a consultant in communi- 
cations—electronic, traditional print, 
and person-to-person. He has more than 
20 years' editorial and management ex- 
perience with major information compa- 
nies and is cofounder of BIX. You can 
reach him on BIX as "gbond. " 

'our Right Brain Wants It ! 

While your left brain duly notes the benefits of 
Clipper programming, the right half is wild about how 
you get them! Imagine a programming environment 
with no limits. The language can be easily extended 

with your own routines and you can even integrate 
code from other languages, like C and Assembler. 
You're always free to configure Clipper to suit your 
own programming style. 

Hey, let's say you want to read and write data stored 
on larger platforms or in other PC formats. It's no 
problem since Clipper 5.0 sports a replaceable database 
driver, even allowing multiple drivers to be used 
concurrently in the same application! And SQL queries 
will be a breeze, using familiar Clipper-code. There's no 
end to the possibilities you can pursue with Clipper! 

Clipper's open architecture system will fire your 
imagination with unparalleled freedom. It's an 
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So, if you're ready to let your imagination inspire your 
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Clipper® 5. 

The Application Development Standard 



Circle 195 on Reculer Service Card 

Nantucket Corporation, 12555 West Jefferson Boulevard. Los Angeles. CA 90066. 213/390-7923 FAX; 213/397-5469 TELEX: 650-2574125. Nantucket, the Nantucket 
logo and Clipper are registered trademarks of Nantucket Corporation. Other brand and product names are used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or 
registered trademarksof their resoectiveholders. Entire contents coovriaht 1990 Nantucket Corrioratinn 

Barry Nance 


Speaking OS/2's Native Language 

System BrowscirReldDcsciiptor 

Objcd/1 -Objectl.Dof 
Workspace - (untilled) 

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Pimt Manage' 

Object/1 is a pure 
environment for 
under OS/2 's PM. 
Its appearance is 
with the object 
browser, source 
code editor, and 
interface builder 
integrated into the 
total package. 

Graphical user interfaces, including 
OS/2's Presentation Manager, 
create object-oriented environ- 
ments for users. Each mouse-sensitive 
region, be it an arrow on a scroll bar or an 
icon, is an object in the truest sense. Yet 
most PM programs are still being written 
in languages, such as C, that have no in- 
nate understanding of objects. As a re- 
sult, programmers have to translate their 
designs to a non-object-oriented ap- 

Object/1, a PM application develop- 
ment system from MDBS, is at the fore- 
front of OS/2 software technology in sev- 
eral ways. The C++ -like programming 
language is fully object-oriented. The 
forms painter tool for designing PM 
screens builds interfaces that require a 

Object/1 version 1.0 


MDBS, Inc. 

1 834 Walden Office Sq., Suite 250 

Schaumburg, IL 60173 

(708) 303-6300 

Hardware Needed 

IBM AT, PS/2, or compatible with a hard 
disk drive and 4 MB of RAM; a mouse 
and a VGA display are recommended 

Software Needed 

OS/21.1 or higher 



Inquiry 887. 

minimum of procedural code to manage. 
Object/ 1 includes a relational database 
manager (called TBL), plus a tool for 
laying out the design of your relational 
tables. The source code browser under- 
stands the object-oriented terminology 
and mechanisms of methods, classes, in- 
stances, and inheritance. You can also 
use Object/ 1 to develop Systems Applica- 
tion Architecture-compliant user inter- 

The Rundown 

I tested Object/1 using a 12-MHz AT 
clone running OS/2 Standard Edition 1 . 2 
with 4 megabytes of memory and a 
Microsoft Mouse. Object/ 1 requires a 
minimum of 4 MB of RAM. If you 
choose to load the demonstration and tu- 
torial files, it takes up about 4 MB of 
hard disk space. 

The core of Object/1 is a 140K-byte 
kernel/interpreter program. This kernel 
runs an application-specific image file of 
compiled classes and methods. The de- 
fault 780K-byte image file that is sup- 
plied with Object/ 1 provides the develop- 
ment environment in which you create 
applications. Each application that you 
develop consists of the application image 
file, any data files you need to distribute, 
and a copy of the kernel/interpreter pro- 
gram file. 

The Object/1 development environ- 
ment is comprehensive. It includes a set 
of browsers (object-oriented editors) for 
viewing and modifying classes and their 
methods. In addition to the screen and 
database design tools, the environment 
includes a debugger, tools for tracing the 
hierarchy of class and method relation- 

ships, a useful tutorial, and the source 
code (1.4 MB worth) for the built-in 
classes. Getting the class source code is 
equivalent to getting library source code 
when you buy a C compiler— a definite 
advantage, even if you only use it for 

The Object/ 1 documentation consists 
of a 130-page tutorial and a 790-page ref- 
erence manual. The reference manual is 
broken down into sections: operations 
guide, developer's guide, TBL database 
interface, MDBS IV database interface, 
Structured Query Language (SQL) Serv- 
er database interface, class reference (the 
largest section), and a TBL reference. 

Although the tutorial warns that it is 
not a comprehensive introduction to ob- 
ject-oriented programming, I put it to the 
test by asking a C programmer friend to 
run through it and give me his com- 
ments. When he finished, he and I both 
agreed that this first introduction to OOP 
was more than adequate and that he was 
ready for more advanced, real-world 

In the class reference section, each 
class is described in terms of its super- 
class, its subclasses, its stability (likeli- 
hood of changing in later releases), and 
its methods. The methods (functions) of 
a class are shown as either class methods 
(those that you can use to create a new 
instance) or instance methods (those that 
you can use to manipulate an existing in- 
stance). The library of methods you get 
with Object/1 encompasses just about 
everything you might want to do under 
OS/2 and PM. 

The class reference section is useful, 
but I found the descriptions of most 
methods too terse. To Object/1 's credit, 
though, the supplied source code is an 
easy-to-use adjunct to the class refer- 
ence. You can arrange and view the 
source files by hierarchical category or 
in simple alphabetical order. I also found 
the library source code to be well com- 
mented and modular. 

The Language of OOP 

The Object/1 language is more like 
Smalltalk than like C++. Even so, pro- 
grammers familiar with either C or C++ 
will find the transition to Object/I syntax 
and semantics an easy one. The most dif- 
ficult aspect of the adjustment for a tradi- 
tional C programmer is the lack of proce- 
dural (non-OOP) facilities. While C++ 
adds OOP to an existing procedural lan- 
guage and lets you drop back to old-style 
C coding practices, Object/1 is a pure 
OOP environment. For example, it dis- 
courages global variables. And it does 



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Speaking OS/2's Native Language 

Listing 1: Bound to a graphical button labeled "Add, " this method is 
activated every time you click on the button. The button itself was created 
interactively with the forms painter. Creating the PM button and handling the 
associated action would have been more complex and time-consuming in C. 

/* Add the current information to the contact/ company database. */ 

method SalesLeads 


local hPointer; 

add (self, mp2, mp2) 

/* Show an hourglass for the mouse cursor */ 
hPointer = setPointer (systemPointer(SPTR_WAIT)); 

/* add the record */ 

addRecord (table, fillFromScreen(self)); 

/* Reset the mouse cursor */ 
setPointer (hPointer); 
return nil; 


not provide the means to code methods 
that are not associated with a particular 
class. Why? It's easy in C++ to fall into 
the bad habit of coding global variables 
and non-OOP functions, even though you 
intended at the outset to stay within the 
bounds of good object-oriented style. 
Bad habits come back to haunt you dur- 
ing the testing and maintenance phases. 
Most bugs and time-consuming work- 
arounds are attributable to the non-OOP 
code. These pitfalls are not present in 
Object/ 1. 

However, if you find pure OOP too re- 
stricting, Object/ 1 has an escape mech- 
anism. You can easily interface to Ob- 
ject/1 code with dynamic link libraries. 
By supplying some functions in a DLL 
(you will need a separate C compiler to 
build it), you can, if you wish, develop a 
portion of your application in a procedur- 
al fashion. 

Listing 1 is an example of Object/ 1 
code. It is an _add_ method that is auto- 
matically invoked when the user clicks 
on the Add button. This automatic invo- 
cation is established in the forms painter. 
The _add_ method sends an _addRec- 
ord_ message to a relational table stored 
in the _table_ instance variable. 

Designing and Using Forms 

Besides letting you place push buttons, 
list boxes, dialog boxes, menus, entry 
fields, and other PM objects exactly 
where you want them, the forms painter 
uses your design to generate Object/ 1 
source code that implements the screen 
you have laid out. 

When a window control is activated at 
run time, the generated code makes the 
control behave predictably (e.g., list 
boxes know how to scroll, text editors 
know how to accept input, and push but- 
tons can be pressed). 

Controls pass data to your application 
through methods. Object/1 generates a 
source code template for each method; 
you then edit the generated source code 
to make it perform the specific task you 
want. For example, you might place a 
push button on the screen, label it 
"Add," associate it with a method called 
_add_, and then write the code given in 
the listing. At run time, when the user of 
your software clicks on the Add button, 
the method you have coded is automati- 
cally invoked. 

Much of the productivity gain you re- 
alize under Object/1 is achieved in the 
forms painter. 

Databases, Data Exchange, 
and Browsers 

TBL consists of a library of methods for 
defining and manipulating data tables. 
Through them, you can create new tables 
and records and perform other tradition- 
al DBMS tasks. Record retrieval via mul- 
tifield indexes is supported, as well as 
field-at-a-time updating. TBL provides 
record-locking and network error-trap- 
ping mechanisms so you can write multi- 
user applications that run on an OS/2- 
based LAN. 

TBLDesigner is an Object/ 1 tool for 
designing your application's relational 
tables. You open TBLDesigner, a PM 
window like the rest of Object/ 1, by se- 
lecting Tools and then TBLDesigner 
from one of the Object/ 1 browser win- 
dows. As you define a field, you can 
specify the field name, a field descrip- 
tion, access codes (for field-level securi- 
ty), field length, and data type. The data 
type can be one of the following: logic 
(Boolean), integer, numeric (float/dou- 
ble), or string. I n addition, you can spec- 
ify that one or more of the fields be an 




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12Mhz 286. 

Runs the latest software with 
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And it's fully expandable. 

© 1990 Sharp Electronics Corp. Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp. 


With a speedy 
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THE PC-6220. 

About the only thing you 
don't get with the Sharp 
PC6220 is another piece 
of luggage to carry. It's 
weighs only 43 lbs., yet 
has the kind of power you 
need. To run Windows T . M 
To do desktop publishing. 
To have instant access to 
your programs and files. 
Find out how you can 
put a serious computer in 
your briefcase. Without 
taking everything out of it. 


Speaking OS/2's Native Language 

index into the table you design. 

Object/ 1 library routines for accessing 
MDBS IV and SQL Server databases are 
also supplied. 

The Dynamic Data Exchange protocol 
consists of interprocess messages and 
guidelines that OS/2 PM applications can 
use to share data. Object/ 1 provides 
methods (in compiled and source code 
form) that you can use to signal other 
DDE-conforming applications. 

Methods are also provided for the ac- 

tual sharing of data. The classes related 
to DDE are the DDE class, DDE client 
class, and DDE server class. Some of the 
methods in these classes are .build- 
DDE., _getFormat_, _postDataRe- 
sponse_, _execute_, and _postData_. 
It's fairly easy to use these DDE methods 
to, for example, import and export data 
to and from such DDE-conforming PM 
applications as Microsoft Excel. 

Object/ 1 uses the concept of a browser 
for the editing and inspection of source 


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Definition ! 



T{z)= / t z - l e-Ut 


/ \ *■ / ix —ix\ ' 


2 r 

erf (z) = — e z dz 

v^ Jo 


i r 

J (z) = — / cos(zs'm6)d0 
71 Jo 



fc=i i 

(). can achieve incredible precision in 
repressions. " 

msed program has such typographical (Esthetics. . . 


^-building ^ I ± 

puters, there's ^ \ ^F 


skette, call 

I N C 
irself . 1 2 Madrona Avenue 
Mill Valley, CA 94941 

is an American Mathematical Society TM. Bitstream and Fontware 
to qualified organizations. Inquire about PTI distributorships. This 

code. Fully integrated within the Ob- 
ject/1 environment, a browser can be 
used to collect a set of system-supplied 
and programmer-written methods into a 
project (application). A list of methods is 
displayed in a list box; you can see the 
source code for a method by simply se- 
lecting the method's name. You can elect 
to sort the contents of the list box alpha- 
betically for easy searching or by class 

The system browser is augmented by 
the heritage browser, the implementors 
tool, and the senders tool. You use the 
heritage browser to see the class name, 
the associated methods for the current 
class, and the superclasses for that class. 
The implementors tool displays the class- 
es that contain a given method. You use 
the senders tool to see which methods use 
another given method. 

Help for PM 

The inspector tool is a debugging aid that 
lets you view the instance variables of an 
object. The debugger tool is activated 
when the notif ier tool displays a run-time 
error message, which in Object/1 can 
often be that a class receives an unrecog- 
nized message. A list box of message 
events is displayed; as you select an item, 
the source code of the method is shown 
along with the variables associated with 
the method. Selecting a variable displays 
its current value. You use the breakpoint 
tool to set breakpoints in a method. 
When a breakpoint is reached, a break- 
point dialog box appears, and you see the 
sequence of messages that have been 
sent, along with the source code of the 
methods and the values of variables asso- 
ciated with those methods. 

I found the debugging aids supplied 
with Object/ 1 to be some of the friendli- 
est and most helpful I have ever seen. 
Even when a run-time error occurred as 
the result of a coding error on my part, I 
could easily see the history of message 
events and the values of variables at the 
point of error. I could quickly figure out 
what I had done wrong. 

If you have developed PM applications 
in C before, you know how time-con- 
suming and error-prone it is to set up and 
manage a PM window and all its objects. 
The Object/ 1 environment relieves you of 
much of the dirty work and lets you con- 
centrate on the application itself. It is 
also an interesting, useful implementa- 
tion of OOP. ■ 

Barry Nance is the author of Network 
Programming in C and works in the R&D 
department ofPRC, Inc. (Hartford, CT). 
He can be reached on BIX as "barryn. " 


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Dual-Page Duel: Two High-Resolution Monitors Square Off 

Radius 's 21 -inch monitor includes a controller-based 
VGA chip and supports either PCs or Macs. 

Cornerstone 's DualPage PC offers 1600- by 1280-pixel 
resolution and an upgrade path to 4 or 16 gray scales. 

While high-resolution, two-page 
displays may be a desktop pub- 
lisher's most prayed-for periph- 
eral, they're not just for desktop publish- 
ing anymore. Large-screen, paper-white 
monitors are also a staple for CAD, and 
they're making inroads in other areas. 
Spreadsheet users can increase produc- 
tivity with a monitor that shows signifi- 
cantly more cells. Multitasking applica- 
tions, such as Windows 3.0, make use of 
large-screen displays, too. 

The bottom line is that high-resolution 
monitors, like Radius's new TPD/21 and 
Cornerstone Technology's DualPage 
PC, are becoming mainstream items in 
the PC market. With one or two caveats, 
both of these monitors perform up to 
specifications (see the table). 

Two-Page Basics 

Both of the reviewed monitors come with 
a dedicated 16-bit controller (which can 
also be used in an 8-bit slot). Each also 
has a tilt/swivel stand, plus video and AC 
inputs. Spartan controls consist of an on/ 
off switch, an LED power-on light, and 
brightness and contrast knobs; I would 
also have liked to have vertical and hori- 
zontal size and positioning controls. De- 
pending on which controller card you 
buy, the Radius TPD/21 runs with Macs 

or PCs, so it includes an A/B switch that 
alters the image size to conform to Mac 
or PC standards. 

When they're the only monitor on a 
system, both products can display virtu- 
ally any low-resolution software pro- 
gram in Hercules 720- by 348-pixel 
mode. But to see applications like Auto- 
CAD and PageMaker in high resolution, 
you'll need proprietary drivers supplied 
by Cornerstone or Radius. Among the 
programs that both monitors support are 
Aldus PageMaker, Autodesk AutoCAD, 
GEM/3, Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Win- 
dows (at press time, both vendors had an- 
nounced plans to ship Windows 3.0 
drivers), Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, 
Xerox Ventura Publisher, and ZSoft 
Publisher's Paintbrush. I tested the mon- 
itors with Windows, PageMaker, 1-2-3, 
Ventura Publisher, and others, and en- 
countered no problems with the drivers 
of either unit. 

Radius's Contrasts 

The Radius TPD/21 is a study in pluses 
and minuses. Its 21 -inch screen is bigger 
than most in this product area— ostensi- 
bly a plus. But its top resolution of 1280 
by 960 pixels is in the low end of the 
high-resolution spectrum. 

In addition, the TPD/21 is effectively 

a monochrome monitor. Although it can 
display 16 shades of gray in the VGA 
mode, it is limited to black and white in 
the higher resolutions for which it was 
designed. Look for future incarnations 
to offer PC users gray-scale capabilities, 
as Radius currently does in the Mac mar- 
ket. But the TPD/21 offers an important 
plus for users of PCs and Macs: It works 
with both computers (the PC interface 
card costs $795; the Macintosh interface 
card costs $595). 

I found the TPD/21 easy to install, de- 
spite its lack of a centralized installation 
utility. The documentation is clearly 
written and easy to follow. One draw- 
back is that the TPD/2 1 driver disk sepa- 
rates driver utilities into subdirectories. 
Each subdirectory has its own README 
file that tells you how to install its partic- 
ular driver. This requires you to root 
around more than with the installation 
utilities offered by most other display 
manufacturers. But it's more flexible— 
you don't have to run through the whole 
program to tweak the installation later. 

One of the TPD/2 l's best features is 
its controller-based Paradise VGA chip 
and standard display connector. This al- 
lows you to attach a multiscanning moni- 
tor. With both monitors plugged into the 
board, the system automatically switches 



Dual-Page Duel 

back and forth from color VGA on the 
smaller monitor (when you access non- 
high-resolution programs) to the large 
screen (when you enter high-resolution 
software). You can rig up two monitors 
on the Cornerstone DualPage PC, but the 
Radius method is much easier to install 
and use. 

The TPD/2 1 's 1280- by 960-pixel res- 
olution offers large, dark characters and 
shapes that have a clean, angular look. 
There's something evocative of the Mac- 
intosh look and feel in its overall color 
and patterning. That's not surprising, 
considering its heritage. Along with its 
19-inch TPD/19 brandmate, the TPD/2 1 
is the first Radius product for the PC. 

The company's long association with 
Apple computers doesn't seem to have 
caused quirks for PC users. The only PC 
problem I found was in the BNC video 
connector: It's too big for the slots of the 
IBM XT and many AT-class computers. I 
couldn't get the BNC connector close 
enough to the card to be turned down and 
seated properly. Even so, the video qual- 
ity was not affected, and the connector 
wasn't so loose that it ever fell off. 

DualPage Gray Shades 

The Cornerstone DualPage PC is a class 
act with some significant performance 
advantages. It offers a fairly high 1600- 
by 1280-pixel resolution. Also, while the 
monitor tested for this review was black 
and white, 4 or 16 gray shades are avail- 
able optionally from Cornerstone. And 
for $875, you can upgrade your display 
adapter to provide 16 gray shades later 
on. Few programs or monitor drivers 
take full advantage of gray-scale capabil- 
ities, with Xerox's Ventura Publisher be- 
ing a notable exception on the DualPage. 
You can expect this to change as the num- 
ber of Windows 3.0 applications and 
drivers increases. Gray-scale capabilities 
are particularly important for desktop 
publishers who regularly scan photo- 

Besides accessibility to gray shades, 
DualPage provides a centralized and ef- 
ficient driver installation program. But 
in general, installation is not as easy as 
with the Radius monitor. If you normally 
use a color monitor, you must use your 
system's setup program to default to 
monochrome. This may also involve a 
DIP-switch change. The documentation, 
while technically correct, is aimed at the 
16-shade product, so some specific in- 
formation, such as noting differences in 
program menus, is missing. 

Images have a neater, trimmer, more 
finely rounded appearance on the Dual- 
Page than on the TPD/2 1. The only 


DualPage PC 1 


Radius, Inc. 
1710 Fortune Dr. 


Cornerstone Technology, Inc 
1990 Concourse Dr. 

San Jose, CA 951 31 

San Jose, CA 95131 
(408) 435-8900 

Hardware Needed 

Hardware Needed 

IBM AT or XT/AT compatible (the interface 
card is too large to fit into an IBM XT case) 

IBM AT or compatible 



As reviewed (includes display, $1 795, 
TPD/PC interface card): $2590 


Inquiry 853. 

Inquiry 852. 

drawback was that characters were some- 
times not as dark as I would have liked. 

Eyeball and Time Tests 

Both monitors displayed some distortion. 
On the DualPage, the image area was not 
perfectly square, so images drooped 
downward slightly along the top left 
corner a couple of inches from the verti- 
cal edge. A similar flaw appeared on the 
TPD/21 screen, except that the distortion 
area was in the lower right corner. I've 
yet to see any monitor that doesn't have 
some distortion of this type, and neither 
flaw was particularly noticeable. 

I determined screen-response times 
with scroll tests using PageMaker docu- 
ments. I used a three-page document 
with text in several faces and fonts, En- 
capsulated PostScript art, and a TIFF 
photo. My test system was a 33-MHz 3 86 
AT-class machine. I measured the time it 
took to scroll horizontally across a Page- 
Maker fit-in-window-size two-page 
spread. In the one-page test, I started 
scrolling from the center position to the 

right edge of the right page. The two- 
page test started from the left edge of the 
left page and ended at the right edge of 
the right page. The screen-update test in- 
volved resizing a block of text in the 
upper left corner of the left page. 

Both monitors completed the single- 
page horizontal scroll in 3.1 seconds. 
The DualPage performed two-page 
scrolls in under 7.4 seconds, while the 
TPD/21 pulled it off in just under 7 sec- 
onds. The two monitors tied at 7.8 sec- 
onds in redrawing a two-page screen 
after a type-size change. 

Image size is the true measure of 
screen size. The 19-inch DualPage dis- 
played a 17%-inch image area; the 
TPD/21 spanned 191/2 inches, which is 
roughly comparable considering their 
tube sizes. Even so, when it comes to 
showing two full pages on the screen, the 
two monitors are roughly equal. In Page- 
Maker's actual-size page mode, I count- 
ed 1 3 horizontal PageMaker screen inch- 
es of a two-page spread on the DualPage, 


Although the Radius TPD/21 's two-page screen is larger, the Cornerstone 
DualPage PC surpasses it in resolution and gray-scale capability. 

Product Screen Maximum 

size resolution 

(inches) (pixels) 

Refresh Video Gray 

rate bandwidth levels 
(Hz) (MHz) 


DualPage PC 



1280 X960 


on Mac) 

1600 x 1280 

(71 on Mac) 




Black and 
white in high 


16 shades 
in VGA mode 

Black and white 

(can be up- 
graded to 4 or 16 
gray shades in 
high resolution) 

SEPTEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 213 

Dual-Page duel 


Stanley J. Wszola 

while the TPD/21 showed only Vi inch 
more. When you consider that you might 
have as much as 2 inches of gutter be- 
tween the two pages, you really need 
about 15 PageMaker inches to see the 
full width of a standard spread. 

You might expect that from Radius's 
21 -inch monitor, but you won't get it. 
The reason is that the controller is exact- 
ly the same as the one used for Radius's 
19-inch monitor, for which it was devel- 
oped. So, rather than getting more of the 
page on the screen, you're seeing what 
the 19-inch monitor would show you, 
only about 10 percent larger. 

For some applications, such as spread- 
sheets, this may be a boon. But for desk- 
top publishing, it can be frustrating. This 
is generally not true on the DualPage. 
On the DualPage screen, an 8J4-inch- 
wide page measured 8% inches— an ac- 
ceptable margin of error. Although the 
Radius 19-inch monitor wasn't tested for 
this review, it should have a similar mar- 
gin of error, so desktop publishers con- 
cerned about accurate sizes should inves- 
tigate the smaller model. 

Both products performed admirably in 
showing side-by-side pages in Page- 
Maker's f it-in-window mode. Times Ro- 
man text appeared legible to 9 points on 
the TPD/21; on the higher-resolution 
DualPage, I read Times Roman as small 
as 7 points. At actual size, I could read 
down to 6 points on the DualPage, and to 
7 points on the TPD/21. 

Customer service and technical sup- 
port at both companies were prompt and 
accurate. Even when I gave the techni- 
cal-support representatives a hard time 
by deliberately "misunderstanding" 
their instructions, they remained calm, 
polite, helpful, and knowledgeable. 

The Winner Is...? 

In the end, there's no clear-cut winner. If 
gray-scale capability and high resolution 
are paramount on your list, the Corner- 
stone DualPage is your choice. However, 
if you run PCs and Macs side by side and 
can live without higher resolution and a 
sure gray-scale upgrade path, opt for the 
Radius TPD/21. 

If you're not interested i n gray shades 
and do not use a Mac, the decision be- 
comes largely one of personal prefer- 
ence. All other things being equal, I 
would give the nod to the DualPage for 
its higher resolution. ■ 

J. ScotFinnie is a freelance editor, writ- 
er, and consultant based in Ridgefield, 
Connecticut, who specializes in computer 
topics. He can be reached on BIX do 
"editors. " 


Flashdisk: Not Your Father's RAM Disk 

When I first received Digipro's 
Flashdisk board, I assumed it was 
just a very large (8-megabyte) 
RAM disk card. Wrong. 

Flashdisk is a nonvolatile memory 
storage device that fits into a full-length 
16-bit slot. It emulates a hard disk drive 
while also offering long-term data stor- 
age: The memory chips are guaranteed 
to hold data for up to 10 years. This 
makes it ideal for read-intensive appli- 
cations where files are seldom, if ever, 
changed. Digipro recommends Flashdisk 
for storing large database files, com- 
pilers, graphical user interfaces, net- 
work-control software, and CAD librar- 
ies. In addition, you can use the board to 
store process-control software so that 
even if a computer shuts down due to loss 
of power or hard disk failure, your con- 
trol program is safe. You can configure 
the Flashdisk board to become your boot 
drive. You can even transfer large vol- 
umes of data in solid-state form by just 

Sixty-four Intel Flash chips 
make up the Flashdisk 's 
memory. Similar to 
chips can be electrically 
erased and reprogrammed 
10,000 times. 

moving Flashdisk from one computer to 

Faster Than an EEPROM 

The Flashdisk memory is composed of 
64 1024K-byte (128K-byte by 8-bit) Intel 
28F010 Flash Memory chips. These 
CMOS chips are electrically erasable and 
reprogrammable devices. They function 
similarly to EEPROM (electrically eras- 
able programmable ROM). But because 
of their CMOS construction, Flash chips 
offer much faster performance than do 
EEPROMs. Flash chips require 1 second 
for electrical erasure and 2 seconds for 
reprogramming, and they have an access 
time of 135 nanoseconds for high-perfor- 
mance reads. (A typical hard disk drive 
requires up to 85 milliseconds for a read 
operation.) According to Intel, you can 
erase and reprogram Flash chips a mini- 
mum of 10,000 times. 

But saving files on the Flashdisk is a 
lengthy procedure, with the Digipro TSR 



File I/O read 

File I/O write 

I | 

__? ? — 









100 200 300 400 4500 

* Results with extended memory. 

20 40 60 140 160 

Flashdisk showed markedly different results when performing file I/O reads 
and writes under the BYTE DOS Benchmarks (version 2.0). 
Here, the BYTE Lab compares performance against the Seagate ST 1 38 and 
ST157R hard disk drives. All tests were conducted with a 6-MHz A T clone; 
higher numbers indicate better performance. 



Flashdisk: Not Your Father's RAM Disk 



Digipro, Inc. 
Huntsville, AL 35805 
(800) 662-6802 
(205) 536-2047 

Hardware Needed 

IBM PC or compatible with an available 
1 6-bit expansion slot 


Base model with 2 MB of RAM: $1 1 99 
As tested with 8 MB of RAM: $3349 

Inquiry 881. 

software often displaying the message 
"Writing FLASH Buffer," while the 
Flash memory chips play catch-up with 
the rest of the computer. And once a file 
has been deleted, it is gone for good- 
it cannot be recovered with any utility 

Installation is quite simple: You just 
insert the board into any 16-bit slot. 
Flashdisk comes with several software 
utilities and drivers. Among them are 
programs that format Flashdisk, a TSR 
program that automatically saves files to 
Flashdisk, and a program that restores 
the Flashdisk file access table if it's lost 
due to a faulty write operation. Device 
drivers include one that sets the I/O port 
and memory addresses and another that 
enables use of extended memory. 

Also, there is FLASH.EXE, which in- 
stalls or removes the TSR software that 
allows reads and writes to Flashdisk. 
Flashdisk requires 256K bytes of RAM 
for its buffer. FLASH.EXE can config- 
ure the board to use main system, ex- 
tended, or expanded memory. You can 
use multiple Flashdisks in one computer. 

An Odd Hard Disk Drive 

The board behaves like an odd hard disk 
drive. The characteristics of the Flash 
chips mean that a write operation takes a 
long time, while a read operation is very 
quick. I ran some of BYTE's hard disk 
benchmark programs to compare Flash- 
disk's read and write speeds to those of 

hard disk drives. As the figure shows, 
the read times for Flashdisk are very fast, 
from over 15 to almost 50 times faster 
than the mechanical drives on the same 
or faster computers. The file I/O write 
times are very slow, with Flashdisk bare- 
ly keeping pace at 1.63 kilobits per sec- 
ond. Digipro describes the Flashdisk as a 
ROWS (read often, write seldom) drive. 

To test reliability of the data stored, I 
filled the Flashdisk with 8 MB of files 
and then removed the board. Whenever I 
reinstalled the board, all the files were 

With its base price of $ 1 1 99 , Flashdisk 
is an expensive storage device that I don't 
expect every computer user can justify. 
But for those who work with large data- 
base files, CAD libraries, and network- 
control software, its reliability comes at a 
reasonable cost, especially when com- 
pared to the price of uninterruptible 
power supplies and redundant hard disk 
drives that provide a similar degree of 
data security. ■ 

Stanley J. Wszola is a testing editor/ 
engineer for the BYTE Lab. He can be 
reached on BIX as "stan. " 




■ BIX is more than just a great on-line information service. It's a community made up of thousands of the most serious computer users in the world; 
people like your customers, who are always on the look-out for the latest innovations and information regarding both hardware and software. Now you 
can set up shop in this electronic neighborhood with your own BIX Technical Support Conference. That way, you can give your customers all the prod- 
uct information and technical support they need. Use it to post updates or fixes for your customers to download at any time. If your company doesn't 
operate an 800 number, a BIX conference is an inexpensive alternative. Or it can back up an existing 800 line. And when you establish a BIX confer- 
ence you'll enhance your product's value because you'll be able to offer your customers special rates on BIX subscriptions. For all the details, call 
Customer Service at: 1-800-227-2983 (in NH, call 603-924-7681). 


SEPTEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 215 

Curtains rise to a brilliant display 
of 256 colors at 1024 by 768. 

At first glance, you think you may 
recognize this superstar. The spotlight focuses . . . 
. The Shadow, a 1 MB VGA Card, takes center stage 
revealing the virtuoso. I 

The Shadow skillfully moves with lightning speed across the stage with its built-in cache 
memory FIFO's, delivering ultimate high speed performance in bus interface and memory updates. 
Clock rates of up to 65 MHz are measured as the audience watches in awe. 

Harmonizing with its supporting players, EGA, CGA, MDA, and Hercules, the artiste 
effortlessly executes vertical panning and scrolling, horizontal panning and scrolling, and split screen 
while displaying mixed graphics and text windows. 

The drama heightens as The Shadow easily slips into both interlaced and non-interlaced modes 
in one configuration. 

He adroitly upgrades from 256K to 512K to 1MB without skipping a beat. The chip count is 
concise . . . a reduced number to ensure reliability and'long life. A seven year warranty is applauded. 

The play closes to a standing ovation as all users sing along 
. . . Just Me and My Shadow. 

The credits roll with a long list of drivers, including Windows 3.0, AutoCAD 9 & 10, 
AutoShade, Lightning Zoom, AI (8514A), and many more. M^- sa—. ^»=, , „-, _ 

The reviews are in . . . The Shadow 
earns international acclaim. 

The season is open and The Shadow will run continually. 

To witness the performance and relish the spectacular ^^jT L 

display of this virtuoso, call now for a theatre (dealer) near you. 

Circle 130 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 131) 













or Smashes? 



l$th anniversary 


63 of the World's Most 

Influential People in Personal Computing 

Predict the Future, Analyze the Present 

The Global 





The Software 



to Overcome 










a Winner 




nty. Toll-free 
lext business day, 
ration. A And you 
e contiguous US, 
our desk. Which 
ag back to a retailer 
m Dell, service 

33 MH: AND 25 MM: 
The best r.ilue in high performance 
PCs, combining i486 performance, 
32-bit EISA l/Ohns, and the industry's 
top rated service and support. 


• i486 microprocessor running ar 
3? MHz or 25 MHz. 

■ 32'hit EISA bus architecture (dmvn- 
ward compatible with ISA). 

♦ Standard 4 MBofKAM* expandable 
to 16 MBon system board, usinj; 
optional 1MB and 2 MB SIMMs. 

♦ VGA systems video adapter. 

• Integrated 387 compatible math 

•5.25" 1.2 MBor 3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

♦ 5 half -height drive Lays. 

• Dual diskette and hard drive 

• Six 32-bit EISA (ISA compatible), 
plus two 16-bit ISA expansion slots. 

♦ Hijilvperfonnance IDE (80MB, 
ICO MB, 190 MB), and ESDI 
(330 MB, 650 MB) hard disk drives. 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 
• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 
• 2 30-watt power supply. 
' • ! 2-month On-Sire Service 
Contract provided by Xerox .* 
^Commercial Lease Plan. 
Ixasc for as low as $286hmmth 
Xenix Extended Service Plan 
pricing starts at $617 (425E) and 
$672 (433E). 

80MBVOA ^ «£ 


System $7,899 $6,399 

190 MB VGA Color 

Plus System $8,699 $7,199 

330 MB Super VGA 

Color System 

(SCO x 600) $9,599 $8,099 

650 MB Super VGA 

Color System 

(800x600) $10,799 $9,299 

Prices listed include 4 MR of II AM, 
100 MB hard drive configurations 
also available. 





325 25 MM: 38ft 

310 20 Mil: 386. 
Tiie combination 
ol performance and 
value available in their 



■ lntel ( \S03S6 micrn- 

25 Ml h (Dell 325) 

•Standard I M Bo f RAM, optional 
2 MBor4 MBof RAM* expandable 
to 16 MB ( dedicated high- 
speed 32-bit memory slot). 

• Advanced Inrel 82385 Cache 
Memory Controller with 32 KB id 
higlvspeed static RAM cache. 

• Page mode interleaved memory 

• Socker for Intel 80387 or WHITER 
3167 math coprocessor. 

•5. 25" 1. 2 MBor 3. 5" 1.44 MB 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• 200-watt power supply. 

• 8 industiv standard expansion slots 
(6 available). 

• 12-month On-Siic Service Contract 
provided by Xerox: 

**Cammerc'uJl Plan, Ijulsc fur 
as Iinv o-s $l3l/moiuJi (325) and 

Xemx Extended Service Plan 
pricing starts at $370 (325) and 
.$251 (310). 

325 310 
40 MB VGA 


80 MB VGA Color 

Plus System 
SO MB Super VGA 


(800 x 600) 
190 MB Super VGA 

Color System 

(800 x 6a" 1 ) S4.699 54,0* 

Prices listed include I MBot RAM. 
100, 330 and 650 MB hard drive 
conl iguntions also available. 

3.599 52,999 
4.099 53,499 

54.199 53,599 


320LX 20 MIL 386SX. 

One of the fastest SX's amund. 


• Intel 80386SX microprocessor 
running ar20 MH:. 

■Standard I MB of RAM.* optional 
2MBor4Ml3e.x P andabletol6MB 
(8 MH on the system board) 

• VGA system;, include a hi^lv 
performanci 16-bit vidnosidapter. 

• L1M 4.0 support tor memory over 
1 MB, 

■ Socket for Intel 20 MH: 80387SX 

math coprocessor. 
•5.25" 1.2 MBor 3.5" 1.44 MB 


• Integrated high-performance hard 
disk interface and diskette controller 
on system board (ESDI-hiScd systems 
include a hard disk controller). 

• I parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

• 200-watt pi avlt supply. 

• o 1 industry standard expansion slots 
(7 available). 

• 12-month OtvSite Service Conrract 
provided by Xerox: 

^Commercial Lease Plan. Lxasc for 
cts low as $98hmnuh. 

Xemx Extended Service Plan 
pricing starts at $261. 


40 MB VGA Monochrom 

40 MB VGA Color Plus 

System 52,899 

SO M B Super VGA G. lor 

System (800x600) 53.199 

ICO M B Super VGA Color System 

(SCO x 600) S3, 399 

Prices listed include I MB ,,f RAM 
190, 330 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations also available. 


316SX 16 MH: 3S6SX 


210 12.5 MH: 286. 

The port'ect low 

profile mainstream 



• Intel 80386SX microprocessor 
naming at 16 MH: (Dell 316SX) 
or 80286 microprocessor running 
at 12.5 MH: (Dell 210). 

•Standard 512 KBof RAM, optional 
640 KB, 1MB or 2 MB of RAM* 
expandable to 16 M B {S M B 13 I6SXJ 
and 6 MB [2IC| on system board). 

• Page mode interleaved memory 

• LIM 4-0 support for memory over 
640 KB. 

-Socker for Intel S03S7SX (316SX) 
and 80287 (210) math coprocessor. 

•5.25" 1.2 MBor 3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• Hull-sired 16-bit AT expansion slots 

• 1 2-month On-Site Service Contract 
provided by Xerox: 

**Caminercud Lease Pla?i. Lease/or 
as Itu 1 as $73lmmth (316SX) aiul 
$62Jnumth (210). 
''Xemx Extended Service Plan 
pricing starts at $196 (316SX) and 
$158 (210). 



20 MB VGA 


Svstem 51.949 'Si, 649 

40 MB VGA Color 

Plus System 52,449 52,149 

40 MB SuperVGA 

Color System 

(800 x 600) 52.549 $2,249 

80 MB Super VGA 

Color System 

(800x600) 52,749 52,449 

Prices listed include 1 MB of RAM. 
2 MB versions of the above systems 
are available for an additional 5100. 
100 and 190 MB hard drive configura- 
tions also available. 

THE DELL SYSTEM* 3 16LT 16 MHz 386SX. 

This tul ['featured, battery- powered 386SX 


• Intel 80386SX microprocessor running at 
16 MHz. 

• Standard 1 MB of RAM, optional 2 MB of 
RAM :i: expandable to 8 MB (on the system 
hoard using 1 MB SIMMs). 

• LIM 4-0 support tor memory over 1 MB. 

• Adjustable and detachable 640 x 480 VGA 
Liquid Crystal Display. 

• One industry standard half -size 8-bit 
expansion slot. 

• Socket for 16 MHz Intel 80387SX math 

•3.5" 1.44 MB diskette drive. 

• 83-key keyboard with embedded numeric 
keypad and separate cursor control keys. 

• 1 parallel, 1 serial, and external VGA 
monitor port. 

laptop costs less than most 286 laptops. 

• Connector tor 101 -key keyboard or numeric 

• Connector tor external 5. 25" 1.2 MB diskette 

• Two removable and rechargeable N iCad 
battei-y packs utilizing Dell's "Continuous 
Power Battery System" (patent pending). 

• AC Adapter. 

• 12 -month On-Site Service Contract provided 
by Xerox.* 

^Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as low 
as $120fmonth. 

A %erox Extended Service Plan pricing starts 
at $303. 

20MB, 1MBRAM $3,199 

20 MB, 2 MB RAM $3,399 

40 MB, 1MB RAM $3,499 

40MB, 2 MB RAM S3, 699 

The Dell Systems 433E and 425E are FCC Class A devices sola f oruse in commercial environments only. "Petf otmonce Enhancements: Wiihin'the fii-st megobyte of memory; 128 KB (31 65X, 31611 
and 210) or 384 KB (3201X, 310, 325, 425E and 433E) of memoiy is reserved f oruse by the system to enhance performance. Can be optionally disabled on 316SX and 210. All systems are photographed with optional 
extras- All prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. Dell cannotbe responsible for errors in typography or phatogiophy. " 'Payment based on 34- month, open-end lease. Leasing arranged by 
Leosing Group, Inc. In Canada, configurations and prices may vary DELL SYSTEM is a registered trademark and Dell and 425E ore trademarks of Dell Computer Corporation. Intel is a registered trademark and 
i486, 486 and 386 Ofe trademarks of Intel Corporation. tSource: Dataquest Inc. (SpecCheck Spring 1990). UNIX is a registered trodemork of AT&T in the United States and other countries. Other trademarks 
and trade names ore used to identipy the entities claiming the marks and names oi their products. Dell Computer Corporation disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its 
own. -On-site service may not be available in certain locations. Shipping, handling and applicoble sales lax not included in the price, for information on and a copy of Dell's 30-day Total Sotisfaclion 
Guarantee, limited w«ra nty, and Xerox'sServiceCanlr«ct,pleasewriteloDellComputerCorporation,9505Arboretum Boulevard, Austinjexos 78759-7299.ATTN: Warranty I » ■-* (-Qrjc llFTR I 

£1990 Dell ComputerC corporation. All rights reserved. 


Not only does our laptop cost $2,500 less than their 
laptop, it also happens to give you a great deal more for 
your money. 

Like a choice of 20 MB (which brings the price down 
tc $3,199) and 40 MB hard drives. 

Dell's unique "Continuous Power Battery System" 
i:l' at allows you to maintain your screen and save your 
data, even while you're changing batteries. 

An industry standard half -card 8-bit slot that 
can be used for a network card or other advanced 
communications. And a dedicated slot for a Dell 
Data/Fax modem. 

Illustrated documentation that's easy to read and 
understand, and is complete with Tutorial, Diagnostics 
and Utilities diskettes. 

And last, but by no means least, the kind of award- 
winning service and support that has earned Dell the 
# 1 rating in 6 out of 6 PC Week customer satisfaction 
polls for PC's. A no questions asked 30-day money-back 

guarantee and one-year limited warn 
technical support. And a full year of 
on-site service from the Xerox Corpc 
get that service nearly anywhere in tl 
even if you're a thousand miles from ] 
means you'll never have to take anythi 
for service. Because when you buy frc 
comes to you. 

Give us a call and we'll show you 
how easy it is to own the Dell 316LT 
through many purchase and 
lease plans that are available. 

So, when it comes time to 
buy a laptop, you should 
think of all the crazy 
things you can do with 
the $2,500 you'll 
save by choosing 
a Dell 316LT. 





The laptop above is ours. The DeH""' 316LT It 
comes with an Intel® 386 ™SX CPU running at 16 MHz. 
1 MB of RAM, expandable to 8 MB, and a backlit 
VGA display. With a 40 MB hard drive it weighs 
15 lbs. It won the InfoWorld Exceptional Value 
Award, and was one of only two 386SX laptops 
to win the PC Magazine Editor's Choice Award. 

The one with the reddish screen on the opposite 

page is theirs. The Toshiba T3100SX. With the same 
configuration as our laptop. It didn't win the same award 
from InfoWorld. But it did tie with Dell for PC 
Magazine Editor's Choice Award. 
Which is where the similarities stop. 









Circle 474 on Reader Service Card 


Fred Langa 


15th Anniversary 

Sixty-three of the world's 
most influential business and technology 

leaders predict the next 
1 5 years of the personal computer industry 

The personal computer industry started some 15 years 
ago, humbly, with a few primitive machines that today 
are museum pieces in every sense of the phrase. But 
their progeny— infinitely more varied, numerous, and 
powerful than anyone then dared imagine— now populate desk- 
tops the world over. 

BYTE magazine also started 15 years ago— the only general- 
circulation computer publication to have been there from the 
start, witness to every significant event in the phenomenal evo- 
lution of the microcomputer industry. 

This month, in celebration of BYTE's 15th Anniversary, 
we've set outto bring you something truly unique: We've asked 
63 of the world's most influential people in personal computing 
business and technology to predict the next 15 years of the per- 
sonal computer industry. Their answers are insightful and 
sometimes downright unexpected. And it's not idle chatter: 
These 63 gurus are part of a select group that will make this 
future happen. 

There's more, too. For example, along the way, these mov- 
ers and shakers share insights into what makes the microcom- 
puting industry tick today; what the new challenges are; what 
the opportunities are; what kind of hardware and software we'll 
be using in our business and personal lives in five, 10, 15, or 
more years; and much more. And to help put all this informa- 
tion in context, we've included a detailed time line, tracking the 
development of the personal computer industry from day one. 

You'll find some great reading in the following pages, and 
we're very pleased to bring it to you. Thank you for being part 
of BYTE, and for sharing in this unique celebration. 

—Fred Langa 
Editor in Chief 



Frederic S. Langa 


Anne Fischer Lent 


New York: Managing Editor: Rich Malloy 

Associate News Editor: Andrew Reinhardt 

Peterborough: Senior Editor, Microbytes: 

D. Barker 

Associate News Editors, What's New: David 

Andrews, Martha Hicks 

Editorial Assistant: Amanda Waterfield 

San Francleco: News Editor: Owen 


Associate News Editor: Jeffrey Bertolucci 

London: Senior Editor: Colin Barker 


Managing Editor: Michael Nadeau 
Technical Director: Rick Grehan 
Senior Editor: Dennis Allen 
Technical Editors: Alan Joch, Robert 
Mitchell, Tom Yager 

Testing Editors/Engineers: Stephen Apiki, 
Stanford Diehl, Howard Eglowstein, 
Stanley Wszola 


Senior Editor: Jane Morrill Tazelaar 
Technical Editor: Robert M. Ryan 


Senior Editor: Kenneth M. Sheldon 
Technical Editors: Janet J. Barron, 
Ben Smith 


Tom Thompson, Jon Udell 


Senior Editor: Gene Smarte 


Jerry Pournelle 


Bill Catchings, Don Crabb, David Fiedler, 
Hugh Kenner, Mark J. Minasi, Wayne 
Rash Jr., Mark L. Van Name 


Jonathan Amsterdam, Nick Baran, 
Laurence H. Loeb, Trevor Marshall, Stan 
Miastkowski, Dick Pountain, Phillip 
Robinson, Peter Wayner 


Chief Copy Editor: Lauren A. Stickler 
Copy Administrator: Cathy Kingery 
Copy Editors: Susan Colwell, Jeff 
Edmonds, Judy Grehan, Nancy Hayes, 
Margaret A. Richard, Warren Williamson 


Office Manager: Peggy Dunham 
Assistants: Linda C Ryan, June Sheldon 


Director: Nancy Rice 
Assistant Director: Joseph A. Gallagher 
Art Assistants: Jan Muller, Lisa Nardecchia 
Technical Artist: Alan Easton 


Director: David R. Anderson 

Senior Editorial Production Coordinator: 

Virginia Reardon 

Editorial Production Coordinators: 

Barbara Busenbark, Denise Chartrand 


Systems Manager: Sherry Fiske 
Applications Manager: Donna Sweeney 
Typesetter: Christa Patterson 



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O N 

226 Future Directions 

234 Tomorrow's Machines 

242 New Opportunities 

256 Anticipated Advances 

268 Flashes or Smashes? 

281 Obstacles to Overcome 

291 Power Plays 

303 Social Pressures 

317 Picking a Winner 

324 The Software Anchor 

335 Future Programming 

351 Brainteasers 

365 The Global Market 

E L 

eaders of industry, top academicians, and leading indus- 
try commentators come together in these pages to provide their 
unique perspectives on the microcomputer industry of the future. 

This landmark project began with a list of questions that covered 
a broad spectrum of topics. They range from the future of the in- 
dustry to the possibility of Marshall McLuhan's "global village" 
becoming a reality; from why software seems to lag so far behind 
hardware to the usefulness of neural networks, chaos, and fuzzy 
logic in the future; and from expected breakthroughs to bottlenecks 
and limitations in technology— 13 different subjects in all. 

To this list of questions, we added a list of more than 60 of the 
most creative and influential minds in the industry. What a combi- 
nation! As you will see, it led to some spirited comments, agree- 
ments, disagreements, and quantities of fascinating reading. It's 
been an exciting and challenging project for BYTE to find and talk 
with these "movers and shakers" and to present their views on 
these subjects to you. 

In addition to the questions BYTE asked, many of these experts 
mentioned special projects of their own, special interests that occu- 
py them. The Insights located between the various BYTE Summit 
questions present those unique viewpoints from the industry's 

One of the people we spoke with was the late Robert Noyce. You 
often hear the phrase "a gentleman and a scholar" bandied about, 
but in this case particularly, both were true. Bob Noyce was one of 
the great gentlemen of our industry, and his intellectual accom- 
plishments are legendary. We are pleased to be able to present 
some of his final comments on the future of computing, a future 
which, sadly, he will miss. As one of the fathers of our industry, 
however, he will never be forgotten. 

We discovered many fascinating facts about the people we talked 
to, and thus about the industry. For one thing, while more of them 
use 286- and 386-based machines than Macs at work, at home they 
have more Macs. For another, we found quite a few new business 
opportunities for the would-be entrepreneurs among you. In addi- 
tion—well, I'll leave the rest for you to discover as you read the 
pages that follow. Anything further that I could say would simply 
be soda and Cheez Whiz in contrast to the fine wine— correction, 
make that champagne— and caviar that you'll find in the pages of 
the BYTE Summit. 

—Jane Morrill Tazelaar 
Senior Editor, State of the Art 






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he only thing 

that has consistently grown 

faster than hardware is 

human expectation. 

—Bjarne Stroustrup 


Where do you think the microcomputer 
industry is heading in the next five, 1 0, 1 5 years? 

Jim Manzi (see biography, page 292): 

There's no question that it's heading, in a 
sense, to dominate the entire computing 
landscape, which, in some sense, it already 
does. I think the dominance of microcom- 
puting—personal computing, workstation 
computing, desktop computing— will be so 
overwhelming five years from now, at an 
ever-increasing rate, largely because it's a 
broad-based phenomenon. 

Paul Carroll (see page 230): I certainly 
think the industry will continue to grow. I 
think that the growth will slow down. This 
year it looks like it will be 10 to 15 percent, 
and it might even get into the single digits at 
some point. 

Mitch Kapor (see page 269): I think the 
basic outlines of the future shape of the in- 
dustry are already visible today. I don't 
think there's going to be the kind of ram- 
pant change we've seen earlier. In fact, I 
think we haven't seen rampant change. The 
thing that sits on your desk today pretty 
much looks like the kind of thing that sat on 
your desk almost 10 years ago— if you had 
one on your desk. It's just a lot more power- 
ful. It's heading right for the mainstream- 
it is the mainstream. 

Dick Shaffer (seepage 340): As far as ma- 
chines based upon microprocessors [are 
concerned]: It's the dominant technology, 
as far as I'm concerned, over the next sev- 
eral [years]. 

Bill Joy (see page 262): Except for very- 
large-scale scientific computers, which 
may use special-purpose cellular hardware 
or neural nets or some sort of other archi- 
tecture, all computing will be done with 
microprocessors. Certainly, all interesting 
computers will be micros, so the micro- 
computer industry essentially will equal 
the computer industry. 

Tom McWilliams (see page 294): Today, 
what is a workstation and what is a PC are 
merging. Workstations are continuing to 
drop in price to the point where today you 
can buy some workstations for less money 
than your large PCs. So I think that the 
hardware distinction between a workstation 
and a PC is blurring. PCs and workstations 
have different software, where typically 

workstations are Unix-based and PCs [use] 
MS-DOS or Apple software. 

Niklaus Wirth (see page 366): Well, mi- 
croprocessors have certainly changed also 
life in academic institutes and research as 
well as in teaching. In teaching particular- 
ly, we have changed from the use of large 
computation centers to the individual work- 
stations, and that I am sure is here to stay. 

BYTE: What about the power of the hard- 
ware? Will that increase significantly? Or 
have we gone about as far as we can go? 

Gordon Campbell (seepage 229): In the 

last decade, which is about as old as the in- 
dustry is, we've gone from fairly crude 
tenth-of-a-MIP machines to 5- to 10-MIP 
machines as average PCs now. In the next 
decade, we're going to see microproces- 
sors, basically, hooked up with more than 
one in a box. We will have true multipro- 
cessing, and that will allow us to push into 
the 100- to 200-, 300-MIP category, still 
very cost effectively. On the Jiigh end, I 
think you're going to see the use of multiple 
processors. On the low end, we're going to 
see the true integration finally of the PC ar- 
chitecture and the microprocessor into a 
single chip. 

Michael Slater (seepage 340): I think that 
there are a lot of things that are pretty obvi- 
ous; the amount of memory that people ex- 
pect to have in their typical PC will be 4 
megabytes in the next couple of years, and 
probably 8 to 16 megabytes within five 
years. That's going to be important as peo- 
ple go to graphical user interfaces, and 
more and more imaging-oriented parts of 
their software, and are doing multitasking, 
and are doing networking, running bigger 
and bigger and more complex applications. 

Stewart Alsop (see page 227): Bigger, 
faster, cheaper. I'm serious about that. Ob- 
viously, where it's headed is where it's 
been heading for the last 10 years, which is 
[to] more and more functional and capable 

Gordon Bell (see page 228): You can take 
any scenario of what everybody has today 
and just run that out, minimally giving 
them a factor of 10 more. 



Donald Knuth (see page 282): People in 
my department are saying that computers 
are going to double in speed every year 
until 1995, and then they're going to run 
out of ideas. But we've got another factor of 
30 or something to look forward to in that 
time. And then they will have squeezed out 
all of the slop. 

John Cocke (see page 235): Well, I feel 
that we'll have very dense memory, and 
[we'll] have much, much larger memory on 
the desktop. The machines will probably 
be equivalent to, say, large scientific ma- 
chines, have any kind of features you want, 
like vectors and so forth, because they will 
be very fast. That's what I envision in the 
next, maybe less than 10 years. 

Michael Slater: Actually, I think that in 
most all of these things you can actually 
look at where workstations are today, and 
PCs will be there within a few years in 
terms of the memory size, the display reso- 
lution, and built-in networking. 

Bill Gates (see page 250): Well, the vision 
Paul Allen and I had when we started the 
company was: A PC on every desk and in 
every home— the tool of the information 
age to let people see the information they're 
interested in and try out new ideas— and 
really nothing has changed our view of 
that. It was predicated on processors get- 
ting faster and software getting better, and 
all these advances sometimes take longer 
than we expect. 

Bjarne Stroustrup (see page 352): That's 
a huge question. I think the answer is [that] 
the PCs are going to be more powerful. 
That doesn't mean nirvana, because people 
seem to soak up cycles faster than the hard- 
ware manufacturers can build them. The 
only thing that has consistently grown 
faster than hardware in the last 40 years is 
human expectation. 

Jack Kilby (seepage 272): In 15 years, you 
will be able to do anything you want to. 

Jerry Pournelle (see page 326): I said in 
BYTE, in the first issue I wrote in, that by 
the year 2000, anybody in Western civili- 
zation would be able to get the answer to 
any question that has an answer. I see no 
reason to change that prediction. Gates' no- 
tion that there will be a computer on every 
desk and in every classroom is absolutely 
right. The information revolution is just 
proceeding apace. There is nothing that 
surprises me in that sense, because I said it 
all 10 to 15 years ago, in BYTE. 

BYTE: To get a little more detailed, how 
do you expect semiconductors to evolve? 
And what will be the effect of that evo- 

Jack Kilby: As far as integrated circuits 
are concerned, we're on our way down to 
0.7- and 0.5-micron lines, and we will see 
those happen. 

Bob Noyce (see page 318): Well, I see a 
continued trend of bigger, faster, better 
machines that can cram more and more 
onto a chip for another decade, but then 
we'll have to take a look at it. You do see 
some barriers arising, but still, those barri- 
ers have been about a decade away for some 
time. As we get more experience, we find 
ways to move those barriers back about 10 
years. So I think that it will last another 10 
years or so. 

Lee Felsenstein (see page 246): I've come 
to realize that as long as the chips are as 
cheap as they are, you can afford to waste 
some of the capability. When I say waste, I 
mean you don't design something from the 
ground up that makes use of 100 percent of 
the capability. Maybe it makes use of 40 
percent of it. But then, you figure out ways 
to make that other 60 percent available 
when people want to have it available. That 
makes it a personal computer. 

Ken Olsen (see page 318): The same chip 
goes into the workstation, the desktop 
server, the bigger one, and the minicom- 
puters. And they all have the same chip in 
them and therefore run at about the same 
speed. But one goes up close to $ 1 ,000,000 
and one goes [for] $10,000. And the world 
gets confused, and sometimes the advertis- 
ing confuses. [It's] all the other capabili- 
ties, of course, that [make the difference] . 

BYTE: What about the software side of the 
equation? Or are all the changes coming 
in hardware? 

Jonathan Titus (see page 352): I would 
say, within 10 to 15 years, we're looking at 
tremendous advances in the amount of pro- 
cessing that people will have available on 
their desks. I am not sure, though, that 
they'll know exactly what to do with it. 

Rich Malloy (see page 288): I think the 
main changes we'll see are in terms of 
hardware— things getting much faster and 
smaller and cheaper. And then software 
will try to catch up to that, but there are 


Paul G. Allen is chairman and president of 
Asymetrix, developer of Toolbox for Windows 
3.0. In 1 975, he cofounded Microsoft Corp. 
with Bill Gates and served as its executive vice 
president of research and new product 

Stewart Alsop III is president of Industry 
Publishing Company, Inc. , and editor and pub- 
lisher of P.C. Letter, a newsletter for execu- 
tives in the personal computer industry. 



B ♦ =^ 

• \#" .-/ 

' TO 



Andreas Bechtolsheim is vice president of 

technology for Sun Microsystems, which he 

cofounded in 1 982. He has been the principal 

designer of many Sun workstations, including 

the SPARCstation 1 . 

C. Gordon Bell is chief scientist at Stardent 

Computer, a company he cofounded. He is 

best known for the design and development of 

Digital Equipment Corp.'s VAX computer. He 

is also cofounder and director of The Computer 


Brian Kernighan (see page 272): Soft- 
ware, unfortunately, is not nearly as easy 
to make go better as hardware seems to be. 

Bob Frankston (seepage 246): I think that 
tension [between hardware and software] is 
going to exist forever. 

Brian Kernighan: It seems likely that the 
hardware is going to continue to get cheap- 
er, so that you'll be able to get more and 
more power on your desk or whatever. And 
the software will not get better fast enough, 
and so you'll piddle away more and more of 
[the power] on stuff that doesn't quite work 
the way you want it to, or that doesn't quite 
work together. 

KenOlsen: [What] I think that people want 
in general computers is to have software ap- 
plications that they can transport to any- 
body's computer. Any operating system, 
anybody's computer— transportable soft- 
ware. And they want, or should want if 
they've stopped analyzing, anybody's com- 
puter, anybody's operating system to work 
on a network around the world. And you 
come to the obvious conclusion that you 
want to write to standards, all the stan- 
dards, and then the software plays in any- 
body's machine. 

BYTE: How about networks— what do you 
see as their future? How will networking 
change the industry? 

Michael Slater: Networking, I think, will 
become standard in PCs, as it is standard in 
workstations today. 

Paul Allen (see page 227): I think natural 
evolution in terms of business computing is 
that everybody's going to have a super- 
powerful network machine on their desk, 
maybe 15 years out. 

Paul Carroll: There are some powerful 
trends going on now that will certainly con- 
tinue, with emphasis on networking prob- 
ably being the most important of those. I 
think that will facilitate the development of 
better electronic mail systems, which I hap- 
pen to believe will be just awfully impor- 
tant. I think those will change the way I 
work and certainly will change the way a 
lot of other people work. 

Terry Winograd (see page 366): What I 
see happening is the integration of what was 
good about the mainframes and what is 
good about the microcomputers, [and] what 
was good about the old systems was that 
they tied together people. Now with net- 

working, you get the advantages you had 
from the stand-alone workstation, all the 
advantages of interaction you had, and now 
all the advantages of coordinating the infor- 
mation with a network. I think over the next 
five to 10 years, it will be odd to have a 
microcomputer in a work setting that isn't 
tied into a network. And, of course, we'll 
have other technology to tie into that— 
radio networks and cellular phone net- 
works, etc. 

Danny Hillis (seepage 250): Well, I think 
initially it will be telephone networks and 
local area networks, and then those local 
area networks would one way or another be 
connected to a big network. So in some 
sense, the whole concept of the network 
will break down, and everything will be 
connected to everything in some software 
sense. So there will be everything from 
groups of computers connected together by 
telephone to things like the gigabyte net- 
work that Senator Gore is talking about. 
Either you'll be connected into it all, or you 
won't be connected into it at all. 

Jonathan Titus: I think that major ad- 
vances, from my point of view, over at least 
the next five years, are going to come in 
communications, and the ability for people 
to have one computer talk to another com- 
puter almost anywhere in the U.S., and 
perhaps in Western Europe, much the way 
our dial phones are set up now. 

Bjarne Stroustrup: It doesn't mean net- 
working with the next office. That's unin- 
teresting. If I want something from [the guy 
in] the next office, I'll go in and talk to 
him. It's harder to have an argument with a 
guy in Stockholm— not much harder if 
you're networked properly. I think that's 
going to make changes in the way people 
use computers and the way people think 
about computers. 

John Kemeny (see page 270): I still look 
forward to major progress in networking, 
and I think then we will have the best of all 
worlds— I mean, the advantages of time- 
sharing and the advantages of personal 
computers coupled . 

Brian Kernighan: More and more of these 
machines are being networked, but funda- 
mentally, the P in PC is personal. That's 
the strength of the thing, but also the weak- 
ness. It's the strength because, by god, it's 
yours, do what you want with it, nobody 
else tells you what to do with it, and so on. 
But that's also the weakness. It's very hard 
to communicate with anybody else in any 



convenient way. And the kind of communi- 
cation, sort of hopping around the ma- 
chines, getting mail from people, and all 
these other things that I take for granted [on 
larger systems] are, I think, somewhat far 
away in the PC world as seen by most 

Brit Hume (see page 262): Well, it strikes 
me that what we have commonly thought of 
as microcomputers are becoming so power- 
ful that they can be used as the core systems 
for networks that will be comparable to the 
systems that now run as minicomputers and 
mid-range systems. That's an obvious de- 
velopment that seems to have been coming 
for a long time. 

BYTE: Speaking of minicomputers, how 
will the evolution of microcomputers affect 
minicomputers and mainframes? 

Andy Bechtolsheim (see page 228): Basi- 
cally, the next generation of [microcom- 
puters] will have just about the same specs 
as the best mainframes you can get [today] . 
Of course, supercomputers are still faster. I 
mean, Cray, he gets another order of mag- 
nitude of power out of that. But in terms of 
the technology, it's reaching the main- 
frame level. 

Tony Hoare (see page 257): I think the 
microprocessor industry will come to dom- 
inate the whole of the computer industry. 
And, as it has done in the past 10 years, it 
will reproduce the evolutionary history of 
minicomputers and mainframes. 

Bob Noyce: Well, the line I used to use is 
that the microcomputer is what the main- 
frame was 10 years ago. I think at this point 
in time the microcomputer is becoming a 
mainframe. Things are doubling every 1 Vi 
years, so I really can't use that first line 
anymore. Now I think the real question is, 
"Will the microcomputer be the top-of-the- 
line computer?" And I guess my real feel- 
ing is that it will be. 

Bill Stallings (see page 352): My guess 
would be the mainframe is not going to go 

Tom McWilliams: Well, I think what we 
have been seeing is that the microcomputer 
used to be for fairly specialized applica- 
tions. What has happened is that the power 
available on a microcomputer grows expo- 
nentially with time. As they have grown, 
they've overcome various classes of ma- 
chines. Basically, today, they've replaced 
the minicomputers. I see the microcom- 

puter becoming more and more dominant 
and taking over all computing except the 
largest machines'. 

Terry Winograd: The problem with the 
mainframe was [that] integration was 
forced by the centralization adherent to the 
particular functionality of that mainframe. 
The idea was one of a central function 
where everybody played their pieces. Now 
we have a much more open-ended type of 
integration where we put the connections in 
where they count. 

Wayne Ratlif f (see page 326): So I think 
the real computer substance lies in the per- 
sonal computers. They're not the toys any- 
more. They're the thing. I probably can 
think of a lot of examples, but I guess I'm 
thinking mostly right now of when small 
mammals took over the world, and took 
the world away from the dinosaurs. I see 
the mainframes as being the dinosaurs. 
They're big. They are enormously power- 
ful—massive, extensive. And here these 
little computers are like the small mam- 
mals, 60 million years ago or whatever. Al- 
though they are small, they are very facile 
in a variety of ways. They are small, cheap, 
[we] have lots of them, [and] they can stay 
alive at night. 

BYTE: And how about the user interface? 
How do you think we will interact with 
computers in 10 or 15 years? 

Michael Slater: I think the character-mode 
applications will almost entirely go away, 
and everybody will make the transition into 
graphical user interface applications. 

Charles Simonyi (see page 340): The 

graphical user interface is a given; there is 
no doubt about it. It's a given today, and it 
will be stable for the foreseeable future. 

David Evans (see page 243): I think one of 
the curious things is that people have 
known that computing ought to be done in- 
teractively, and it ought to be graphics, and 
it ought to be on-line access. We've known 
that for at least 30 years, or maybe more 
than that. I think we'll see that kind of 
thing continuing. I think we'll see that bet- 
ter interfaces, and better human interfaces, 
and so forth, will continue to come on in 
the mass market at the bottom of the price 

Terry Winograd: We won't be using data 
gloves or anything like that. Rather than 
having a bunch of applications, we will 


James F. Blinn is associate director of project 
mathematics at Cal Tech. He is a pioneer in the 
fields of computer graphics and animation. 

Gordon A. Campbell is founder, president, 
and CEO of Chips & Technologies, Inc. , which 
produces VLSI chip sets and firmware and pro- 
vides design services to personal computer 
manufacturers. He is a 20-year veteran of the 
semiconductor business. 

SEPTEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 229 

J. Rod Canlon is cofounder, president, and 

CEO of Compaq Computer Corp., where he has 

directed its operations and growth since 1 982. 

Canion spent over 16 years in engineering and 

management at Texas Instruments. 

Paul B. Carroll (not shown) is a technology 

reporter in the New York bureau of the Wall 

Street Journal. His main focus is covering IBM 

and other computer companies in the New 

York and Philadelphia areas. 

have more of an integrated environment 
into an interface that lets me move smooth- 
ly into what I want to do, and it will orga- 
nize what I want to do instead of organizing 
it by individual pieces of software. You 
won't have to get out of one environment to 
get into another thing. 

Paul Allen: Graphical user interface op- 
tions will be dominant here pretty quickly 
in the next few years. But I guess the big 
shift that I see is toward applications that 
work the way people think about solving 
their problems. Instead of a spreadsheet 
thinking about Al + A2 or something like 
that, they will be dealing with higher-level 

Philippe Kahn (seepage 269): I think that 
the next generation will [have] more direct 
communication and more direct use of per- 
sonal computers and not [force] people to 
work the way the personal computer works, 
but rather have the personal computer work 
the way people work. That's very im- 

Seymour Papert (see page 325): I think 
the interface is part of a larger thing. I 
think that putting the emphasis on the inter- 
face somewhat confuses the issues. Clear- 
ly, having icons and a mouse, for many 
people, if not everybody, is a more com- 
fortable interface than having to type in a 
lot of instructions in a mathematical form. I 
think that kind of direction opens computa- 
tion to a lot more people, but if only the in- 
terface [is changed] , and what lies behind it 
and what you can do with the system isn't 
changed, you're only scratching the sur- 
face. The interface is only the surface. I 
think we need deeper ways to think about 
differences in computation. 

Bill Gates: There are a few discontinuities 
that are unclear when they'll come about 
and what their impact will be. [One of them 
is] so-called AI where the machine [has 
the] ability to move up in the reasoning 
chain beyond just "Here's a number; here's 
some text," to help you plan things, under- 
stand rules about your business. [AI is] one 
I'm optimistic about, but the track record 
the last 10 years is that not too much has 
gotten done. If you look at the business en- 
vironment, just a natural evolution of the 
electronic-mail group-productivity tools 
should get us toward that vision. 

David Evans: I still think the place that the 
micros and everything else are going to 
change is the human interface. Surely, 
they'll understand the spoken language. 

he graphical 

user interface is a given; 

there is no doubt about it. 

—Charles Simony i 

Esther Dyson (see page 236): I think the 
eighties were the decade of direct manipu- 
lation, [and] I think the nineties are going 
to be about programmability. I don't want 
to sit and move stuff around on my screen 
all day and look at figures and have it rec- 
ognize my gestures and listen to my voice. I 
want to tell it what to do and then go away; I 
don't want to babysit this computer. I want 
it to act for me, not with me. 

BYTE: So, where does this take us? Can 
someone tie it all together? 

Jim Manzi: In terms of the next three, 
four, five years, we think one of the biggest 
wins is obviously tying in microcomputers 
or desktop computing into an organization- 
al context. That will then extend, not just to 
the internal fabric of companies and organi- 
zations, but obviously to the external com- 
munity as well, given things like ISDN and 
EDI, and things like that. But at the heart of 
it is going to be desktop computing, be- 
cause that's where information is useful. 

Grace Hopper (see page 257): I think the 
microcomputers will continue to communi- 
cate. Actually, any company will have a 
very large system composed of computers. 
It will not be individual computers. There 
will be mainframes, minis, micros, and 
everything else all linked together, and the 
entire system will be what supports the 
company, not the individual pieces. 

Jim Manzi: The big opportunity, I think, 
in computing generally, is to increase, in 
some sense, the information velocity, 
which is the speed with which information 
is moved, shared, accessed, used, and then 
shared again. Because information, all by 
itself, used by one person, is useless. So the 
whole concept of organization computing, 
or group computing, or network comput- 
ing, starts and ends, in some sense, with an 
individual. ■ 








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Circle 486 on Reader Service Card 


Alan Kay: 

On Computers in Education 

X have worked with children over most 
of my career in Macintosh stuff. The 
PARC stuff that we did was originally 
designed for children. It works on 
adults because we have to think harder 
to design the stuff for children. 

I don't think the technology is as big 
an issue [in education] as people's atti- 
tudes and values. Putting computers 
into schools is like [if] for some reason 
we thought our kids wouldn't succeed if 
they didn't become musicians [so] the 
state legislature decided to put pianos in 
every classroom. It's not going to help. 
Any musician will tell you that music is 
not in a piano. What I'm trying to say is, 
if you put computers in every school, 
it's like pianos in every school. 

Everybody wants media and technol- 
ogy to save them, but it's attitudes, [and 
machines don't affect attitudes] . People 
think there is content in technology. 
And there isn't content except in what it 
makes us into. And that's something we 
have to decide. That's what our value 
system has to decide. 

It doesn't require any money to have 
an attitude change. That's why it is so 
hard. We don't grow things, we fix 

them. So our idea about education is that 
children are defective adults— they have 
to be "fixed" in school— whereas more 
enlightened people like [Jean] Piaget 
and Jerome Brunner think of children as 
something you grow. They're all right 
the way they are. What we try to do is 
grow them in a certain direction. But 
there's nothing deficient about them. 
And the difference between those two 
attitudes is huge. 

The way to save education is to get 
parents directly involved in the welfare 
of the children. That's the number-one 
thing. I've visited a lot of schools in the 
last 22 years, and the ones that have 
worked, 100 percent of them have had 
strong parent involvement. Because the 
thing about a school— a school is a lot of 
different kinds of things. Some schools 
are more regimented than others, but 
they all are kaleidoscopic. There's tons 
of stuff going on. It is extremely diffi- 
cult for kids to actually consolidate any 
knowledge in the classroom. What hap- 
pens at best is they are exposed to new 
ideas and different kinds of things. A 
consolidation, when it happens, hap- 
pens at home. And it is how it happens, 

it's the attitude of their parents: if their 
parents are learners, if their parents are 
readers, if their parents come into the 

I'm fully behind this thing that lac- 
coca and the head of the National PTA 
are trying to do, which is besides having 
something like maternity leave, also get 
companies to give employees a half day 
a month off with pay if they go into their 
kid's school. You don't need all this 
[stuff]. You just need the parents to 
make sure the television is off for a rea- 
sonable amount of time, parent involve- 
ment, parents coming into the class- 
room, the parent obviously valuing what 
the life of the child is. And the children 
will respond every time. 

When you have something like that, 
you can come in with the technology— 
you can come in with a piano, you can 
come in with a computer, and you can 
amplify the hell out of it because tech- 
nology is just an amplifier. If you've got 
[junk], you're going to get [junk] am- 
plified a millionfold. 

Editor's note: 

See biography, page 2 70. 

Alvy Ray Smith: 

On Software Patents 

-latent issues. I think that's the num- 
ber one problem. I think that's the most 
serious problem confronting the soft- 
ware industry in the next decade. 

One of the things that I see holding us 
up is software patent issues, a monster 
that's raised its head in the past year or 
two. One of the things that the U.S. is 
blessed with, that's extremely creative, 
is a mass of brilliant software inventors. 
Suddenly, the patent of f ice tried to start 
patenting software. It's a very large- 

bandwidth, creative system, and they're 
trying to just push it through the narrow 
bandwidth system of the patent office, 
which cannot possibly handle it. I'm 
very afraid that the patent issues are go- 
ing to stifle the innovation we currently 
enjoy in the software industry. That's 
the number one problem facing us here. 
I think it would be a mistake to miss that 
very important issue. 

The one that's on the top of my mind 
right now is the Pontel patent for patent- 

ed airbrushes. What a trivial idea. 
Really trivial ideas are going to be pat- 
ented. Those of us who sit around and 
wheel and deal in software are going to 
be completely restrained. That has to be 
solved in the next decade. I hope it gets 
solved immediately. All of this could 
come to a screeching halt if we don't get 
rid of this software patent issue. 

Editor's note: 

See biography, page 352. 



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Circle 488 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 489) 

hat does 1 000 

MIPS mean? It's kind of 

hard to wrap your head 

around it. 

— Alvy Ray Smith 


What do you think a typical microcomputer 
will look like in 10 or 1 5 years? 

Bill Joy: Fifteen is pretty hard to say. Ten 
years— very powerful, multiprocessor, 
enormous amount of semiconductor mem- 
ory, probably [will] not have a disk. Prob- 
ably it will all be semiconductor, run on 
batteries, be portable, have a different met- 
aphor than mouse/keyboard, probably in- 
volving voice, and you'll surely need a 
higher bandwidth output device, [and] vi- 
sion— [you'll have] a very high-quality ani- 
mated display. 

Ryoichi Mori (see biography, page 304): 

Ten or 15 years [from now], typical micro- 
computers will look like today's micro- 
computers. Here, "look like" means that 
the price and the size of most packages will 
be typically the same. The contents— that 
is, the scale of integration and the comput- 
ing capability— will be improved 100 to 
1000 times. Most of the improved capabili- 
ty will be consumed to provide better user 
interface. This means that microcomputers 
will have more "common sense"— that is, 
better database— and make better judgment 
using it. To support this, magnetic or opti- 
cal storage devices will become smaller 
and smaller and will be built into the 
microcomputers more widely. 

Jay Miner (see page 296): I would suspect 
that the trends that we have seen in the past 
are going to continue— mainly, more min- 
iaturization, more complexity, more func- 
tion per dollar, more portability— since 
CMOS is getting much more sophisticated 
now, and most of the new big microproces- 
sors are going CMOS, which allows them 
to be portable. 

Andy Bechtolsheim: The workstations al- 
ready are looking more and more the same 
as PCs— one or two disk drives and the 
floppy disk and some audio and slots. Obvi- 
ously, we can assume that performance 
keeps doubling each year, and maybe we'll 
get to 1000 MIPS by the year 2000. 

Alvy Ray Smith (see page 352): It won't 
be too much of a stretch, say, that the desk- 
tops will be in the 1000-MIPS range by 
2000. 1 don't think that's too hard to see at 
all. In fact, my numbers have it at 2000. 
What does it mean? What does 1 000 MIPS 
mean? It's kind of hard to wrap your head 
around it. 

Dick Shaffer: I'm convinced that we will 
have personal supercomputers. Not Crays; 
nobody gives a fig about Crays on your 
desktop. Let's just think what you could do 
if you had today's R6000 or today's MIPS 
machines or today's Silicon Graphics— 
$100,000 personal, graphics supercom- 
puters—available for about $1000. 

Gordon Bell: I think that [in 15 years,] 
things are going to structure out in these 
different strata. I think there'll be the $10 
computer that is essentially the credit-card 
kind of thing. We could make a universal 
card that has all the information on it. That 
you'll see. The $100 dictating machine that 
basically is a memo-minder that you walk 
with. The $1000—1 see the bulk of the ma- 
chines are going to be those $1000 totally 
portable machines that you run around 
with, and that those go into a more central 
system. I think everybody's got to have the 
concept of a mainframe. 

Gordon Campbell: I think you're still go- 
ing to have base systems. I think people 
will gradually evolve to where they'll have 
a base system in their home and a base sys- 
tem in their office. And you will have any 
number of portable computers, whether 
they are palmtops, laptops, notebooks, 
whatever. We'll see a seamless exchange 
of data, some through hard wire, some 
through wireless LANs. 

Stephen Wolfram (see page 366): The 

most likely mechanism for connecting to 
peripheral devices would be some kind of 
an infrared-based thing. I mean, the whole 
idea of having wires and definite connec- 
tors is clearly not a particularly good one. 
If you have a sufficient bandwidth, the best 
thing to do is to have some kind of bar 
around your computer that emits infrared, 
and you plug devices onto it. 

Paul Allen: Well, I think that the market 
will basically bifurcate. We're seeing some 
of it now. Portable computers are going to 
be like— something along the lines of the 
old Xerox Dynabook kind of concept where 
you've got a portable computer with a high- 
resolution screen that'll be in color. And 
you'll be able to input into that using either 
a keyboard or probably a stylus that can 
read handwriting or printing or whatever. 



And I guess I see another kind of computer 
that's really your workhorse in a desktop 
computer that'll have a graphical user in- 
terface. That will be incredibly powerful, 
perhaps on the order of a Cray in terms of 
the power, and have a huge amount— giga- 
bytes— of disk storage. Obviously, in an 
office environment, it's going to be on the 
network. There will also be multimedia ca- 
pabilities integrated into that. 

BYTE: Let's discuss the subject of porta- 
bility. Do you think we'll have notebook 
computers or pocket computers? How do 
you think the size will evolve? 

Mitch Kapor: We're going to see the next 
generation in portability, things that are 
smaller than today's laptops: clipboard- 
size computers and shirt-pocket-size com- 
puters. The stylus-based interface is going 
to be very, very important for that class of 
devices because you can't have a keyboard, 
by definition. 

Paul Carroll: I think it will be much 
smaller than it is now, maybe on the order 
of just a few pounds. I also think that it'll be 
better in all the normal ways: It'll be small- 
er, it'll be many times as fast, it'll have 
much better resolution, it'll have color, 
you'll be able to use a stylus to have it rec- 
ognize your handwriting, do your data in- 
put that way if you like. I suspect that while 
these devices will be set up so I can pop one 
in my briefcase when I head on the road, 
there also will be a much larger screen on 
my desk to facilitate the handling of several 
tasks at once. 

Bob Frankston: I find even [notebook 
computers] large; you want to be able to 
view it on your wrist, the Dick Tracy-type 
model, except [that] the reason for it— it's 
not so it'll be fancy— is you don't need any 
hands to view something on your wrist. 

Gordon Bell: The computer will disappear 
by another 10 years in [its present form]. 
There will be zero-cost notebook-size com- 
puters with one chip in them that will have 
about 32 megabytes. So people will be car- 
rying around these sort of minicellular, 
really connected, computers that go into 
their own databases somewhere. 

Doug Engelbart (see page 236): Every- 
one's going to have a computer— carried 
around, or surgically implanted, or sitting 
on your hat or your spectacles or what— and 
they're all going to be connected into net- 
works just totally, [and] those networks 
will be wireless. 

Steve Leininger (see page 287): Well, to 
me, it would look an awful lot like one of 
these Day-Timer Seniors or day-runner se- 
niors, basically an 8 Vi by 1 1 notebook with 
a low resolution. One would be 1024 by 768 
color LCD. I think this unit will also have 
like a cellular phone capability: You'll have 
the voice capability on it, but you'll also 
have facsimile, you'll have storage. If 
someone called you, instead of your beeper 
going off, it'll be your notebook that'll go 
off. They'll quit being so much like com- 
puters, I think. 

BYTE: This sounds more like a portable 
office than a portable computer. Do you 
really think cellular phones and faxes will 
enter the notebook arena? 

Dick Pick (seepage 325): I think you'll see 
something that's integrated with the fax 
and the cellular phone, all in one small, 
couple-of -pound package. The way they're 
going, you're going to be down to where it's 
going to be smaller than a notebook, and 
it's going to have a fax machine, and a cel- 
lular phone, and the whole thing is going to 
be wrapped up into one unit. You just pick it 
up and use it. 

Gordon Campbell: We probably will see 
things like cellular telephone migrate in, so 
that we can receive voice-mail and fax ca- 
pabilities in notebook-style computers as 
well. And I think people will rely upon the 
portable computer as a way to stay in touch. 
The flaw in the cellular phone is that it 
really doesn't effectively take voice-mail 
messages or faxes yet. I think that the note- 
book and cellular marriage will solve a lot 
of that problem. 

Steve Leininger: I think you are going to 
see a lot more of it having to do with your 
telephone. Perhaps you'll have a combina- 
tion telephone, facsimile, computer data- 
base. It'll sort of be your personal man- 
ager. And it'll definitely be small enough 
to carry around with you. 

Rod Canion (see page 230): In addition to 
[getting smaller and smaller], of course, 
you have all the other technologies like 
voice recognition and artificial intelli- 
gence, the evolution of cellular communi- 
cations. We will have resources that we can 
call upon at any time through natural voice 
communications, access to data around the 
world (perhaps around the solar system at 
that time). 

Bill Gates: That's a little radical. I don't 


H. John Caulfield is director of the Center for 
Applied Optics and research professor of both 
optical engineering and optical science at The 
University of Alabama in Huntsville. He is an au- 
thority on optical computing and holographic 


£ak j **m 

*J I'lSi^ 

^H^ 'jFyM 


John Cocke is an IBM Fellow and a pioneer in 
the fields of computer architecture and optimiz- 
ing compilers. He was instrumental in the con- 
ception, design, and implementation of the first 
RISC computer and is responsible for such ar- 
chitectural innovations as "look-ahead" virtual 
memory and instruction pipelining. Cocke is a 
recipient of the A. M. Turing award from the 




Esther Dyson is editor and publisher of Release 

1. 0, a monthly newsletter for the personal 

computer industry, and president of EDventure 

Holdings, which also produces the Annual PC 

Forum. In October, EDventure will produce the 

inaugural East-West High-Tech Forum in 

Budapest, Hungary. 

Douglas Engelbart is the director of the Boot- 
strap Project at Stanford University. He devel- 
oped the NLS, one of the first microcomputers, 
in the 1 960s. He is also known for his pioneer- 
ing work in augmentation and in groupware. 

H I N 

think it's necessary. If you can connect up 
every few hours, that's good enough. The 
machine in the office will just have this op- 
tic fiber that will go off to the world net- 
work out there. It will directly connect to 
some kind of server and will have a lot of 

Nicholas Negroponte (see page 304): 

There will be a family of physical products 
that will range from things the size of your 
wallet or a cellular telephone to real bona 
fide laptops to desktops. And they're going 
to start intercommunicating with each 
other in ways that are really very, very dif- 
ferent than what we currently do or have 
now. I think there will be much more inter- 
communication between desktop com- 
puter—microelectronics—and your inside 
pocket or your pocketbook or your wrist. 

Bob Frankston: We already have phones 
now that are ornery— I wouldn't quite call 
them intelligent but definitely ornery— but 
we'll be able to [link] into the telecom- 
munications, a combination of— simple 
ISDN— smarter systems. You'll be able to 
teach your phone how to find you, whether 
to find you, and [how to] handle things 
more intelligently. 

Doug Engelbart: Everybody remotely as- 
sociated with communicating with other 
people will have something to carry around 
with them. The size will be limited to what 
kind of display and input stuff that you 

Lee Felsenstein: One of the things that I'm 
looking toward, what we're developing 
here, will amount to a desk that you can 
hang on your belt. I look forward to that 
kind of product proliferating in various 
forms. I'm trying to make it an open archi- 
tecture design. 

John Markoff (see page 292): Right now 
most people have desktop computers as 
their principal computers, and they have a 
laptop as a secondary computer. And I 
think that all the innovation is going to be 
taking place in the smaller packages. We're 
all still trying to build a Dynabook basical- 
ly. This is Alan Kay's vision of the early 
1970s, and we're going to get progressively 
closer to it. 

Alan Kay (see page 270): [There were] 
three physical forms we thought up for the 
Dynabook in 1968. One of them was the 
very slim notebook, weighing around 2 
pounds or so. That's the thing that most 
people picture it as. And that's the one I 

made a cardboard model of. The second 
one was a head-mounted display; [we] 
thought it would be dandy for airplanes. 
And the third thing was [the] wristwatch 
idea, which is where networking gets really 
pervasive. Just as we would be surprised to 
walk into a room [today] without an elec- 
tric outlet, at some point in the future, we'll 
be surprised to walk into a room that 
doesn't have a transponder in it, a cellular 
transponder type of thing. 

Mitch Kapor: I think [the typical micro- 
computer is] going to look pretty much like 
the ones today, except that there are going 
to be new form factors like palmtop com- 
puters, desktop supercomputers, and there 
will be a lot more embedded microproces- 
sors in things. 

BYTE: That raises another point. Will the 
typical microcomputer be a box of any sort f 
or will it be hidden ? 

Nicholas Negroponte: First of all, they 
will be buried, for the most part, inside 
other things, so there won't be a typical 
microcomputer, as such. It'll be part of 
something else. 

Rich Malloy: Probably, we won't see it. It 
will be hidden someplace, either inside a 
monitor or inside some other device, maybe 
inside a keyboard. And it'll probably be 
hidden in a lot of objects. Practically every 
electrical object will have some kind of 
microprocessor controlling it, maybe even 
as small as inside a pen. 

Gary Kildall (seepage 282): Well, I think 
that a lot of the future we are going to see 
[with] microprocessors is probably pretty 
much the same way it started originally— 
that's oriented toward a lot of embedded 
microprocessors and devices that we use in 
everyday life. More functionality at a lower 
cost, in everything from communications 
to multimedia and in general. 

Jonathan Sachs (see page 336): As com- 
puters get cheaper and cheaper and more 
and more powerful, I think we're going to 
see more and more special-purpose sys- 
tems. We're going to see more and more 
computers incorporated into other products 
(either visibly or invisibly). It's already 
happening— computers have even been in- 
corporated in computers. I think we'll see a 
lot more very targeted hardware/software 
turnkey solutions. 

Seymour Papert: What 1 hope is that 




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H I N 

sometime, maybe 15 or 20 years— maybe 
10 or 15 years is too soon— sometime we 
won't even talk about the computer. It will 
dissolve away into the environment or 
world we live in. 

Tony Hoare: There will be no such thing as 
a typical microcomputer, and for certain 
embedded applications, microcomputers 
will become more and more application- 

oriented and specialized. For general ap- 
plications, they will surely come to look 
like and play the role of minicomputers, 
mainframes, and even supercomputers. 
The most numerous, of course, will be the 
application-oriented embedded systems. 

BYTE: And what do you think the typical 
microcomputer will be able to do in 10 or 
15 years? 

Some of the 

articles ina 
magazine never 

mate it to the table 

of contents; 

Open to the table of contents 
in any publication and you can 
find some insightful stories.You'll 
also find some missing. Because 
the advertising isn't there. 

Advertising is important. It's 
informative. It lets you know your 
options. And helps you to make 

Like which car to buy. Which 
airline to fly. And what to serve 
for dinner. 

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cover, may be just as important as 
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Without it you wouldn't know. 



t this point in 

time the microcomputer is 

becoming a mainframe. 

-Bob Noyce 

Jim Blinn (see page 229): Well, I don't 
think computers have done anything new 
for the last 20 years. They've just done the 
same sorts of things, only cheaper and 
faster. I'm not sure of that. Maybe the mul- 
timedia craze with CD players and whatnot 
will do something substantially different. 
But in some sense, that's always been do- 
able. It just hasn't been doable on a wide- 
spread cheap range. 

Charles Simonyi: The differences will 
probably be in a better use of multimedia on 
the machine— in CD-ROM and other opti- 
cal memories providing sufficient storage 
and then having very efficient standard al- 
gorithms to encode audio and video infor- 
mation. The other capability I think will be 
important [is] stylus control, initially de- 
veloped for handwriting input, [but giving] 
rise to an even more efficient shorthand 
way of communicating with the computer. 

Brit Hume: It's easy to [see] a small kernel 
running in memory that would be able to 
conduct searches of CD-ROM databases 
that contain encyclopedias and, of course, 
the things we already have, dictionaries and 
thesauruses and so on, dictionaries of 

Paul Carroll: It seems to me that video text 
will take off in some form and at the least 
will mean that people more and more will 
rely on electronic media to get the breaking 
news. Many, many more databases will be- 
come accessible to people, and you'll get 
all kinds of encyclopedias on-line. You'll 
get far more types of publications on-line. 

Danny Hillis: I think [the] emphasis will 
be on the human interaction part and on 
talking to the network, so that it becomes 
your interface— the network. But an awful 
lot of the real data and the real computing 
will, in fact, be done remotely when you 
have big problems. 






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H I N 

Stewart Alsop: [We need] new network 
operating systems. I think the ones we've 
got are wrong. [They] don't optimize hu- 
man interaction in a workgroup; instead 
they're optimizing the computer-to-com- 
puter [interaction] . And we're going to get 
something of a revolution from users in that 
respect. They're going to rebel. I can't find 
any other solution to the problem. 

Lee Felsenstein: Well, the most signifi- 
cant thing [the microcomputer] will be able 
to do is communicate with others of its kind 
and over a broad range. 

John Warnock (see page 354): I think 
technology has a tendency to be exponen- 
tial in its growth rather than linear, so I 
would see computers used primarily as 
very, very effective communication tools- 
aids for helping people communicate. 

Bill Gates: On that screen, based on how 
you've customized it, will be the schedul- 
ing, sales, budget, project, news— the in- 
formation that would interest you. As you 
click in on that information, it will show 

you more detail, what's going on. You can 
combine that information in new ways and 
communicate with people. It will be your 
fundamental tool for knowing what's hap- 

Paul Carroll: It'll also be connected much 
better to lots of other things, to your tele- 
phone, to a laser printer. A laser printer 
will become a copier, which will become a 
scanner, which will become a fax. All 
those distinctions will disappear, and there 
will be local connections between my PC 
and a device like that either on my desk or 
not very far away from me. 

Lee Felsenstein: What I expect is that vari- 
ous types of desk work will be made avail- 
able to the user without requiring that the 
user be at a desk. People who have func- 
tions that take them into the actual opera- 
tions of the enterprise will now be able to 
handle portions of the desk work. And the 
separation between paperwork and "real 
work" will blur and begin to diminish. 

Mitch Kapor: When you can start carry- 

ing around a computing environment with 
you everywhere you go, it will let people 
stay in constant contact. I think that in that 
context, the digital cellular developments 
in the mid-nineties will be very important, 
because you'll be able to have a reliable, 
wireless data link from a remote device to 
anywhere else. These will not only be "go 
everywhere" devices, but they'll be "al- 
ways in contact" devices. 

BYTE: It certainly sounds like tomorrow 's 
machines are going to be fantastic. 

Rod Canion: I think if you extrapolate 
some of the technical trends, what you'll 
see is incredible computing performance, 
storage capacity, and all the resources we 
need in a very, very small package: the 
wrist watch supercomputer. I always think 
that you can only talk about the next five 
years. If you're going to go out 10 to 15 
years, you really have to go beyond just 
about the most incredible science fiction 
that you've ever imagined to see what we're 
really going to be doing with microcom- 
puters. ■ 

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: i 



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Key Code 

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Alan Kay: 

On the Next Revolution 

X think of the computer as being an 
event like the invention of writing, long, 
long ago. Some of the significant things 
that happened in the history of writing 
are similar to some of the significant 
things that have happened in the last 40 
years [with computers]. We're sort of 
compressing 40,000 years into 40 here. 

I think the first revolution in writing 
was getting it off the wall and into 
books. The first revolution in comput- 
ing was getting out of batch processing 
and into timesharing. So, you have a 
nice analogy there. If you look at the 
pictures of the old libraries, they didn't 
have shelves because the big town li- 
brary would only have maybe 25 books 
or so, and each one would have its own 
table. It looked a lot like a timesharing 
bull pen to me. So, I think of this first 
phase— this first computer revolution— 
as being institutional timesharing, 
where the institution still has to own all 
the equipment, and you have to inter- 
cede with them in order to get access, 
and so forth. 

The second revolution in printing- 
Gutenberg— made books that were pos- 
sible for an individual to own, but [that] 
imitated the old manuscript, like a per- 
sonal computer today looks like an old 
timesharing terminal. As McLuhan 
pointed out, every time you create a new 
medium, it takes its initial content from 
the old. So you have these lags. The ini- 
tial content on the microcomputer was 
the same content as the timesharing. 
MS-DOS is really an extension of the 
timesharing wave. 

To me, the second computer revolu- 
tion is not just the computer on the desk- 
top, but the Macintosh/Xerox PARC 
way of doing [the] user interface. And 
there, the big transition was in going 
from a user interface (in the time- 
sharing system and on the MS-DOS ma- 
chines) that is mainly thought of as ac- 
cess to function. 

What the Mac did was to redefine the 
relationship of the user in a couple of 

important ways. One is [that] instead of 
its main job being access to function, 
the main job of the Mac is to be a learn- 
ing environment. Its main job is aware- 
ness, not access, not control. So, the 
idea is, whatever task you have, you 
should learn about 70 percent of all 
there is to know by being driven by any 
particular task, and you can transfer 
[that knowledge] from application to 
application. And that works out well 
enough to constitute a revolution such 
that even IBM is interested in doing it. 

The third revolution that is going to 
come is one that is driven by network- 
ing—it's a pervasive technology— and I 
call [it] the intimate revolution. 

Tools and Agents 

Another way to think about the Mac 
[interface] is that it is tool-based. At 
PARC, we had an impulse to try and 
bring the computer into human scale. 
Anything that is larger than human 
scale— it could be a sports figure— we 
treat religiously. It's not even a joke. It's 
actually the way our nervous system 

So, one of the first things you have to 
do is to bring things into human scale, 
and the two human-level ways we have 
[had] of extending ourselves over the 
last several hundred thousand years is 
by tools— both physical and mental 
tools— and by agenting. Agenting is 
where you get somebody else to do your 
goals for you. 

I've heard pointed out that for most of 
human history, most machines that 
humans have constructed have had 
other humans as moving parts. So we 
build society and so forth. We build 
these organizations that have fewer 
goals than the number of parts in them. 
And we are a species that is interested in 
getting our goals cloned, and we are 
also willing to have goals cloned into 
us. If we weren't, we'd be bumblebees. 

So, the two ways of getting something 

into human scale are by making it into 
something like a tool or making it into 
something like an agent. The thing we 
decided to do at PARC was to make the 
machine be like a tool. That's where all 
the icons [came from]. So, a tool is 
something that you look at and manipu- 
late. Manipulation is a very important 
part. An agent is something that looks 
at you, [something] you manage. 

The belief that some of us have is that 
this third computer revolution, the way I 
think of it, is driven by networking. 
Computers without on/off switches: 
Like a wristwatch, they '11 be too useful. 
You won't want to turn them [off] be- 
cause you'll be using them for such triv- 
ial things, as well as important things, 
that you won't want to wait for them to 
fire up, and stuff like that. The user in- 
terface, unlike the Mac, will be not 
tool-based, but agent-based. 

And the thing that is going to drive 
the interface to be agent-based is [this] 
problem: In 10 years, we will be hooked 
up to more than a trillion objects of use- 
ful knowledge, and no direct manipula- 
tion interface can handle that. People 
are not going to sit down with a super 
SQL application and start fishing 
around the entire world for things that 
might be of use to them. Instead, [the 
interfaces] are going to be 24-hour re- 
trievers that are constantly firing away 
doing things. 

At some level, as you want [agents] to 
take on more and more complex goals, 
you'll want them to be more and more in 
our context, more and more flexible, 
more and more intelligent. But just the 
ability to be able to defer things like ac- 
cess goals [is significant]— like an agent 
that would tell you if amongst your 100 
pending E-mail [messages], that there 
is one that is really important, [that 
would] notice words like "meeting" and 

Editor's note: 

See biography, page 270. 



nnovating is 

easy: You just rub smart 

people and money together. 

-Alan Kay 


U N I 

If you were going to start a new company now, 
what market area would you aim at? 

Lee Felsen stein: First of all, I would ad- 
vise anybody, find out what everyone says 
won't sell and do that. Because the primary 
feature that I have discovered in terms of 
the marketing product-development func- 
tion is basically a hysterical aversion to in- 
novation and a desire to play it safe by de- 
signing or creating that which has already 
been created. When you get into produc- 
tion, that's another matter. As Ted Nelson 
has so aptly said, everyone wants to be sec- 
ond. So, that's my major tip. Do what 
everybody else won't do, especially when 
there is no good reason. 

John Caulfield: (see biography, page 
235): I would aim at niches first of all. I am 
not ashamed of that word. I think all com- 
puters are now a niche technology. The 
time of the general-purpose computer that 
IBM had is gone. Microcomputers de- 
stroyed it. Basically, your miniprocessors 
did. There's a supercomputer niche, innu- 
merable microcomputer niches; there are 
multiprocessor niches. 

Ken Olsen: You have to adjust to the world . 
And if you are starting a company, you al- 
ways have to be reminded that there are 
some things a small company can do better, 
and there are some things only a big com- 
pany can do. And a big company that's go- 
ing to go out and compete with a small 
company on things that [the small com- 
pany] can do better always loses. When it 
comes to specialized applications, they are 
done by a small company that is expert in 
something. And a big company cannot be 
that expert in everything. 

Dick Pick: It may not be the most glamor- 
ous, but the people that are going to be suc- 
cessful in computing, and make livings off 
of computing, are people that are going to 
identify [a vertical market] and know more 
about that field than the people out there, 
and [who] can take it to the [emergence] of 
the computing technology, the data man- 
agement technology, the communications, 
the various stuff, and be able to provide 

BYTE: But what specific areas do you 
think will be big winners? 

Bill Gates: There are opportunities in mul- 

timedia [and] artificial intelligence. I 
wouldn't start one to do another word pro- 
cessor—that's a tough business to try to 
enter into. I still wouldn't do a hardware 
company, but that's probably just my match 
of skills. There's a lot in software, and 
hopefully people will take us established 
guys and, to some degree, blow us away. 

Jerry Pournelle: That's no secret, I've 
said it many times— multimedia. Gates is 
absolutely right. 

Gordon Campbell: Multimedia. While I 
think we're probably still a number of years 
away from its becoming a reality, I think as 
we can migrate real-time video into the PC, 
we have a tremendous tool for education. 
People have adjusted pretty effectively to 
television over the last 20 to 30 years. I 
think the migration of real-time video into 
PCs is going to be a real godsend. 

Alan Kay: This is the biggest trap in multi- 
media. Most people think that by taking 
something and making images out of it, you 
can bypass what people aren't getting from 
books. But that's, in fact, not true. Images 
beg to be recognized, and words beg to be 

Paul Carroll: I don't see multimedia as a 
market, but I do see it as a very important 
technology that will facilitate more work in 
desktop presentations and corporate train- 
ing, [and] better teaching in universities, 
high schools, and grade schools. 

Gordon Campbell: I'd like to see the mul- 
timedia time frame moved out, and the pri- 
mary reason for that is that I think it will 
ultimately be by far the most effective edu- 
cational vehicle that we can have. If there is 
a vehicle that would allow us to effectively 
combine with [TV]— a lot of what kids like 
to do is just watch TV— and make it a strong 
educational tool, I think it would help the 
U.S. quite a lot. 

Jim Blinn: What I think would be interest- 
ing to do is maybe something to do with 
multimedia, or something to do with video 
production. I do that [now] because I'm in- 
terested in it, and doing it as a company 
might be only slightly different from what 
I'm doing now— produce videotape, pro- 



duce educational videotapes for the high 
school mathematics-level education. 

Stewart Alsop: I believe in the area of mul- 
timedia, and a number of component tech- 
nologies need to happen. I think video 
compression is a really important technol- 
ogy. I think that every computer needs to 
have compression built into it. I believe in 
multimedia enough that I think every com- 
puter should come equipped with both a 
camera and a microphone. 

Jonathan Sachs: Well, I guess I see [multi- 
media] as the next fad. I'm not sure I feel 
it's the next serious thing. I'm not even sure 
I know what it means. To the extent that it 
means being able to make up audiovisual 
slide shows that are interactive and things 
like that, yes, there's a market for it, but it's 
a fairly narrow thing. I think it's something 
that's invented by Apple after they've sort 
of conquered the desktop publishing mar- 
ket to say, OK, here is the next great thing 
that we're going to conquer. 

Ted Nelson (see page 304): Well, desktop 
movie-making is going to be awfully big. 
And the RenderMan standard, this is al- 
ready beginning on the Amiga. My under- 
standing is, for example, that Disney Pro- 
ductions now models on the Amiga and 
renders on bigger machines, so that the 
same capabilities that Hollywood's most 
sophisticated production organizations have 
[are] now coming into the hands of the peo- 
ple. And that will be the democratization of 
visualization. This is a great step forward. 

Terry Winograd: Multimedia is finally 
going to come into its place. It will become 
much more a central part of computers. 

Charles Simonyi: It is no longer program- 
mers making doodles on pieces of paper. It 
is almost an issue of individual arts to ex- 
ploit the multimedia capabilities. 

John Markoff: I'm intrigued by multime- 
dia, although I think it's probably a decade 
[away from being] mainstream. The tools 
are just nowhere near good enough to per- 
mit people to use them as easily as they use 
tools like word processors. They just have 
to put a lot more power and control into that 
class of tool. 

Gordon Campbell: I think in addition to 
that, we are going to need to have, from a 
software perspective, some efficient ways 
to manage the databases that become avail- 
able as we can actually migrate video and 
vast— and when I say vast, I'm talking 

about more than just encyclopedias and dic- 
tionaries— [amounts of information] into 
the CD-realm form factor. 

Stewart Alsop: Multimedia literature. 
What I mean is notjust programming, but a 
combination of programming and editorial 
development to create products that engage 
the intellectual and emotional capacities 
that we have as human beings, but they'll 
run on computers. People in the computer 
business think of data as data. It's this life- 
less thing that you cram onto a CD-ROM 
and sell to people for $1000. But there's 
something else you do to the data, called 
editing, [that] creates an experience for the 
customer. And it's that experience that 
you're selling. That's different [from] data. 

Nicholas Negroponte: Now, on the same 
list of things that are going to be big wins is 
flat-panel display technology. Over the 
next 10 years, that will be a very, very sub- 
stantial field. The CRT, in spite of what 
people think, has locked us into a definition 
of what resolution should be. I think this 
will change very substantially. 

BYTE: What opportunities does anyone 
else foresee in the area of display tech- 

Steve Leininger: Color, flat-panel dis- 
plays—portable, high-resolution, high-in- 
formation-content displays. 

Charles Simonyi: Displays will have better 
resolution; they will be perfectly flat. 

Michael Slater: Display resolution, I 
think, will go up. Today, everyone is used 
to 640 by 480 in the PC world, and roughly 
1280 by 1000 or 1000 by 800 in the work- 
station world. I think you'll see the PC 
world moving up to the workstation-level 

Gordon Bell: We'll all be sitting with big 
screens, big color screens. I don't know 
whether it's as big as a 45-inch screen or 
not, but that will be the interaction mode. 

Bill Gates: The ability to get a very large 
screen and see a lot of information on it- 
people underestimate the impact of that. 
We will be flat-panel by then, and a lot of 
people will have their entire desktop or 
white-board-type areas be computer dis- 

Michael Slater: I think all the flat-paneled 
display technologies are important. The 


■ m/ "" ^I§1 Wk : 

mm 1 


David C. Evans is cofounder, chairman, presi- 
dent, and CEO of Evans & Sutherland Computer 
Corp. His major contributions in computers 
have been in interactive computing, graphics, 
and CAD/CAM. 

Federico Faggln is cofounder and president 
of Synaptics, inc. , which is dedicated to the cre- 
ation of hardware for neural networks and 
other machine intelligence applications. He con- 
ceived, designed, or codesigned many of the 
earliest microprocessors, including the 8008 and 
8080 for Intel, and the Z80 for Zilog, a com- 
pany that he cofounded. 




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U N I 

active-matrix LCD technology that is now 
in the early stages of being a commercial 
technology has a reasonable chance to be- 
come a dominant technology for computer 

Lee Felsenstein: "Thick-film," active- 
matrix liquid-crystal displays. It's using a 
different technology; it's using cadmium 
sulfide and cadmium cyanide, which engi- 
neers will recognize as being common ma- 
terials in photocells and stuff like that. 
[The interesting thing is] that if two people 
had walked down the hall at Bell Labs in 
1947, we would not be using silicon for 
transistors. We'd be using these materials, 
because there was development going on in 
cadmium sulfide and [cadmium] cyanide 
in one office, and in the other office, they 
were doing the point-contact transistor. 

David Evans: Everybody would like a 
high-resolution, flat-display device, bright 
enough and rich enough and cheap enough. 
We limit ourselves to seeing very crude 
representations of things. That's one do- 
main where I think we know that there's a 

real need for something better. I think that 
HD television will probably produce the 
technology that we'll enjoy, for example. 

John Markoff: The most important step is 
going to be in display technology, I think, 
in a lot of ways. HDTV, there's the real 
question: There's this collision coming be- 
tween the television makers and the com- 
puter makers, and I'm not sure who's going 
to come out alive, but I think [it] will be 
who innovates best. 

Seymour Papert: We need to break down 
the barriers between television and the 
computer. You know, when we started out, 
we used to use the television as a monitor, 
and I think we'll go back to this, in a sense. 
I have an idea that eventually the computer 
will be more flexible. I would like to see a 
"softer" computer that doesn't respond in 
such a "hard-edged" way. I'd like com- 
puters to have more common sense. I don't 
know which technologies will dominate, 
but the solution will be related to under- 
standing—how to think about thinking. 
We'll do it by understanding people better 

[instead of] by using new technology— it's 
a product of ideas rather than technology. 

John Warnock: I would like to see the 
standards in television increase. The tech- 
nology that I would like to see in place to 
enable everything in the future is the high- 
er-bandwidth communication, because 
that's starting to become a limiting factor. 

BYTE: Communications and its many re- 
lated fields have been pretty active in the 
recent past. Do you think there are oppor- 
tunities in these areas in the future? 

Jonathan Titus: I think there's a lot to be 
done in terms of communications software. 
And it just seems to me that that would be 
the place that I would look. That market 
seems to be pretty well fragmented be- 
tween people [who] are offering bits and 
pieces of the solution but nothing really that 
ties everything together. 

Bob Noyce: Well, I think [the key is] dis- 
tributed memory— shared memory. I think 



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Lee Felsensteln is president and chief engineer 
for Golemics, Inc. , a microcomputer hardware 
R&D company. He designed the first video dis- 
play adapter for the S-1 00 bus as well as the 
Osborne-1 , the first portable computer. 

Robert Franktton is coinventor of the first elec- 
tronic spreadsheet, VisiCalc. He is currently 
employed by Lotus Development Corp. 

it's breaking down the problems and par- 
celing them out like you do in a company. 
Maybe we may organize our computing as 
we do a company— with managers, etc., 
and a hierarchy. We don't know how to 
manage distributed processing. 

Niklaus Wirth: I have no intention to start 
a company, but the interesting, the chal- 
lenging field is that of distributed systems 
and parallel processing. That is what will 
be a likely field; whether it is commercially 
that viable, I don't know. But it's certainly, 
from the conceptual point of view, the chal- 

Jim Manzi: Also, distributed computing 
applications. Distributed applications that 
make network usage as integrated as desk- 
top usage will be in the next year or two. 
Running an object-oriented network oper- 
ating environment, a graphical environ- 
ment, across a network where a user can ac- 
cess anything, and do anything right from 
his or her desktop with the least amount of 
pain and frustration. 

Bill Stallings: I think you'll go more to 
distributed processing as the applications 
get solidified. That's a big area of work in 
ISO— developing distributed applications 
with recovery and things like distributed 
transaction processing. I think a lot of that 
will be distributed. 

Bill Joy: I think the exciting area in the 
nineties is going to be writing, developing 
interesting systems, distributed systems, to 
automate and to make more productive 
groups of people. And I think getting in- 
volved with writing end-user applications 
and developing those kinds of systems 
would be very exciting. 

Terry Winograd: I guess it would be sys- 
tems for design of integrated work settings, 
something with user customizability, group 
customizability. People are beginning to 
use computers much more that way. 

Doug Engelbart: I think the big market 
opening is in groupware— it hasn't even be- 
gun to be really tapped. That's what's 
really going to cause so much new align- 
ment in markets and products in order for 
things to work inside organizations, be- 
tween people. That's the big challenge. 

Stewart Alsop: I also believe in groupware 
very strongly. I hate the term groupware, 
because it suggests all kinds of Al-type 
stuff. I prefer to call it network appli- 

Terry Winograd: Networking is impor- 
tant, and anything having to do with net- 
working has to come. 

Michael Slater: I think bringing network- 
ing into something that companies can do 
without having to go through a great deal of 
pain, and having to have somebody devoted 
to maintaining the network, is a real impor- 
tant growth area. 

Stewart Alsop: [The appropriate network 
model] includes the notion of ad hoc use of 
network resources instead of this tightly 
controlled centralized use of network re- 
sources. There's a very PC-like future for 
network computing, which is that you can 
install your own applications, that you can 
mix and match on the network, and share 
stuff without having to get official ap- 

John Warnock: Standards in the commu- 
nications business are extremely impor- 
tant. People say that standards stifle inno- 
vation, and in communications that's not 
true. Standards enable communications. 

Terry Winograd: If I were to define some- 
thing in the hardware line, I guess it would 
be in portable computing and networking. 

Andy Bechtolsheim: I think you're going 
to get 486s in laptops probably this year or 
next year— and there's going to be very lit- 
tle difference between laptops and desktop 
machines in the near future. 

Brit Hume: If I were going to start a com- 
pany, I would try to develop some applica- 
tions for laptop computers. My idea would 
be that I would try to reverse the process in 
terms of the growth of programs' current 
size. For example, I would see a real mar- 
ket for a scaled-down version of a program 
like Procomm. And it is my view that you 
could get a program that would be about 
80K. I think there's a market out there be- 
cause the laptop market is growing. 

Gordon Campbell: I think there will be a 
tremendous number of opportunities still in 
the PC arena as we migrate into these dif- 
ferent areas. So the communication aspect 
of portables, I think, will still be a strong 
market— one of the most difficult markets. 

Bob Frankston: What we're limited by is 
more the failure of imagination, people 
who don't understand why we need giga- 
bytes of communication capacity per 




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U N I 

Alan Kay: Communications services are 
what the nineties are all about. In the fu- 
ture, we don't want to think of [the com- 
puter] as what we think of it now. We have 
to think of it as something like clothing. We 
have to think of it as something like a com- 
munications device. That will tell us a lot 
more about what the thing should be, rather 
than thinking of it as something that is go- 
ing to do desktop publishing better. 

BYTE: Are there any other opportunities 
for new companies out there? 

Danny Hillis: I guess I think the big mar- 
ket need today is making computers sim- 
pler to use. And in reducing the complexity 
of interacting with [them] . 

Tony Hoare: I am quite convinced that the 
central question is how to make computers 
more usable, how to make their software 
more comprehensible, and how to avoid the 
dangers imposed by the complexities of 
standard software in the current gener- 

Rod Canion: The ability to interact with 
the computer will get better and better be- 
cause of things like multimedia and artifi- 
cial intelligence that are all just right on the 
horizon here. 

Mitch Kapor: [One] of the most interest- 
ing things, for instance, is this whole area 
of virtual reality. The notion of creating an 
interactive 3-D computer graphics simula- 
tion of some environment, whether real or 
imaginary, that you participate in— not 
simply by looking at a screen and moving 
around a mouse, but by basically wearing 
some special clothing, some goggles, and a 
data glove. 

Rich Malloy: I think that the most inter- 
esting area right now is where you take in- 
put that has been very hard for a computer 
to recognize— for example, handwriting, 
voice recognition. What looks very inter- 
esting is neural-network technology and 
that kind of thing. I would look into that 
area, try to develop products that could 
allow us as humans to interact better and 
more efficiently with computers. 

Bill Joy: Figuring out new ways of interact- 
ing with the user. The really great applica- 
tions invent new metaphors in each applica- 
tion domain. That is going to be really 

Mitch Kapor: I think [desktop virtual re- 
ality] will give rise to new metaphors for 

computing— the cyberspace metaphor as 
opposed to the desktop metaphor. 

Bill Stallings: One area that strikes me is 
going more toward human-oriented inter- 
faces. For example, there's an area that's 
almost nonexistent now but is projected to 
grow very dramatically: hand-held, hand- 
written systems. 

Philippe Kahn: I'm sure that pen-based 
computing is important, because there is 
going to be a lot of [it] . Within three or four 
years, at least in a very commercial use, a 
lot of people will be using pen-based ma- 
chines to actually do a lot of things. 

Dick Shaffer: At the moment, I think sty- 
lus systems is a hot area. Somewhere in two 
to five years, I think that a major company 
will be started in that field. Commercialize 
what you can do in handwriting recognition 

Paul Carroll: I've also become intrigued 
by these handwriting-recognition systems. 
I don't think those will have much of an im- 
pact over the next few years, anyway, but I 
think that within three, four, five years, 
maybe a little bit longer, those will open up 
whole new markets. 

Bill Joy: The problem we really have is not 
printing, but handwriting input, voice in- 
put, and some of these things that require 
massive amounts of computation. I'm not 
sure even extrapolated parallel RISC ma- 
chines are going to have enough power to 
recognize most people's handwriting. 

Paul Carroll: If I could commercialize 
something on the drawing board, it would 
be the ability to interpret all kinds of writ- 
ing, not just block printing but cursive writ- 
ing and so forth. 

Bill Stallings: Handwritten input, voice 
input, human input as opposed to key- 
board/mouse input— -I think that's going to 
really broaden the base of where things are 

Ken Sakamura (seepage 336): Keyboards 
[are] already good enough for most Ameri- 
cans. Japanese people have no experience 
with keyboards, and in order to get good 
widespread use of computers, we need an 
input method that people feel comfortable 
with. So there's a tremendous incentive for 
Japanese companies to develop good hand- 
writing-recognition technology. 

Federico Faggin (see page 243): [If] you 

hat we're limited 

by is more the failure of 


—Bob Frankston 

have to read the unconstrained handwriting 
of a person writing about a subject that you 
don't even know about— there the informa- 
tion is mostly in the context, and so you get 
a lot of clues as to how to interpret hand- 
writing that way— that is an extremely com- 
plex task. There, neural networks will be 
very helpful. 

Jay Miner: Handwriting— I don't see that. 
I think voice is much more important. 

Nicholas Negroponte: I'd put speech I/O 
very much at the top of the list because I 
think that the primary means of communi- 
cation with computers in the next millen- 
nium will be speech. 

Jay Miner: Voice recognition is coming, 
I'm sure. It's not here yet. But as the chips 
get denser and more efficient and smaller 
and [more powerful], I think it will be 
coming on as a help for interfacing with 
computers. Voice recognition will be very 

Steve Leininger: In the 15-year time 
frame, I think you'll have perfected speech 
input and output. I think a computer will 
become conversational. To be able to con- 
sult experts system-wide in a voice mode, 
we're probably talking about 15 years out. 

Wayne Ratliff: Someday, we're going to 
be able to talk to computers, and they are 
going to understand what we say. At least in 
some form or another, they are going to 
understand at least as well as a keyboard 
can understand what we're saying, and that 
is going to be a giant change in computers. 

Dick Pick: I think we'll have a talking 
typewriter, so that when you talk in contin- 
uous speech, you see your words on the 
screen. It's not going to be a generalized 



386 and 486 Windows users: 

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